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What professions are considered exclusively for men, and what are professions typically for women. Is being a nurse a profession solely for women? Answering these questions, we, as a rule, are guided by personal experience and judgments of the people surrounding us. No wonder that, arguing on this topic, we often come across stereotypes.
As an example for, so-called «female professions»: teachers, baby-sitters and nurses can be given. On the basis of deep social norms and rules in society gender culture was created which for centuries made and reproduced the relations between men and women as a hierarchical, unequal, and subordinated relationship. However, there are cases when; on a modern labor market; runs against the certain ides of gender accessory of a given profession.
Stereotypes are formed within a culture. The established stereotypes act as norm for men and women. In the European countries the distinction between gender professions are becoming less and less appreciable, but, even now, in Third World countries there is a big difference between men’s and women’s professions. Men are considered “active”, (making the actions, solving problems, aggressive), and women are “communicative” (passive, emotional, not interested of business, and relationship between individuals).
Existing stereotypes of images of men and women operate as a magnifying glass, and the distinctions between men and women are emphasized in a much bigger degree, then they actually are.
Women are motivated on achievements differently because men and women at the heart have different things that motivate them.
The purpose of this study is to analyze all aspects and factors of motivation for male and female nurses. You might ask: Why is it important to study a nurse’s job for men and women? What does this study have to contribute? What are the benefits of knowing the causes of Gender differences in motivations? There are no small professions, all professions are important. It can contribute to equality in the workplace and ensure the same opportunities for people of equal experience regardless of gender. The benefits of knowing the cause is that once the causes are found a resolution can be made to make the workplace better and fairer to everyone.
Understanding and acceptance of the fact that each person, regardless of his gender is equal helps understand their identity, with the set of psychological qualities and properties, a muscularity and feminism ratio in mentality, will allow each identity and society as a whole to become more productive, developing and harmonious.
Purpose Of The Study
According to Dictionary, the motive (from Lat. Translate as motion, push) “is a combination of methods to explain and justify the actions of man” (Dictionary, 2010). There is a stereotype that men are giving more importance to winnings and excellence than women, and women often are not building career future plans; therefore, women motives to achieve a goal are lower. Although, in the large amount of women who are employed in female-dominated team in professional activities, such as teaching or nursing, achievement motivation is quite high. These features lead to conclusion that gender differences in an achievement motivation should be considered according with the type of goals. It is obviously that based on education the relations between performance and motivation to achieve higher goals is made compare between men and women. (Pavlovich, 2003)
According to scientists of Kazan (1977), the need for the achievements of women is not much higher than in men. However, not all scientists share this opinion; according to paper by Macek in 1973, it was shown that in detail review of motivations, male’s motivations compare with female’s motivations was stronger.
There are several points of view that affect the motivation achievement into both genders. The first is that women are motivated to achieve different than men. The second is that men and women are motivated by different needs. Emotional needs for women are more important than a goal achievement. The third point, that men and women have different degrees in a motivation achievement and implement them in various activities (Pavlovich, 2003).
If to consider the different motives in educational activity, males tend to acquire knowledge and profession, and female guide to receive a diploma (Nilsson, 2008).
The motivators are factors that influencing the decision, such as how and what needs should be satisfied. As a rule, men are more often named a valuation of own capabilities as a motivation factor, and women rely on people perception, for example, the choice of cloths.
During human behavior motivation, the person is guided by the values â€‹â€‹that he or she has accumulated during his life and perception. It is difficult to give a scheme of values differencesâ€‹â€‹ because a different age and social status are required different values, but some examples can be said obviously. There are aesthetic, social, and spiritual values in the first place for women, and there are theoretical, economic, and political values for men, which can be tied to the practical success and the desire for power. However, in recent times, the values for men and women â€‹â€‹have changed a lot. Already, there are a health, friendship, and family life in the first place for men and women. A favorite job and pleasant free time are equal in value. It happens that men choose the social and family life instead career. For women, education and diploma began to dominate over the public. Thus, the traditional view of values for men and women are disappeared.
