People and Culture
The first settlers of Argentina came thousands of years ago. They came from North America looking for a place to settle. They ended up finding the country today known as Argentina. They were looking for a wide open place with plenty of resources and land to be work. They found exactly what they were looking for when they found Argentina. The tribes that came and lived in Argentina were nomadic. They lived life by following the animals. They survived by hunting, fishing, and gathering. For many this would have been a rough life and it was for many of them. To live back in the days as these people did was hard. You would have to be a good hunter and be able to find scraps such as berries, nuts, and roots.
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Spain became interested in Argentina in 1516 A.D. It was the first to colonize Argentina in 1516 A.D. There were no more than 105,000 native people living in Argentina before it was colonized. At first Guarani people, which were tribal groups of South America having the territory between Uruguay and Paraguay River, used the slash and burn method. Settlements were made up of 50 to 100 individuals. The most advanced group in the Northwest is the Huarpe, which lived in the Cuyo (mountainous area) in the Andean piedmont. Small groups of nomadic people settled in the remainder of the area. Native people barely survived after Argentina became independent from Spanish rule. The Tehuelches fled from the Pampas to southern Patagonia. Araucanians had already been living on the western edge of Patagonia. They had fierce warriors. Spaniards arrived in southern Chile and battled the Inca army and stopped them from spreading into that region. The Tehulches and Araucanians began acquiring horses in the 1600s from the Spanish. In 1520 Ferdinand Magellan sailed to Argentina and met the natives of Patagonia. In the early part of the 1500’s the population of Argentina was 750,000. To create their country they had to fight the Spanish efforts to control Argentina. In these days Spain wanted Argentina’s natural resources. Juan Diaz de Solis led a Spanish expedition of three ships along the South America’s Atlantic coast. He was looking for a pathway to the Pacific Ocean and Asian trade. After passing the coast of Portuguese Brazil, he saw an opening of an estuary (believing that it led to silver-rich areas). Thinking it was a shortcut he diverted the ships and claimed the region. The Spanish Crown gave Pedro de Mendoza, a Spanish nobleman, permission to lead an expeditionary force from Spain to Argentina. He then sailed in the Rio de la Plata estuary in 1536 A.D. with a group of fifteen hundred people to be the first to establish the settlement of Buenos Aires. The Querandi laid siege to the settlement and abandoned it in 1537 A.D. Eventually Mendoza and the rest left Buenos Aires and returned to Spain. Many settlers came from Peru. Spaniards conquered the native settlements. Towns began to extend and the conquerors enslaved the native people. They forced them to harvest crops and raise cattle and mules. Many people traveled north to Paraguay.
The territory of Argentina started to make its way of boundaries during the sixteenth century. People started to migrate across seas with ships. Europeans moved to the country in the nineteenth century. There were a lot of different groups of people and languages in this country. The main language was Spanish, but there were also languages such as: French, Italian, German, British, and Japanese. You also have to remember that there was still the Indian tribes and the African American slaves. With all these groups together now, it made Argentina a culture that was diversified, or mixed. Most of the people in Argentina were Republicans.
Most of the indigenous people living today in Argentina live in rural areas. They only represent about 10 percent of Argentina. Buenos Aires is known to have the most indigenous people living in it. Indigenous people live in small groups. The indigenous people that arrived were dark skinned, and lived in groups with chiefs. There were two main groups. One of the groups was known as the Diaguita. The Diaguita is known to have prevent the Incan empire form expanding. They also built dwellings. The other group was known as the Guarani. They used slash-and-burn. These groups both consisted of doing agriculture. Their main crop was maize, which today we know it as corn. The first settlement to be found was the Santa Fe. Argentina was first explored in 1516 by Juan Diaz de Solis. Argentina developed under Spanish colonial rule. The indigenous people realized that Argentina was great for supplying food and also raising animals to different countries.
There were population movements in Argentina during the sixteenth century. The most known movement of Argentina was the Eastern movement. The people arrived by traveling by ship. They sailed on the Rio de Plata River and the Parana River. The people that sailed during this movement are known to have founded Buenos Aires, Argentina’s capital. This is basically why this movement is known to be one of the famous movements that happened in Argentina. The people also are known to have founded more cities such as Santa Fe, Parana, and Corrientes.
The next movement is known to be called the Northern population movement. These people descended from Peru. It happened because of an economic growth. They are known to have founded Salta, San Salvador, La Rioja, and San Fernando.
There is also another movement. It is the Western population movement. They founded San Juan, San Luis, and Mendoza. This movement started in Chile. All these population movements mostly settled into urban areas instead of large areas with a lot of land. I don’t know why they would do this because if I was migrating to a country I would think of trying to get the most land that I could.
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The immigration has affected the culture of Argentina. More than one-third of the country lives in Buenos Aires, which is the capital. Many of the people are gauchos or wanders of the countryside. The culture is very different, but it has created many ideas in Argentina. There are great artists, musicians, writers, and many more things in Argentina. One of their famous cultural dances is the tango. The culture has many fiestas which are celebrations. The most common food in Argentina is meat. They raise animals to sell and use the food. Many of the people of Argentina visit family and friends during their spare time. They like to play sports also. One of their most common sports is soccer. If you go to Argentina you may see a lot of painting and sculptures. There are a lot of famous artist from Argentina. There is great fishing and hunting in Argentina. Many of the nomadic people and the indigenous people that settled here used these two things to survive and make a living. Argentina has done well in sports such as polo, rugby, hockey, boxing, skiing, hunting, fishing, and much more. They are just starting to become known for basketball. Pasta and pizza is also a common food besides meat. Argentina has national pride.
Some of the famous people in Argentina are listed below. In 1974, Maria Peron was the first woman to be a president in history. She is the widow of the former president of Argentina Juan Peron. She was the first female head of state. Many people think that Juan Fangio is to be one of the greatest racers. Fangio was a race car driver and he won the Grand Prix. He dominated this race in the 1950s in a way nobody has ever done before. He won five World Championships. They were in 1951, 1954, 1955, 1956, and 1957. Many people like to think of Fangio as one of the greatest drivers known in the world. They believe his winning score may never be topped in the world. He must have been a really great driver. I would like to see him race with the NASCAR racers today. Diego Armando Maradona is known to be one of the greatest football players of all time. Maradona won league titles in Argentina. He also won titles in Italy. He won national cups in Spain and Italy too, and numerous individual honors including best player award at the 1986 World Cup. Carlos Gardel, an Argentine, is known to be great at the tango dance which is one of the most famous dances in Argentina. He is known as the nickname of “The King of Tango.” Gardel was known to get the first best singer award of the tango dance and he is remained to be a role model to other people. This dance is still a famous dance. Che Guevara was a tremendous leader of the Communist Revolution in Cuba. Communism was a socialism that had private ownership. He was known to be a great leader in Latin America advocating revolution. He is a symbol of rebellion to Argentina. The Argentine Cesar Pelli, became known throughout his years by being one of the 20th century’s architects. He is known for drawing some of the world’s largest landmarks and the world’s tallest buildings. His designs are known for their curved faces and metallic elements. His architects are often surfaced in glass or a thin stone figure. Throughout his career, Pelli won more than eighty awards for design excellence. Pelli’s most famous architectures is the “Petronas Twin Towers,” which were the world’s tallest buildings at one point of time. Jorge Borges is still considered today one of the best writers in the world. He is one of the great literary known heroes of Argentina.
Argentina has 36,000,000 people living there today. Their religion is mainly Roman Catholic. If you lived in Argentina the other religions you would most likely believe in are Jewish or Protestant.
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