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Methods of Data Collection

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Published: Wed, 04 Oct 2017

1. INTRODUCTION

This report consists of how data are collected and what are the methods to collect data for research. To improve a research better one or for more learning of particular thing which is to be analyzed. In this report a brief study of method of collecting data by primary data and secondary data with their classifications will be observed.

2. Methods of collecting primary data

  • OBSERVATION
  • QUESTIONNAIRE
  • SEMI-STRUCTURED AND IN-DEPTH INTERVIEW.

2.1 OBSERVATION

Observation means finding what people do, what they need, etc… It combines of recording, describing, analysis and interpretation of people behavior. Observation are two different types,

  1. PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION.

In participant observation researcher will involve with subject activities and live and being a member of group. E.g. .all documentary films are all of this kind.

This type roles are:

  • Complete participant
  • Complete observer
  • Observer as participant
  • Participant as observer.

Graphical representation of participant observation researcher roles

Participant as observer complete participant

Observer as participant complete observer

  1. STRUCTURED OBSERVATION.

As the heading its self describes about what kind of observation are done in it. It’s a structured way of dealing data collection method, which involves in high level of predetermined structured .It form only some part of data collection. Ex: A daily attendance sheet, planning sheet.

HOURS

MINUTES TAKEN

ACTIVITY

WASHING

DRESSING

EATING

MOBILITY

1

2

3

4

 

ACT

ADEQ

ACT

ADEQ

ACT

ADEQ

ACT

ADEQ

               
               
               
               
               
                 

2.2 SEMI STRUCTURED AND IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWS

It involves in interviewing a person or on group. Where interview are classified into structured, semi-structured, unstructured interviews. In structured interviews a format of question are followed for some particular criteria to be handled, which consists of standard questions.

For semi-structured interviews it is based on optioning the customer to select their preferred section of questions. Whereas unstructured interviews deals with in depth involvement in a particular or interested area.

Interviews are done by face to face and group interviews. Face to face interviews can figure out a person behavior, but group interview show how groups are mingled together and how they differ one another.

HOW CAN THESE TYPE OF INTERVIEWS ARE USEFUL IN RESEARCH

EXPLORATORY

DESCRIPTIVE

EXPLANATORY

STRUCTURED

 

FREQUENT

LESS FREQUENT

SEMI-STRUCTURED

LESS FREQUENT

 

MORE FREQUENT

IN DEPTH

MORE FREQUENT

   

2.3 QUESTIONNARIE

It is a general way of collecting data, in which person is asked to answer for same set of questions in order. It is very easy to ask question for some study or research. Most of the research use questionnaire as their weapon for collecting information. This can be involved in individual level so sampling size also be larger one. An interesting one in questionnaire is modes of responding to it.

  1. Telephonic survey.
  2. Mail (postal) survey.
  3. E-mail survey.

QUESTIONNARIE SELECTION CHART

2.3.1 Telephonic survey

It is a common method followed where researcher and respondent are unknown. So limited data are collected from this method. Due to limitations it restrict questionnaire format to smaller one. Question must be easier for respondent to answer quickly. Question must not be longer one which consume more time. To handle this survey a trained person must be interviewing. Answers to question can be entered directly on an excel-sheet to save time.

2.3.2 Mail (postal) survey

It is average form of survey where respondent and questionnaire cannot contact directly and without any interaction. Questioner should be preplanned about design and structure of question to be framed in such a way that respondent could answer it without neglecting any question. Questions must be in an order like easy, average, difficult, which can earn a valuable survey. Time are more valued in surveys.

2.3.3 E-mail survey

E-mail survey are most popular survey where people are gather through internet. It can be performed in two way by e-mailing or using online survey. Just as mail an e-mail can be sent to respondent for answering but they may not reply for it, due to some reasons. Online survey are better because they answer then and there so data are collected faster than mailing. Today html pages are used to frame survey questions. And exciting one for survey is Google forms which are much useful for researcher to get job done.

3. METHODS OF COLLECTING SECONDARY DATA

Collecting secondary data involves in finding publications, project and research reports, ERP/data warehouse and mining, internet/web for your necessary of research details.

3.1 PUBLICATIONS

It refers to printed media like newspapers, textbooks, magazines, journals and reports. These are otherwise known as reference material, which contains wide source of data. Researchers follow secondary data as their first priority than primary data because it will lead them to a proper or complete view of research for their respective topics. As every publications have topic specified to itself, researchers can find easily the source of topic in a systematic manner. To search these publications proper guide lines also required.

3.2 ERP/DATAWAREHOUSES AND MINING

For every organization ERP are implemented to gather information about finance, commercial, accounts, production, marketing, R&D etc…

How do ERP helps in research, since it has data stored day by day, months and yearly basis to compute as integrated one. Researcher of different phenomenon can easily track those information by authorized person of such organization for their data collection. ERP has different sectors combined for example if a researcher form financial sector comes to verify how organization development in that particular sector, he/she can collect information from ERP. Mostly these data are considered as primary data.

Data warehouses are secondary data, where large amount of data are stored. These data cannot be analyzed manually. So software for analyzing it is Data Mining Software, this will segregate all kinds of data and use statistical techniques to analyze data. Some techniques used by this software are variance analysis, cluster analysis, factor analysis, etc. It is a statistical and information technologies software. To create these software so of vendors of it are, excel miner, SPSS, SAS and SYSSTAT. Data mining is automated process where some features are selected by user.

3.3 Internet/web

Most basic way collecting secondary data is to search through web. As we know internet search topic and words related thing easily and fast where surplus amount of data are founded in thousands of websites all over the world. It includes all e-textbooks, journals, government reports. To search our results through internet search are provided those are GOOGLE, YAHOO, etc. all these search engines can show several sites but one must choose correct data related to topic of research involves. Most popular website for collecting data are Wikipedia for researcher, where note of particular topic are gives with reference site to get detailed study about research topics.

SOME OF THE IMPORTANT WEBSITES

OWNERS/SPONSORED

SITE ADDRESS

DESCRIPTION

WORLD BANK

WWW.worldbank.org

data

Reserve Bank Of India

www.rbi.org.in

Economic data, banking data

EBSCO

http://web.ebscohost.com

Research databases(paid)

ISI(Indian Statistical Institute

www.isical.ac.in/-library/

Web library

4. conclusion

From the given information we know about what are primary data and secondary data and how to collect those data from various resources. Research must be valuable one so data collection must be done enormously to predict correct result of analysis. Secondary data can be added in research reports but there must be some data which show your involvement in research process. Research is an endless process because as time changes strategy of reports containing details also vary due to respondent are not same in nature. A research about a topic gives overview, detailed and explanation according to research types. At last collection of data are most important for research because it act as proof or evidence of your valuable reports.

Table of Contents PG NO

  1. INTRODUCTION 1
  2. METHODS OF COLLECTING PRIMARY DATA 1
    1. OBSERVATION 1

2.1.1 PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION

2.1.2 STRUCTURED OBSERVATION 2

2.2 SEMI STRUCTURED AND INDEPTH INTERVIEWS 3

2.3 QUESTIONNARIE 4

2.3.1 TELEPHONIC SURVEY 5

2.3.2 POSTAL SURVEY 5

2.3.3 E-MAIL SURVEY 5

  1. METHODS OF COLLECTING SECONDARY DATA 6
    1. PUBLICATIONS 6
    2. ERP/DATA WAREHOUSES AND MINING 6
    3. INTERNET/WEB 7
  2. CONCLUSION 8

 

REFERENCES

  1. PEARSON EDUCATION/ THIRD EDITION/ RESEARCH METHODS FOR BUSINESS STUDENTS/ Mark Saunders/Philip Lewis/Adrian Thorn hill
  2. SAGE PUBLICATIONS/ESSENTIALS OF BUSINESS RESEARCH/ Jonathan Wilson.
  3. TATA McGraw HILL/STATISTICS FOR MANAGEMENT/ G.C.BERI.

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