Pedagogical Methods for Teaching Music

3438 words (14 pages) Essay

18th May 2020 Teaching Reference this

Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a university student. This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. You can view samples of our professional work here.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com.

The topic I am researching is ‘This is How Music is Taught’, where I examine the different pedagogical methods into teaching music within the classroom and how they are utilised most effectively to bring out the most of the student’s potential. The article ‘Pedagogical techniques and student outcomes in applied instrumental lessons taught by experienced and pre-service American music teachers’ by Henninger, Flowers and Councill highlights the importance of employing effective and versatile educational techniques, where they encourage further training into teachers to providing the best experience for music students. They compare teaching traits such as methods of explanation and teaching styles such as application and engagement. Junda’s article ‘Developing Readiness for Music Readiness’ builds on the notion of employing effective and purposeful teaching methods by emphasising the importance on student’s ability to utilise their voices. She explains the potential detrimental effects of achieving future musical pursuits without providing students with foundational skills in the classroom where she addresses some valuable and engaging musical activities that educators can implement within the classroom to combat this issue. Alongside providing students with knowledge of musical fundamentals, another aspect of effective classroom music teaching is educating the student’s social scope. McClung in his article ‘Extramusical Skills in the Music Classroom’ expresses the need of developing these aspects in young children into the musical classroom, rather than a concentration on only the music academia. As a possible future secondary teacher, this research on the different educational approaches has provided me with an insight with aspects I should take on board into my future classroom as well as methods in which I can approach learning throughout my studies and beyond.

Get Help With Your Essay

If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!

Find out more

The authors of this article base their research and findings on works including ‘Measure of instructional effectiveness in music research’ by R. A. Duke where learning outcomes can be better addressed through further improvement of educational methods.[1] Also, Thomas W. Goolsby’s article ‘Time Use in Instrument Rehearsals: A Comparison of Experienced, Novice, and Student Teachers’ findings indicated that music educators with more experience tended to conduct their sessions more proficiently, using a range of techniques which allows a greater musical experience by students.[2] Continued research and growth of effective teaching techniques for aspiring educators is beneficial to yield improvements in the quality and effectiveness in the music classroom. The writers of this article encourage further research into training and mentoring music educators to promote efficient skills to improve the learning experience of student musicians. They express concern regarding the teaching where a predominant focus of repetitive and somewhat monotonous learning was the methodology used by teachers of the less-experienced calibre.[3] The student’s musical experience in the lesson seemed to be impacted by an overuse of criticism with a somewhat inappropriate proportioning of time between critiquing and student practical involvement, which affects the student being able to reach their potential. The amounts of negativity used by educators compared to words of praise and encouragement is unreasonably high.[4] There are a range of strategies implied to address this matter, including the use of practical hands-on explanations where “modeling activities had a significance improved ear-to-hand coordination.”[5] The rationale and reasoning should be included as part of teaching the material, alongside addressing the conceptual skill.[6] A musical experiment of attempting to teach ‘Mary had a Little Lamb’ from both experienced and less-experienced educators indicated a more active verbal student participation, likely resulting from uses of effective remarks from them.[7] The purpose of discussing this experiment is to highlight the benefits and outcomes to music students of utilising effective and purposeful pedagogical techniques which should be taught to music teachers. The exploration and experiment involved in the article suggests a need to implement good teaching habbits by teachers to raise the quality and confidence of the performance and learning experience by music students. Henninger’s later article ‘The Effects of Performance Quality Ratings on Perceptions of Instrumental Music Lessons’ investigated further into the types of scrutiny of teachers of the less-experience calibre[8]

Rutkowsi’s article ‘The Measurement and Evaluation of Children’s Singing Voice Development’ expresses concern over the lack of success in learning and perplexing in music is caused by the inability to use the singing voice as a tool.[9] If a larger emphasis is placed on educating and enhancing students understand of music fundamentals at an early age in the school classroom, the issue of unable to fully develop musically can be better addressed. Junda writes this article to address the necessity of fundamental music training in the school classroom in order for young students to engage musically in more difficult activities. The ability to recognise and interpret music notation and participate in more advanced musical tasks is hindered without successful mastery of a solid understanding of music basics. Although educators may be introducing musical material to students of a young age, their full potential may not be unlocked without implementing some changes to their teaching methodology. There are a range of teaching strategies and tools that educators can utilise within the music classroom to address this. Students can be introduced to basic and engaging activities using their singing voice to a range of activities.[10] An engaging activity is for students to use their voices as onomatopoeia for real-life sounds. Educators should monitor their progression and provide constructive feedback to the students such as asking them to imitate a range notes and pitches to test their vocal ability. This coupled with peer reviewing is also encouraged.[11] Furthermore, students can be trained to distinguish between different melodic patterns and note registers by practising with interpreting intervals.[12] The concept of duration should also be introduced by activities such as “clap the rhythm”[13]. The utilisation of these elementary activities means that students have a more sophisicated groundwork of the music fundamentals which they can use aboard in more difficult musical tasks. The ability to recognise notation can be more successful after grappling and achievement of these classroom tasks. The exploration of this article highlgihts the vitalness of training and mastery of the foundational skills within not only the music classroom, prior to the exposure of higher-order tasks. The article ‘Part Singing Revisited’ by Junda mentions students can have the ability to sing more advanced and demanding type singing activities, given they are equipped and trained with the foundational skills needed.[14]