If to look on money as values, women more than men are impacted by opinion that incomes are influenced by hard work and abilities. Women evaluate money as a tool of buying things; for men, it is a tool of power; therefore, men rarely feel depression, anger, or helplessness without money (Pavlovich, 2003).
In consideration of the differences of interest among men and women, it can be noted that men are interested in solving problems, and women are more interested in making relationships. In general, men interests range is wider than women. Differences in the interest are determined some of the male benefits: the breadth of thinking and outlook, the objectivity of a great generalization. However, there are also disadvantages: low domestic adaptation, less pragmatic.
If to consider the interests of the activities, the women often will do activities that are already known (the interests of domestic and household), and men will do activities that have not done before (scientific and technical).
The study focuses on finding reasons of men and women motivation. As a method of studying the problem, literary studies will be used: papers, publications, and books. In the basis, more than 10 medical articles will be taken that include studies to determine the causes of the workplace motivation, the percentage behavior of positive to negative motivation, the causes to being a nurse among men, and the reasons for dismissal from the workplace.
Significance Of The Study
The studies of nurse’s motivation have long been popular topic. Because the nursing importance include: taking care of patients, performing diagnostic and treatment activities, and the amount of nurses is bigger in two times than doctors amount; it is important to create conditions for a motivated health care personnel.
Nursing profession has traditionally been viewed as prompted by internal motives; however, it is just one of the stereotypes. One more stereotype is that a nursing is a female profession, but, nowadays, men are taking this job more often.
The first mentioned about intrinsic motivation was made by Deci, E., in his concept of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is understood as a desire to perform the activities for awards, which is included in these activities. For a person with an internal motivation, it is important to be independent, acting in accordance with their internal motivation, not controlled externally.
Employee’s motives that encourage them to engage in employment may vary significantly.
In the paper, Butenko (2011) proposed to use a typological model of work motivation that is built at the intersection of two disparate axes: “motivation to achieve or avoid” and “active and constructive or destructive and passive labor behavior.” The author suggests four basic types of achievement motivation: instrumental, professional, patriotic, and a master’s opposite named the election. The most marked motivations on the medical staff are getting material goods, strengthening of social relatives, professional development, social security, altruism, and compassion. Also, in Butenko’s study (2011), a model of work motivation of medical staff called a “model of parallel type of motivation” is introduced. This model is based on an analysis of the psychological portrait of the individual. The model is emphasized three groups of doctors: “stability” of 51-63% of all medical staff, “energy” 24-28% of the staff, “creativity” of 9-16%. This method is proposed for clearly understanding of the work of employee’s stimulation.
In the Butenko’s (2011) article was proposed to divide motivation in factors.
The first factor is a bipolar; where, there is a variety of vectors, on the one hand, it is an “instrumental” and, on the other hand, it is “Money” and “Relationships.” This factor shows the focus on the spiritual satisfaction or interest. General Nurses are people who are more interested in status or social significance than money bonuses, or useful relationship, or patronage, and usually it is women.
The second factor also is a bipolar where, on the one hand, is “Recognition” and “Managers” and on the other side is a “Health”. The content traits of this vector are equal to the previous one, but in the first case the speech was about material motives, and, in the second case, the main point is about social component. In other words, social needs are more important for nurses. The goal of these workers to safe outputs for intellectual and physical resources and avoid novelty and warnings. On the other hand, nurses who aspire to independence, leadership, and career growth, have ambitions and the high demand for public praise. In addition, women and men may be equally related with this factor.
The third factor describes the employee’s interest in the content and process of work, motivation of creative expression and self-realization, readiness to perform monotonous work.
After separation factors into motivators, according to the Butenko’s article, the identification of motifs is not difficult.
If employers do not properly motivate their employees, no one will want to do their work on time, and in a hospital this can lead to the death of the patient. High stress and high workload affect the incentive to work. Therefore, the correct motivation may cause personnel not only work but also to carry out its work properly. This article by Bradford (2009) gives an idea of the most significant motivations for health care workers of both sexes: Recognition for a job well done, Food, Continuing education, Birthday cards, Team building, Communication, Respect.
