Maori The Tikanga Concept Sociology Essay
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Published: Mon, 5 Dec 2016
This is a system of random sampling. This sampling method is less time-consuming and easier to perform. In order to do this, researchers should choose random population, then in the sampling frame or starting point for research on a regular basis. This strategy can be used to do research with Maori population. For example, if you want to taste 8 Maori children from a group of 120 people, then you must be 120 divided by 8 (120/8). The answer is 15, so every 15 children select a random starting point between 1-15. This strategy is relatively easy, However, researchers should always consider the type of population, they are dealing with. For the above example, I used the Maori population, as my theme. Therefore, I have to remember that they are guided by Kaupapa gross profit. Means that they receive an internal, ideas and knowledge to develop the use of the Maori language. So it is important to be working with them, be very careful and understand.
This is a program or Maori to interact with other people, the daily guidelines to follow. Basically, on the basis of Tikanga, life experiences and learning handed over from generation to generation. It is based on logic and common sense view of the world associated with Maori. Now, the strategy in this example, it is important for researchers to understand Maori Kaupapa have a great impact on how the behavior or performance of the Maori. Maori Kaupapa conceptualization of “knowledge” has been rooted in the oral tradition and based on special REO Maori or Maori language. This is the only language can access the conceptualization and inner spirit, this body of knowledge. Tikanga is the right way to do things or guidelines around what is ‘right’. It can also be described as rules, methods, approaches, customs, habits, rights, powers and control (Pell, 1988).
The Tikanga concept is the most special between tribes (tribal), and HAPU (sub-tribe) is unchanged, as they approach may be different. For example, the manner in which a greetings of HAPU and welcome visitors from other. However, we will ensure that they perform their duties manakitanga (hospitality) custody and care of their visitors. Researchers and Maori communities must respect the people and their culture.
In this sampling, the sample selected by the interviewer, he has given quotas to fill from the specified sub-group of the population.
For example, the interviewer may tell sample 100 Maori women, aged between 45 to 60 people belonging to four different community groups. 25%, as a quota sample, the total population will be equally represented. Here, the selection of the sample of the non-random. Any had this experience, in the street tried to interview people know It is very tempting to ask those who seem most helpful, so it is not the most representative samples, but very useful. This is the strategy. However, this is a must to take into account Maori as their framework is based on communication Kaupapa Maori researchers. They are always based on what they know is best for them to interact with people and their culture. They may provide information about them can help users study, but it is always based on Kaupapa Maori.
Implementation of the strategy in accordance with kaupapa Maori 2.1Sampling
The first sampling strategy, I will realize, with sampling or the opportunities sampling observation accidentally discovered the potential clinical significance has been defined as independent of participants in the study and the purpose of this study or variable. Means that, in the course of the study, from the participants, can be very necessary research found that a disease or abnormal. For example, when the investigation team Maori children most dominant health problems in the community, is a rare case, such as heart fever. I should know the results can not be representative of the Maori child population in that place, because of fever, heart just a random sample. Now, I must adhere to their so-called ATA or grow to respect me as a researcher, including the principle of the relationship between their parents and children to study. Such work, will establish a relationship of mutual trust and respect.
Another sampling strategy, I can use the representative data will be taken from a set quota sampling. For example, in one study, I would like to meet with 200 women in the community ages 40 to 60-year-old family culture. I want to remember, I need to stick to the age limit. 200 women on behalf of the data and the 40-60 years age group brackets. It is always a good way to come into contact with this group of women, women in their culture, their identity must be recognized, because they have different roles to carry out. The research work should be in accordance with the Kaupapa Maori. We must take into account the Tikanga Maori or customary practice, moral, cultural behavior, pay attention to the issues and Maori obligations, especially in this age group. Order to make our gross profit within the context of browser and operating properly, and the judgments and decisions in this space.
The third sampling strategy will be the area sampling is based on geographic area or place, which is a special form of cluster sampling, in which the sample. For example, if I had to make a certain amount of gross profit community health research, then I should choose a specific area, based on the secondary cluster, then this will be a field of study. Doing research, I have to consider the mana, or spiritual essence, is in the land, natural and man-made objects and human. All of which are contained in an area, because of the Maori due respect, their magic, they believe that the Whakapapa or relationship. Sense, everything in an area The Whakapapa return a specific God, including trees, animals and humans. Whenua / Maori land and the center of the place identity, by all means, must be respected.
2.2 The implementation of the sampling strategy in accordance with local iwi and HAPU, the requirements, three examples:
With sampling strategy, also has a similar function in the sampling process, the ability or experience of those who must consider things. This allows researchers more reliable, goal-oriented as follows Tikanga or to carry out the necessary research protocols and practices. In addition, Tika or research a well-designed structure, so as to promote the smooth flow of research. During sampling with local Tangata Whenua or land should consult Iwi or if they HAPU to. This is to give them due respect, because they are considered to be a higher authority. This sampling target young people, because I use the students in a school as an example. Maori culture from the colonial period has changed a lot, including Maori or TE Roe, it has become essential for Maori schools teach it, to save the language labyrinth.
Sampling in the second quota sampling strategy, therefore, the use of examples, I is the women’s group (40-60 years old) can be considered as Tangata Whenua. These groups of individuals in Maori society, especially Whanau with specific functions. They are looked up to as an example to their children. Most of the cultural values â€‹â€‹and principles from them and their work as well as with the HAPU or Iwi. In addition, they are part of it.
Work together with the regional sampling strategy, still Tangata Whenua with HAPU or Ivica. Do research and Maori communities should at least bring transformation or change their ways, it does not bypass or refute their cultural practices or beliefs, the most important is that it should always be in accordance with the Kaupapa Maori. This method must include the study of the causes, the methods used, its direction and the impact may occur later.
3.1 countries and regions in hauora colonization
For the national level, a colonial influence to the Maori hauora will reduce the mortality due to the introduction of next medical methods to improve national health programs and social welfare system. The other is the result of economic changes in New Zealand finished goods, rather than purely agricultural commodity production. Cause people to eat processed foods is preferred because it may contain preservatives or unhealthy ingredients that may harm people’s health. In addition to the regional level, colonization, increase the fertility rate increase in the population of Maori women, resulting in the potential of the probability of the disease is also increasing. Discrimination exists, but also because some doctors have proven to be unlikely advocate for Maori patients with preventive measures, they like the non-Maori Maori, when it comes to surgical referral regional level. This leads not only physical problems, but the psychological feeling of discrimination. In general, colonization has made them lose their land, their strength, language, status, and most special is their culture. In short, they have lost their identity.
Between the regional level, Australian Aborigines, the colonization of the threat to their lives, because they have lost their land and their resources. With the arrival of the colonists coming from different diseases. It is difficult for them because they do not have their own land and food sources, and sick at the same time. These make it easier for them. For the national level, which is they lost the language, although it is not a complete loss, because they still speak their mother tongue at home. The introduction of Western language or in English, some dangerous, until their mother tongue. However, in later years, Australian Aborigines like health, other aspects are not completely influenced by Western culture. Until now, even with the efforts of the Government to change their way of life or culture and westernization. They still retain their culture, especially those who work with their health care system. Monotherapy, they still use the traditional method of treatment, they firmly believe that witchcraft or magic and supernatural intervention.
Colonial the Tikanga involved brought a change in their customs and traditional Maori. The the Maori collective ownership of land and the means of production or the state of the theory and practice preferences have changed, their social structure is disrupted. Some people think that the Native Land Act, established in 1865, aimed at undermining this principle of collectivism, the land of the Maori settlement purposes. This leads to the loss of land ownership, forcing Maori to migrate to urban areas In addition to the In addition, marriage and Maori Maori as the necessity of a civilized people, the concept of legal adoption disrupted the context of the family group.
The introduction of Christianity, the very heart of tikanga Maori attacks by denying the validity of Maori origin of the universe. Papatuanuku and Ranginui continue to recognize the significance of gross profit (in Maori mythology of the original couple Rangi and Papa (or Ranginui Papatuanuku) appear in a creation myth to explain the origin of the world in some South Island dialects, Rangi is called Raki wine or rakinui), it has been argued Maori creation story has been deeply influenced by Christian.
Gross profit was informed that the be changed internal colonialism value of some of the usual customs and beliefs. Tohunga inhibition assay deterioration in 1907 banned traditional healers. The Act also opposed to gross profit and Maori knowledge legitimacy healing, the link between the environment, the arts, spiritual and temporal. Some Maori did not contact with the marae, they are only limited knowledge the the Whakapapa traditional mÄtauranga gross profit / gross profit knowledge (core). In addition, the loss of language, culture and traditions gave way to the rise of alcoholism and crime.
Their way of life has changed. Prior to this, the Maori depends on the agricultural fishing and hunting as food. However, with the production of food in the exposure of the urban area, their preferences change, the cause of many lifestyle diseases such as diabetes and obesity. Movement, which is an important part of a healthy lifestyle, has also been given priority by the majority of the Maori population. Them to adopt Western lifestyles, including sugar, salt and other processed foods, they are not used to the food we eat.
The English civilization Maori population, especially the children, they forcibly sent to the school to accept the introduction of education. With special REO Maori (Maori language) is prohibited, penalties for people who speak. In education as a tool to kill Maori which in the end is truly effective. Most Maori forget their mother tongue and turned to English.
Influence of the spirit
Loss of Maori traditions and beliefs, which greatly affect their spiritual level. Maori, who are willing to stay in their homes, only a few figures are only reserved Maori culture and tradition. Suppression Tohunga Act passed in 1907 to ban traditional treatment methods, Maori do result in the loss or lack of knowledge of traditional treatment. In addition, some of the Caucasian missionaries spread of disease attributed to a lack of confidence in Maori believe. In addition, changes in lifestyle, modern life, socio-economic status, population affect the spirit of the traditional approach.
Colonial Maori mental problems have attracted a lot. The loss of ancestral lands, racism or discrimination they experienced hatred on their part, away from the home or family groups and suppress special REO gross profit increased from Caucasians. They indulge yourself alcoholism, drug abuse and gambling, and create more social problems and psychiatric hospitalization rates. Diagnosis of schizophrenia rate is 2-3 times higher than non-Maori. In addition, the prison containing Maori suffer high rates of mental disorders.
100 years, residents and visitors have brought measles, influenza and tuberculosis, extract the population. The land war accelerated this trend, and low morale. The 1918 influenza pandemic take a further great charges, and report the Maori newspaper lying dead in the streets. Maori generally live in poor housing conditions, conducive to infection, rarely have the opportunity or the trust in the European medical. Their native healers (tohungas) had been suppressed by law. Matters has improved, but is still relatively healthy gross profit in poor condition. Maori women, cervical cancer hospitalization rate is 3-4 times higher than non-Maori. Maori men and 71.6 Maori life expectancy for women is 67.2 years, than non-Maori males and females 75.3 and 80.6. The factors contribute relative poverty, poor diet and high smoking rates, the higher Maori women than men.
Colonial Native Americans brought many changes to their lives, especially in their practices on their overall. Their culture is compromised. Tasks are described in, and actively encourage locals converted to Christianity. Most groups have some form of ancestor worship, this forced change of religion to change their cultural identity. The law prohibits certain rituals, forcing the child to the European education system, tied for the whole group of land is useless, and can not maintain them. Its purpose is to deny their own cultural identity, which has the same effect wipe.
For the United States, such as American Indians and Alaska Natives, colonization has brought them enormous changes. Colonial them in the early years, the Europeans have brought them many new diseases, such as measles, smallpox, trachoma, cholera, influenza, sexually transmitted diseases. This leads to epidemics and deteriorating health. Their old way to get food, water buffalo hunt and forage disappeared. Their nutritional and health compromise, they do farm work, but unfortunately, less food, making them more vulnerable to hunger and disease. Their way of life, these changes are not conducive to them, because they do not use it, their own bodies are not immune to the diseases brought by the colonizers. White Americans access to health care progress, problems encountered by these Native Americans, such as the lack of hospitals or facilities to treat their disease. This is just in the Indian Health Service, they are able to benefit from this facility.
After the war in India in the late 19th century, the United States established the Native American boarding school, boarding school experience often proved traumatic to Native American children, they were forbidden to speak their own native language. To the mid-20th century European conquest and solve many languages â€‹â€‹of the United States in the Western Hemisphere, perhaps two-thirds have died or are dying out, but others are thriving. Native language researchers are now discovered and investigated. In today’s era, most Native Americans can not say that their mother tongue. Instead, they speak English, English to communicate with each other. Loss of the language lost identity and culture, and make them drunk the colonists introduced, contributing to health problems like alcohol and other lifestyle.
Influence of the spirit
In addition to these health problems, the colonial rule caused them to lose their land and culture. In spirit, they were forced to convert to Christianity, and leave their Ancestor Worship. . Eagle feather law (Section 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 22) stipulates that only individuals certified Native American ancestry enrolled in a federally recognized tribe legally authorized to obtain eagle feathers for religious or spiritual law does not allow Native American Eagle feathers to non-Native Americans.
In the 19th century, in the case of boarding schools have been documented sexual abuse, physical abuse and emotional abuse. Native American introduction of guns, alcohol and drugs caused their psychological problems. . Native American land, language, culture, abuse, killing and torture of loss, they end up with psychological problems, alcoholism, suicide, inter-generational genocide, stress disorder postraumatic, internal oppression. These, drug abuse, especially alcohol abuse, the most obvious crisis has been health disorders, and depression is emerging as a leading concern. The two diseases are often distant and reserved, widespread poverty, despair, and two generations of trauma, including the historic consequences by the federal government tried to force assimilation tribal isolation.
As mentioned earlier, the Native Americans never like any European diseases. This is only the arrival of the colonists, they were able to experience the disease, such as measles, chickenpox. Since these are the new system is very low, increase the body’s immune system and lead to death. In addition, alcohol and drug abuse, poor health.
3.3 of contemporary problems affecting gross profit
1, the establishment of a national indigenous protest movements and organizations
The protest was aimed at broadening the fight against racism and oppression of the Maori. Verbal attacks, physical attacks and unfair treatment by a health care professional, at work or purchase or rent a home, but some cases, lead to the development of this protest group. Maori is almost 10 times more likely to experience discrimination in three or more settings than their European counterparts. They are poor or fair self-rated health, mental health, and cardiovascular disease than Europeans more likely to report. As the strike and the class struggle, TE Hokioi and the Maori organizations human rights (MOORH,) came into being. The fundamental cleavage in society for TE Hokioi, between labor and capital, is seen as symptoms of class rule and the internal contradictions of the capitalist system and racism. Whether it is the TE Hokioi MOORH the accepted Maori autonomy, bicultural harmonious society as a means of treaties injustices of the past redemption. These two groups is the most effective strategy to address racism and inequality Maori that the pan-racial struggle along class lines. women’s liberation movement of http://archive.indymedia.org.nz/article/69608/text-maori-oppression, a form of protest aimed at Maori society, and women’s participation.
2.Tribal national or federal requirements
One of the most important issues Maori and the New Zealand government on land issues. Many years ago, the Native Land Act in 1862, the individual purchase of Maori land be allowed, even to the point value of the land is much smaller than it should be the local court was established in 1865, trying to get rid of community land ownership or individualism, the Maori land will be sold more easily some Maori trying to stop the sale of the land, but without success. lot of struggle for many years in 1975, the establishment of the Waitangi Tribunal of Waitangi Law Treaty have been waiting to see these Maori dissatisfaction, leading to government æ€€å”ä¼Šæ€€å”ä¼Š days, the treaty has become the the protest focus of Maori land, the Waitangi Tribunal has become a focus on trying to resolve land claims by the government gross profit people.