Writer McClung’s article refers to the works of William E. Fredrickson ‘Social influence and Effects on Student Perception and Participation in Music’ where a valuable experience such as the exposure with music participation at a young age can unlock various positive and provocative memories.[15] Daniel Goleman ‘Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ’ article highlights the importance of the development of an emotional aspect in children referred to as “Emotional Quotient”.[16] In order to train and learn these importance skills, a positive and encouraging environment is needed as such a musical space is used. McClung expresses concern over the lack of catering and development of various aspects of student’s cognitive and emotional attributes where this can be better addressed in the parameters of a music-orientated classroom. These emotional aspects cannot be fully dealt with and mentored with a mainly Intelligence-focused school curriculum, which may impact the students to maintain an appropriate level of mental healthiness and the ability to communicate their psychological and social needs.[17] The arising issue cannot be overcome and dealt without a drastic change as “those who lack the skills necessary…is growing”[18]. There are couple of strategies that are adopted by schools to combat this including the introducing and utilisation of “Extramusical Skills”[19]. This could include the use of programs such as the school choir where student’s response to aspects such as “integrative associations, communicative emotions”[20] had seen an improvement and these attributes were seen as of value. Also, a greater emphasis on integrating the Emotional Quotient component into the confines of the music classroom such as practising peer bonding and socialising should also be beneficial for children. The mastery of these types of behaviours can be effectively taught by incorporating each of these behavioural elements into certain learning outcomes of the music classroom and to create positive and motivating classroom activities for the students to put into practice alongside teaching the material.[21] McClung suggests these changes to be put in place in schools as to address the previous concerns of the neglect of the Emotional Quotient training in students where these aspects can be trained in a music-orientated space where Fredrickson mentions memoriable expeirences can be experienced by a child. After implementing these adjustments to the delivery of syllabus material to the music classroom, these psychological factors in students can now be addressed in pupils which can ultimately leads to commendable results of a successful academic experience of both the Emotional and Intelligence Quotient.[22] McClung’s exploration of this has allowed teachers to challenge and their methods of teaching and to ensure that the social aspect of students is better addressed in their classroom. His article ‘Using Video Self-Assessment to Enhance Nonverbal Conducting Gesture’ highlights the importance of effective conducting techniques, a communicative behaviour which can be used effectively in a musical setting, likewise with the training of social skills.[23]

The research that I have gathered and learnt throughout has provided me with innovative approaches to learning and attributes which I can utilise in not only my future studies at the university, but in addition, as an aspiring high school teacher. As a contemporary music student, one of the skills involved in music production is the ability to be proficient at utilising a DAW such as Logic Pro X. The mastery of this software may take some time and practise. As the second articles highlights the need for a well-developed foundational base, one of the units of study which I will undertake in Semester 2 is called ‘Creative Music Technology’, where I hope to continue to develop and hone in my basic DAW skills, prior to pursing more advanced and higher-level musical projects in the future. In addition with one of the music skills units ‘Fundamentals of Music 3’, it will be beneficial for my learning if I revise needed material from ‘Fundamentals of Music 2’ as some of the new content learnt may be expanded on from the latter course which I completed this semester. Furthermore, as an aspiring secondary music or mathematics teacher, I value the importance of equipping students with rudimentary skills prior to introducing harder concepts. For example, the concept of duration can be introduced by asking students to clap along to nursery rhymes such as ‘Humpty Dumpty’ and ‘The Grand Old Duke of York’ as I play it on the piano to identify the rhythm, prior to writing the meter. In relation to the first article, employing purposeful teaching methodology and to focus on the rationale rather than a somewhat ineffective memorising exercise, I hope to provide a purposeful and hands-on learning experience for my future students, including the ‘why?’ in my explanations to hopefully engage my students in the classroom. For example, when introducing a formula, I try to provide students with a derivation of the formula, rather than just completing questions. Monitoring and recording my student’s progress is essential in their academic development. Finally, in terms of the third article, addressing the social and behavioural aspects of students in the classroom is necessary to promote aspects such as communication and interaction between my students.

Bibliography:

1. Duke, Robert A. “Measures of Instructional Effectiveness in Music Research.” Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, no. 143 (1999-2000): 1-48.

