Processes of Policy Making
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- Cherry Amor B. Dawal
Policy making process:
In running a healthcare organization it is very important to have a well comprehensive written policies, by way of making a policy it has to undergo stages and these stages formulated is very important in its own way to contribute for the success and profitable organization.
Problem identification and agenda setting-It is the first step in policy making process.Problem identification is the first hand information to formulate a certain policy to be make. These certain issues should be in link to the long term goal or plan of the organization which address to policy creation. Formulation of a policy must be in accordance to the problem presented. This will help to identify a rule that can be suited to one particular situation or problem.Since the organization from the start has already a policy that already exist in this situation and problem arises and identified, that existing policy must to undergo for analysis whether there is a need to re visit and even revision of the policy. A thorough research,consultation,and collection of appropriate solicited idea is very much needed to come up with a good policy that would suit for its purpose.Ideas,opinion should be critically analyzed and must be fit for what is needed and would be able to solve the identified problem,.Selection and suitability of the policy is very important inorder to serve its purpose for the task, minor problem should be with minor policy and major problems identified should be fit with major policies,so there will be no overlapping of ideas and what is more important is, both ways be therefore help to what is the cause and goal of the organization.
Policy formation- This stage follow after the problem has already been identified.Main problem should be specifically address.Organization of the policy process must take place. Every detailed situation must be given importance so it would help to make and sum up with pieces of ideas in the policy making.Formulation of accurate thoughts is very important to come up with a good product of the policy. Ideas must expressed well and a detailed situation analysis is necessary. Formulation must be tied up with organize process,policy structure must be identified so to come up with objectives and its component. Parties that need involvement in the process must be also identified,and all the ways and means of the resources and how it can be achieved. Ability to create thoughts and ideas and the availability are the primary criteria of the parties invloved,there should be no conflicting interest. Strategies must be in of great consideration for the achievement of goals.Open for suggestive ideas that may contribute for the bettermen of the said formulation of the policy.Draft text of the policy should then be visible and it must be in accordance to the set objectives.It can be done in only small group of people who are earlier involved in the process. These draft document should be out then and have circulation in the different agencies of the government particularly the ministry of health, this circulation must be open for comments.after wide consultation is done,both of the public and the private sectors,there should be revision based on the comments presented, then it will be finalized.Formulation stage is a critical stage for consolidation od ideas is very important these ideas should be analyzed well, and it is in the cooperation of both the public and private sectors involvement to come up with an acceptable policy.
Adoption- is a universal acceptance of an idea,rules,and policies.It is in a state of acceptance both in the private and public sector.It has to undergo a certain process before it can be acknowlege by the society. Adoption in the sense that it is for the good of all and not on those selected group of people in the society, before an adoption may take place endorsement from government agencies and several private sectors is needed by then it can be known and introduce to the public. The endorsement should be facilitated in a formal way.In every country has its own way of policy adoption ,some may undergo for cabinet or parliament endorsement,the others remain on the administrative body that would serve to handle its implementation for the laws and regulations. Responsible for endorsement may depend on the nature of the policy whether it should cover national policy or just in one sector of the society.This stage of policy making is somewhat complicated as compare to the other stages since it involves approval and acceptance not just in one group of people but in consideration of almost all involve in the circulation and can be affected of the certain policy. This stage is being influenced by any factors that contribute since in the first phase of the agenda. In policy adoption media also play its role both in bias and unbiased circumstances, enhancement for the favorable reports and commentary, and undermine results for unfavorable comments and commentary. For national concern policy the President of the state has the sole authority and ability for the initiation, the congress and the parliament can also initiate but not with the same level of authority as what the president of the state has,local policies can be initiated by the governor and the mayor.
Policy Implementation- it is the stage when the policy is being put into practice or applied. Implementation is the key to understand the complexity of the policy making process and its result. Implementation of policy must covered public administration aims and objectives. The process must affect for the social conditions and for the bettermen for all. In this generation policy implementation is not an easy task implementing agency on this stage of process has great influence, sometimes the concern is on their self interest and also to identify the effect of the policy and make any way for its improvement. For healthcare policy implementation it is the responsible government agency to implement,the task lies on them specifically it is the Ministry of Health one particular example is the Health insurance for senior citizen in the republic of the Philippines. There is a newly signed law or policy,approved by the president and it is a national agenda concern since it caters for filipino citizen age 60 years old and above that is is not necessary for them to be a member of the Philippine health insurance system in order to avail benefits, but by just having their senior citizen card appropriate healthcare services will be given to them without cost and delay. Implementation is been effecrtive already as of this moment. There should be a master plan in ilme of polici implementation since this plan may serve as a guide for the aim and the set goals and objectives being set for the specific policy.Without implementation we cannot identify whether the policy is effective,need revision and no possible existence of idea without implementation.Agency responsible for the implementation should be responsible for monitoring as to whether the goals is being achieved or not. It should have to cover any existing means and way inorder to bring the policy for the respective recepients.
Policy monitoring and Evaluation- this is the last stage of the policy making process.Monitoring is a process being done while the policy is being implemented. This is being done inorder to improve the policy design and to identify if revision of the policy is needed,also to determine if the policy is effective or not. Evaluation take place for the purpose of knowing the effect and the outcome of the policy after it has been implemented. Main concern also llies on the selection for the appropriate design policy in the future. It may give significance and assess the impact and extent of the policy whether it has served its purpose or not,is it the benefit of the policy is being distributed well. This process of policy making requires experts to do the task. The following should be in consideration during monitoring and evaluation process. A continous feedback is necessary and must be provided to know if the goals of the policy is being achieved. At an early stage of the process potential problems should be identify to provide any possible solutions. Efficiency of the policy should be monitor,to know whether improvement of the policy is needed or not.
Evaluation has to consider either using one of its type. For program evaluation a formative evaluation should be use, which address for the purpose of improvement of the policy and aid in implementation. A summative evaluation is design for the purpose in identifying if the policy achieved its goals and purpose. Best policy monitoring and evaluation mostly uses a comprehensive approach which uses both of the techniques.
Policy making process is not an easy taks for healthcare organizations.Equipped knowledge and dedication is a primary requirements in order to fulfill the task well and be able to serve its purpose.
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