Eventually led to many changes in lifestyle and culture, impact their general haoura in the loss of land by the Maori and urbanization.
3.Access participation rates and achievement across the development activities
The impact of colonization between some Maori is a restriction of their rights, as well as the destruction of the culture and discrimination. These things limit their privileges, any non-Maori in New Zealand. However, the government is trying through the introduction of English as a means of communication between the Maori life changes, they do so at school. Children are not allowed to speak the Maori dialect or Te REO gross profit. This is done to better improve the integration between Maori and non-Maori children. In a way, which makes them an active participant in the community, because the English language to promote a better understanding between them. Language plays an important role in the communication between people, which leads to better access to all society, including education, employment and life as a whole. This is a positive step for the government, although it was not in favor of Maori culture.
Contemporary issues affecting Native American
Native American cultural differences too. They speak different languages, they have their own way of life. Some tribes, some do not. Engaged in war, however, such as Apache’s particularly worried about the Hopi pacifist. Most societies dominated by men, but the Iroquois women to choose their leaders. Rely on fishing and hunting as a food source, but others prefer to root crops.
2.State and federal government regulations
It has been a fight for land between the Native Americans and the federal government. Native Americans dating back to 1800, their land was ceded to the federal government, in return they can continue to keep the commitment on the land, and adhere to their trust. Countries become loose, failed to fulfill this promise.
3.Health and education
Civil rights disproportionate to reduce capital than India’s key health services and education and the rest of the population to a study conducted by the U.S. Committee. This makes the Native Americans are angry, and that the government is not honest with them, on the contrary, they believe that integrity is a sacred value.
4.1 colonization of indigenous peoples hauora including:
Gross profit educational change over time. Before the coming of Europeans in New Zealand, Maori children’s education is shared by the family and community. They have learned from their grandparents and parents, language and behavior standards. Europe’s arrival has brought far-reaching changes in the social life of the Maori. In order to meet the needs of the new culture, revolutionized the education system becomes necessary. First to accept the challenge to set up schools object as soon as possible the native Christian missionaries. Many Maori children to participate in the Mission School.
This is a long way of fighting for Maori. Maori community development the Kura kaupapa wharekurawànangakohanga the REO movement, a significant contribution to education in New Zealand, it is a fact. Maori Kaupapa education has led to a greater degree of Maori participation in education at all levels. In addition, if the Te Kotahitanga program has been developed to reduce inequality decades, Maori students teaching and relieve teachers and Maori students’ performance and participation. However, this program is not yet widely and recent statistics show that too many schools are still unable to provide high-quality education Maori children. Has become an increasingly important determinant of the past 20 years education, employment and occupational status. Now, university education gives 62% of earnings lifelong privileges. Three wÄnangaTEWÄnangaØRaukawa TEWÄnangaØAwanuiÄrangi and TeWÄnanga Ô Aotearoa, has played a key role in the Maori control and Maori culture medium tertiary education and
The ladder Maori tertiary education for students. However, the failure of the school system fair Gross profit Gross profit transferred to achieve their educational costs. Life cycle costs, access to education is too high, the average gross profit.
After World War II, the Maori people from the countryside to the cities in search of high-paying jobs, this happens tremendous changes. Changed in the 50 years between 1936 and 1986, the Maori population from 83% in rural areas more than 83% of the city, one of the fastest rate of urbanization in the world. As a result, many white people came to the first intimate contact with the Maori. The most urban migration in order to avoid land, poverty and lack of opportunities for young single gross profit. In the 1950s and 1960s, they fill the demand for low-skilled workers in the city. Maori identity has been destroyed by the process of urbanization. Many of the Maori people lost contact the original HAPU and iwi. The 2001 Census report, 20% of the Maori no longer know which tribe they come from. Many other Maori, who can tell your Ivica not say original HAPU. However, in many places, the institutions of family groups remain unchanged. Many of the city’s Maori retain their own homeland Ivica and HAPU, links, and some tribal marae in the city the center or taurahere Group (Urban). Some iwi and Maori organizations there are plans to re-city youth and tribes, whose ancestors.