2. Goolsby, Thomas W. “Time Use in Instrumental Rehearsals: A Comparison of Experienced, Novice, and Student Teachers.” Journal of Research in Music Education 44, no. 4 (1996): 286-303.

3. Henninger, Jacqueline C., Patricia J. Flowers, Kimberly H. Councill. “Pedagogical Techniques and Student Outcomes in Applied Instrumental Lessons Taught by Experienced and Pre-Service American Music Teachers.” International Journal of Music Education 24, no.1 (2006): 71-84.

4. Henninger, Jacqueline C. “The Effects of Performance Quality Ratings on Perception of Instrumental Music Lessons.” Update: Applications of Research in Music Education 27, no. 1 (2008): 9-16.

5. Ruthowski, Joanne. “The Measurement and Evaluation of Children’s Singing Voice Development.” Visions of Research in Music Education 16, no. 1 (1990): 81-95.

6. Junda, Mary Ellen. “Developing Readiness for Music Reading.” Music Educators Journal 81, no. 2 (1994): 37-41.

7. Fredrickson, William E. “Social Influence and Effects on Student Perception and Participation in Music.” Update – Applications of Research in Music Education 15, no. 2 (1997): 29-32.

8. booktopia: Emotional Intelligence Why It Can Matter More Than IQ. Accessed 5th June 2019. https://www.booktopia.com.au/emotional-intelligence-daniel-goleman/prod9780747528302.html.

9. Mcclung, Alan C. “Extramusical Skills in the Music Classroom: This article proposes that extramusical skills can be taught in the music classroom alongside music skills.” Music Educators Journal 86, no.5 (2000): 37-68.

10. Mcclung, Alan C. “Using Video Self-Assessment to Enhance Nonverbal Conducting Gesture.” Choral Journal 45, no. 9 (2005): 26-35.


[1] Robert A. Duke, “Measures of Instructional Effectiveness in Music Research,” Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, no. 143 (1999-2000), 1.

[2] Thomas W. Goolsby, “Time Use in Instrumental Rehearsals: A Comparison of Experienced, Novice, and Student Teachers,” Journal of Research in Music Education 44, no. 4 (1996), 286.

[3] Jacqueline C. Henninger, Patricia J. Flowers, Kimberly H. Councill, “Pedagogical Techniques and Student Outcomes in Applied Instrumental Lessons Taught by Experienced and Pre-Service American Music Teachers,” International Journal of Music Education 24, no.1 (2006), 72.

[4] Henninger, Flowers, Councill, “Pedagogical Technique and Student Outcomes,” 73.

[5] Henninger, Flowers, Councill, “Pedagogical Technique and Student Outcomes,” 73.

[6] Henninger, Flowers, Councill, “Pedagogical Technique and Student Outcomes,” 74.

[7] Henninger, Flowers, Councill, “Pedagogical Technique and Student Outcomes,” 77.

[8] Jacqueline C. Henninger, “The Effects of Performance Quality Ratings on Perception of Instrumental Music Lessons,” Update: Applications of Research in Music Education 27, no. 1 (2008), 9.

[9] Joanne Ruthowski, “The Measurement and Evaluation of Children’s Singing Voice Development,” Visions of Research in Music Education 16, no. 1 (1990), 81.

[10] Mary Ellen Junda, “Developing Readiness for Music Reading,” Music Educators Journal 81, no. 2 (1994), 37.

[11] Junda, “Developing Readiness for Music Reading,” 38.

[12] Junda, “Developing Readiness for Music Reading,” 39.

[13] Junda, “Developing Readiness for Music Reading,” 40.

[14] Mary Ellen Junda, “Part Singing Revisited,” Music Educators Journal 83, no. 6 (1997), 35.

[15] William E. Fredrickson, “Social Influence and Effects on Student Perception and Participation in Music,” Update – Applications of Research in Music Education, no. 2 (1997), 29.

[16] booktopia: Emotional Intelligence Why It Can Matter More Than IQ, accessed 5th June 2019, https://www.booktopia.com.au/emotional-intelligence-daniel-goleman/prod9780747528302.html.

[17] Alan C. Mcclung, “Extramusical Skills in the Music Classroom: This article proposes that extramusical skills can be taught in the music classroom alongside music skills,” Music Educators Journal 86, no.5 (2000), 38.

[18] McClung, “Extramusical Skills in the Music Classroom,” 38. 

[19] McClung, “Extramusical Skills in the Music Classroom,” 39.

[20] McClung, “Extramusical Skills in the Music Classroom,” 39.

[21] McClung, “Extramusical Skills in the Music Classroom,” 39.

[22] McClung, “Extramusical Skills in the Music Classroom,” 42.

[23] Alan C. Mcclung, “Using Video Self-Assessment to Enhance Nonverbal Conducting Gesture,” Choral Journal 45, no. 9 (2005), 26.

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

Related Services

View all

DMCA / Removal Request

If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: