Community Based Sports and Coaching Motivations

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Title

Understanding coaching motivations and subsequent coach-organisations relationship in community-based sport settings.

Research Aim

To gain a greater understanding of coaches’ motives in a community-based sport setting, in an effort to identify strategies for improving the experience of coaches and enhancing coach-organisational relationship.

Research Questions

RQ1

What are the motives of female coaches involved in community sport?

RQ2

What factors could potentially contribute to the experience, motives and perceptions of minority coaches within community sport?

RQ3

What impact does the process of organisations’ support systems have on the development of community level coaches?

Contents Page

Introduction……………………………………….…………………………………………1

Literature Review……………………………………………………………………………2

 Organisational Support………………………………………………………………2

 Female Coaches………………………………………………………………………2

 Minority Coaches……………………………………………………………………4

 Theoretical Framework………………………………………………………………6

Methodology………………………………………………………………………………….7

 Measures…………………………………………………………………………………7

 Research Design………………………………………………………………………7

 Data Analysis…………………………………………………………………………7

 Ethical Consideration………………………………………………………………….8

 Time Frame…………………………………………………………………………..9

References……………………………………………………………………………………11

Introduction

In present day, knowledge about why coaches coach can add to our understanding of the coach-organisational relationship and performance dynamics. Also, their behaviours influence motivation, which in turn, impacts their performance to coach (Mageau & Vallerand, 2003). Motivation has been explored into in many different manners, hence there are various definitions, theories, and understandings of how motivation can influence ones’ behaviour. Motivation can be defined simply as the strength behind the actions of an individual (Herzberg, 1959). Thus, influencing the actions of ones’ behaviours. To survive, it is necessary for employees to be motivated, because those who are motivated are more productive (Smith 1994; Linder, 1998). Therefore, considering the importance, coaches’ motivation should be a priority for organisations due to the significance it can have on themselves, athletes and coaches. For this reason, the main purpose of this study is to gain a greater understanding of coaches’ motives in a community-based sport setting, in an effort to identify strategies for improving the experience of coaches and enhancing coach-organisational relationship. The research will also attempt to answer the following questions:

RQ1

What are the motives of female coaches involved in community sport?

RQ2

What factors could potentially contribute to the experience, motives and perceptions of minority coaches within community sport?

RQ3

What impact does the process of organisations’ support systems have on the development of community level coaches?

Literature Review

There has been an excess of research into the coach-athlete relationship (e.g. Jowett, 2008; Curran, Hill & Niemiec, 2013; Pope & Wilson, 2015; Ruiz et al., 2019), along with identifying barriers to female coaches (e.g. LaVoi & Dutove, 2012; Norman & Rankin-Wright, 2018) and career influences into individuals pursuing coaching in performance sport (e.g. Kilty, 2016; Imeson, 2017; Wasend, 2018). Coach motivation has been fundamentally disregarded within literature and limited studies have directed research into coach motivations within community sport (McLean, Mallett & Newcombe, 2012; Takamatsu & Yamaguchi, 2018).  It is important that more is done to improve the understanding of coaching commitments and intentions within the community sport setting. Coaches play an important role in the sporting domain (Amorose, 2007) and present literature suggests that researching coaches is critical in understanding the development of coaches and their impact on the experience of athletes (Stebbings et al., 2011). Coaches have a positive influence on participants, promoting their emotional health and well-being (UK Coaching, 2017). Moreover, coaches’ impact an individual’s activity maintenance, also, reducing the risk of relapse (Sport England, 2017). In relation to the transtheoretical model of behaviour (Prochaska & Velicer, 1997), thus shows evidence of changing behaviours and having health benefits, which is important in the present day.

Organisational Support

Strong evidence supports the relationship between commitment and identity prominence (Nuttbrock & Freudiger, 1991; Stets & Biga, 2003; Pope & Hall, 2014). Hence, suggests that coaches optimal function is influenced through the needs met of ones’ basic psychological needs which have positive outcomes on how much time and energy a coach will commit. Pope and Hall (2014) also propose that if an organisation were to support coaches’ basic psychological needs could have a positive influence on their well-being. Researching coaching behaviour is an instrument for practical pursuits which organisations can acquire and design programs to meet the needs of their coaches (Amorose, 2007; McLean, Mallett & Newcombe, 2012). Therefore, to understand the behaviours which can motivate coaches to coach, it is critical in the process to develop goals and optimise the environment of the workplace.

 

Female Coaches

Within community sport females are perceived as an “untapped resource”, because “women have different life and leadership experiences, values, and attitudes which equip them with valuable sport expertise and perspective” (coach.ca, 2015 as cited in Imeson, 2017). Research has suggested barriers and supports into the reasons why women are less likely to become coaches (figure 1). Further, Kilty (2006) explored external and internal barriers. External barriers in relation to cultural or environmental barriers found; unequal assumption of competence, hiring from a principle of similarity, homophobia and lack of female mentors or role models. Internal barriers were identified as; perfectionism, lack of assertiveness, inhibition in promotion of accomplishments and high stress of balancing work and life (Kilty, 2006; Imeson, 2017). The research by Kilty (2006) did not directly study grass root coaches, although, it was suggested that the outcomes could also be applied to participation sport. Hence the result can only be assumed to be of that which the performance coaches experienced.


Figure 1. An ecological model of barriers and supports for female coaches (LaVoi & Dutove, 2012).

The role of a performance coach and participation coach as shown in Figure 2 clearly differ. Therefore, the coaches’ results, thus motives may differ significantly, presenting the importance of the research. Especially taking into consideration the different roles and experiences which the coaches encounter.

Figure 2. A diagrammatic representation of the balance of performance and participation coaching roles based on boundary criteria (Lyle & Cushion, 2017).

 

Minority Coaches

The cross examination of gender and race has been researched minimally in the coaching literature, with literature stating a need for development into future research (e.g. Kamphoff, 2006; Moran-Miller & Flores, 2011; LaVaoi, 2016; Forsyth, Jones & Duval, 2019). Thus, those lived experiences of non-white female coaches despite the importance of the matter is largely unexplored (Bruening, 2005; Borland & Bruening, 2010; LaVoi & Dutove, 2012). Black women describe having to downplay their race, gender and sexuality persistently to align to social norms and standards in US college sport (Borland & Bruening, 2010).

Intersectionality is to comprehend what it means to live at the intersections of one’s race, class and gender (Smith, 1992). In relation, Crenshaw (1993) developed a framework to understand the challenges of those which women of colour face. Furthermore, Carter-Francique & Olushola (2016) proposed strategies that could be analysed and implemented by an organisation to support coaches following Crenshaw’s three constructs of intersectionality as seen in table 1. Although, the research only draws on pre-existing data within the literature and amplifies the need for further addressment to the cause.

Table 1. Strategies for addressing multilevel barriers and challenges faced by women in colour coaches (Carter-Francique & Olushola, 2016).

Issue

Strategy

Representational level

Help women of colour create an integrated identity as coaches and women of colour (McDowell, 2008).

Hire and consult women in colour creating policies that value and develop the input of women of colour.

Lack of visibility of women of colour in sports media as journalists resulting in limited and negative portrayals of women in colour (Williams, 1994; Eastman & Billings, 2001).

Increase number of women of colour in sport media and increase depiction of positive images and narratives for women of colour (Williams, 1994; Carter- Francique, 2014).

Political Level

Lack of research conducted on women of colour coaches (Alexander, 1978; Vertinsky & Captain, 1998; McDowell, 2008; Borland & Bruening, 2010).

Promote and research on women of colour coach as needed to create more parsimonious theories of coaching in which all sport should engage.

Lack of visibility of women of colour in administrative and coaching positions (Houzer, 1974).

Use women of colour as subjects in coaching research specifically with research methods tailored to the data they can offer.

Racial and gender discrimination in US society (i.e. housing, education, employment, healthcare) (Smith 1992; Collins, 2000).

Find and employ theories that speak to how race and gender work simultaneously to shape and the coaching experience of women of colour.

Redefine current standards of femininity to recognise the centrality of race in women of colour’s experiences (Collins, 1998; Hylton, 2008).

Redefine race to be reflective of gender influence (Scranton, 2001).

Structural level

Increase opportunities for women of colour to coach, specifically identify women of colour athletes who desire to be coaches.

Increase support (finances, training) for current women of colour coaches.

Increase awareness of the issues facing women of colour coaches (Abney, 1988; Cunningham & Saga, 2005).

Increase awareness about the issues facing women of colour coaches (Simien, 2006).

Increase exposure to a variety of sports as young athlete.

Increase number of women of colour administrators as they can provide access to these positions through mentoring (Pastore, 1991; McDowell, 2008)

Inform current administrators about practices that may be hegemonic and discriminatory (Dixon & Bruening, 2005; Shaw & Frisby, 2006)

Create opportunities to participate in growth sports by redressing cultural and structural factors that initially limited participation (e.g. Black Women in Sport Foundation).

Theoretical Framework

It is vital to try to understand why coaches choose to behave in the way they do, given the known impact that behaviour has on motivation. Self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1982), a social-cognitive theory, tackles the ‘what’ and ‘why’ of that behaviour (McLean, Mallett & Newcombe, 2012). Moreover, if ones’ psychological need for competence, autonomy and relatedness is satisfied, SDT suggests that this will help develop self-determined regulations that underpins persistence of tasks and psychological well-being (Ryan & Deci, 2000; Whitehead, et al., 2019). Hence, SDT presents a framework that can support the understanding of organisational structures as it allows for the satisfaction of individual needs and the quality of the relationship to be examined.

Methodology

Measures

The study will employ mixed-method analyse. The practice of mixed methods applies benefits of both qualitative and quantitative techniques within the same framework, theoretically reducing the problems related to singular methods (Sechrest & Sidana, 1995). Quantitative data will be gathered through an online survey to coaches and qualitative data will be collected through a two-phase semi-structured interview process. Thus, allowing interviewees greater opportunity to express their experience (Edwards & Skinner, 2009).

Research Design

The sample used will investigate part of the population, thereby applying inferential statistics. Participants will be recruited through a predominately female sport directly. In correspondent with the organisation, coaches will be sent an email which will direct them to an online survey, to gain a higher response rate (Baruch & Holtom, 2008). The online survey will implement the ‘Coach Motivation Questionnaire’ which follows the structure of the six continuums of motivation as categorised by the SDT. Within the online survey, coaches will have the opportunity to volunteer to partake in the interview phase. Therefore, the sample will be convenient rather than representative sampling, as coaches declare that they are willing to participate as part of the questionnaire (Patton, 1990). The interview process will aim to reach a minimum of 10 coaches. The process will also include organisation interviews with employees of position, to gain a better understanding of the current coaching structure and support system. The interviews will take place either over the phone, skype or in person depending on participant preference. The survey and interview phases will include both open and closed questions and will last no longer than one hour.

Data Analysis

Thematic analysis will be applied to examine the motivations of the coaches. Braun and Clarke (2012) express that thematic analysis offers an insight into making sense of shared meanings and experiences due to the flexibility of the framework. Thus, allowing exploration of the research question and identifying common themes and patterns. Inductive reasoning will therefore be applied to highlight the coaches’ experiences and perceptions. The SDT framework can provide an analysis practice focused on the perceptions of participants’ coaching and organisational aspects. Analysis will be applied to autonomy, competence and relatedness in connection with the inductive exploration of participants’ experiences and the deductive use of SDT (Deci & Ryan, 2008) to understand those lived experiences (Whitehead, et al., 2019).

Quantitative data will initially be entered into SPSS and interview transcripts will be analysed in Nvivo 12. As presented in figure 3, codes will then be established and examined. Following this, codes will be categorised and subsequently, the refining and naming of themes will be produced (Saldaña, 2013). Coding will be applied due to advantages including enhanced research validity and auditability (John & Johnson, 2000). Axial coding will then be applied to gain data from the most representative codes, enabling more detail to be drawn from the research aim and questions (Strauss & Corbin, 1998; Boeije, 2010).

Figure 3. A streamlined codes-to-theory model for qualitative inquiry (Saldaña, 2013).

Ethical Consideration

Prior to recruiting data, ethical consideration was approved by Loughborough University ethics committee. By adhering to ethical guidelines, it protects those participants involved in the study (Bloomberg & Volpe, 2016), whilst also ensuring the integrity of the research. The study will not include participants under the age of 18 years. All participants will be required to complete an adult participant information sheet and informed consent form. Both will be translated into electric copy and embedded within the survey, participants will be unable to proceed to the survey until completed.  Following consent, guidelines must be met to GPDR 2018 principles. All data will be kept confidential, respondents’ data will be anonymised and securely stored electronically, and password protected. On completion of the project, data will be discarded after the project (Edwards & Skinner, 2009). 

Time Frame

The Gantt Chart provides a clear and visual plan for each stage of the project. Time management of targets and deadlines for scheduling provides a clearer insight into the progress of the project.

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