Use at least half of them and it will lead to a good mood in the employee’s workplace and increase his awareness of the importance of the job. In the article by Sherman (2006) it was noted that the use of a communication strategy between nurses and nurses from different generations can help to overcome the bias it is also important to ensure that messages are clear, to avoid risk of errors that comes with communication failures. Different generations of nurses are using different forms of adverse communications from a simple conversation to electronic massages, so it is important to consider all this in motivation. Men are not prone to have long conversations with colleagues and reported in the phone, but they are also dependent on the exchange or board of another colleague. The article by McCabe (2005) points out other equally important motivators for work: the reward for work, protection of personnel. In this paper, the reward for work was the most popular factor, 94 percent of the total, the protection of workers amounted to only 57 percent. You can see that among the respondents, women were in need of more protection than men.
Intrinsic motivation is clearly visible in the intern staff. The article by Bartzak (2010) states that “self-motivated learning experiences can transform into a way of life once motivation and a reflexive learning process are in place: learning, experiential context, reflection, application to new experiences”. Organizational processes that incorporate this natural, lifelong approach increase the self-learner’s motivation toward learning, and ultimately build the nurse’s practice for the benefit of persons receiving care.
The â€‹â€‹Toode’s (2011) article makes a literary analysis of the existing articles to this day and identifies types of motivations, such as: nurses have been motivated by good collaboration between the nurse and the healthcare team, by social support inside the team and by positive team spirit in the ward. As regards to working culture, professional contacts and the nurse’s status as an equally valued health professional in a team appeared to be important motivators for nurses. Another important motivating factor was the high autonomy especially with regards to decision-making. The latter appeared to be extremely important in such situations where the job demands were high and there was insufficient information for planning new or ongoing activities (so-called environmental uncertainty), intensive care units being a case in point. Furthermore, nurses are motivated by opportunities to learn, such as sharing their knowledge with physicians and getting supervision, even argued that nurses associate specific patient populations with possibilities to get extra training, seeing them as job motives that make their work more interesting.
There are several barriers for men, who would like to become a nurse, such as gender stereotyping, low wages and lack of career growth. For many decades patient care was considered a low-skilled and low-paid job, in its specifics more suitable for young women (Pavlovich, 2003).
Society has long regulated gender roles and the gender shape of its members. In every culture, every era there are canons of normative masculinity and femininity.
Gender role: a set of specific sexual patterns of behavior that are expected from men and women. That is not a man meets a certain model, and the company requires him to play this role.
In society there are stereotypes about any topic. And some of them are not just based on prejudices and superstitions. These are all too common gender stereotypes that exist today. It is believed that the discrimination in the professional field only applies to women, but since Eton. Society allows a man to freely choose the activity, but society does not give the right to choose the areas traditionally considered “female” (such as a kindergartener, nurse, etc.). The Company monitors the absence of men in this area, setting an extremely low wages in this industry, as well as for the men is an important factor. And the society punishes “apostates”, raising them to laughter, questioning their masculinity, alluding to sexual inadequacy (Coleman & Roth, 2008).
The Company controls a man by threatening to discredit his “credibility.” Stereotype assumes that men cannot be as good as a woman to be careful and patient, gentle and compassionate, diligent and attentive. Stereotype dictates that men are poor performers, women are required to performing and serving activities (education, health, trade, social and domestic sphere), for men instrumental scope, technique, creativity and leadership, as well as heavy physical work is more suitable.
Modern women have mastered all professions, and can work anywhere. But the only barrier to the work of a nurse – is the emancipation of women. In today’s world, women are no longer content with the little. They are no longer satisfied with a small salary, low status, and a lack of career growth. In earlier days their main goal was to get married and have children, but now this is pushed aside. Women tend to be independent, earn more. But the work of nurses is not paid high enough. If you take this same area, work in medicine, the doctor’s job much more interesting more varied and has higher wages. More and more women are working in politics and in other places that used to be counted as too complex for women.
There is also the social stereotype that the nurse’s profession is not socially significant and promising.
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