The right to work based on the realization of other rights, including housing, education, and standard of living sufficient to maintain the health and welfare of the right has been well described in those insecure, insecurity, low control and poor health, low income employment opportunities. Redundancy and unemployment are associated with poor health results. Differences of the Maori job opportunities and working conditions by the impact of the economic and social policies of the 1980s and 1990s. Maori different positions in the labor market (ie, the two sides work or does not work or the type of occupation) accounted for a significant proportion of mortality in the 1980s and 1990s, the gap between Maori and non-Maori expanding. Maori unemployment rate has dropped to 7.6% in 2001, 13.0% in June 2007, but still three times higher than whites aged 15 and over (2.6%), the problem of youth unemployment is particularly high, with 21.4% gross profit of 15-19 June 2007 annual unemployment. This compares with 11.4% and 25.7% of Caucasians Pacific Youth.
Access to safe, reliable quality and good housing is an important determinant of health. Household crowding, poor living conditions, education, health and local services, access to unsecured term impact. Rent, an increase of approximately 45%, a significant difference, with high-quality housing, 2001 in Aotearoa / New Zealand.In Maori and non-Maori, Maori families (households Maori and one or more persons ) more than 50% in 1991 although the European family rental ratio increased from 28.9 in 1991 to 32.2 in 2001, this proportion is still lower than other ethnic groups, including Maori. In 2001, 31.7% of Maori owned or partly owned their own home. Types of compared with59.7% European, 38.8% Asian, 26.0% of the people of the Pacific, and 24.2% other ethnic discrimination in renting or buying a house is the most common of this Maori “unfair treatment “discrimination reported in 2002/03 New Zealand Health Survey. Housing discrimination was significantly associated with a higher risk of smoking and poor mental health (Harris, 2006).
Other Native American indigenous groups
Improve the educational success may be a prerequisite for for many locals economic opportunities. Indigenous groups in the history of the highest dropout rate of any racial category, although these, too, different tribes. Boarding school dropout rate for children seem to be particularly high. In addition, from the University of local students to participate in a percentage of their limited drop-out rate usually has been very high. Native American youth to leave school has advanced reasons include: conflict with the norms and values â€‹â€‹of the education system, the lack of perception of the information and skills, the question of the effectiveness of the education given the high level of tribal members and even educated unemployment, lack of confidence in the intelligence, learning disabilities, without prejudice, stereotyping their own lack of ability or opportunity, the pursuit of education, maintenance of family and tribal connections, lack of conflict between the family or other social minority children seems to be generally accepted fewer positive feedback (for example, oral praise, smile) and negative feedback (such as interrupt; non-verbal signs of disdain) teachers than non-minority children. Poor education will lead to poor health, because they lack educational qualifications, work income is not enough, the purchase of medicines and food to maintain health. Lack of health knowledge associated with this, too.
Most Native Americans living in the western states, including California, Arizona, New Mexico, South Dakota, Alaska and Montana, in general, they are more likely than whites to live in rural areas. In the past few decades, the number of life on the reservation or trust land decreased significantly in 1970, less than half (45%) live in urban areas, compared with 61% today. Over the past century, this migration has occurred and is expected to continue, from a historical point of view, it reflects the federal government’s “demolition” of the effects of policies in the 1950s, although today it reflects the opportunities for employment, education and housing , which are often limited reservations search for homeless Native Americans, we interviewed several HCH’s proposal to retain the original starting some traumatic event may also be associated with mental illness or substance abuse as a precondition. However, regardless of motivation, migration back to the community and homes – an extremely important social support system – it is difficult to American Indians continued closure of the reservation system and into the city, and to provide health care have serious consequences.
According to recent statistics, Native American groups tend to experience unemployment rate three times as many white Americans. In addition, as Tinker and George W. Bush said that the actual number of unemployed people in the Native Am
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