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History and Development of Mobile Technology

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Published: Tue, 12 Sep 2017

Mobile Technology

Abstract

The following report reviews an in-depth analysis of mobile technology over the years. Mobile phones enables communication of voice, images, text and video. The important fact is that these could be shared with anyone in any corner of the world at the demand of the user. Communication is no longer the only service mobile technology offers. It offers a wide range of services such as access to the World Wide Web, view television and movies, interact with GPS, play games and read and respond to barcode and augmented reality messages. To fully comprehend the topic mobile technology the history of it plays a major role. From the technical perspective, the history of mobile technologies originated with the limited use of radio frequencies; where the ability to establish simultaneous two-way communication (full duplex) was considered a technological feat. From the social perspective, mobile technologies began as a rare device used by limited personnel who needed to communicate to others in real time emergencies. From the user perspective, the history of mobile technologies began with the use of two way radios and evolved to the current state of prolific smartphones, tablets, and other mobile devices. Popularity of the technology sky rocketed with the invention of “smart phones”. Today there are more people using mobile phones that a personal computer. The future of the mobile technology unravels in front of our very eyes each passing hour.

  1. Introduction

The Latin term mobile means “ability to move” or portable. Therefore mobile technology means, technology that is portable. Mobile devices enables access to services like (Naismith et al., 2004:36).

  • Wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi)
  • Bluetooth
  • ‘third generation’ (3G), ‘fourth generation’ (4G), global system for mobile communications (GSM) and general packet radio service (GPRS) data services
  • dial-up services – data networking services using modems and telephone lines
  • virtual private networks – secure access to a private network

Mobile technology has gone a long journey from a simple two way pager to a device that fits in your pocket which can be used as a substitute for a computer (Naismith et al., 2004:36).

1.1 History

1G

2G

3G

4G

Year

Early 80s

1991

2001

2010

Standards

AMPS, NMT,TACS

D-AMPS,GSM/GPRS, cdma One

CDMA2000/ EV-DO, WCDMA/HSPA+,TD-SCDMA

LTE. LTE Advanced

Technology

Analog

Digital

Digital

Digital

Bandwidth

Narrow Band

Broad Band

Broad Band

Data Rate

<80-100 Kb/s

Up to 2 Mbit/s

xDSL-like experience

Mobile 3G and 4G technologies continue to evolve to deliver faster and better mobile broadband experiences (Nordin et al., 2010:132).

2. Various devices which use mobile technology

  • laptop and netbook computers
  • tablet devices
  • palmtop computers or PDA’s
  • Mobile phones and ‘smart phones (Quinn, 2011:18).

3. The popularity of mobile devices

According to a study done by the US consumers use mobile technology for the following

  1. Call
  2. SMS
  3. Mobile Web
  4. Apps
  5. Social networking ( Quinn, 2011:18).

The quantity of individuals who utilize portable advances has developed such a great amount in the previous decade that there are presently a greater number of individuals utilizing mobile innovations than there are individuals utilizing PCs all through the world there are an incredible number of cell phones in current usage. These incorporate cell phones, PDAs, MP3 players, game devices, handhelds, tablets and laptops (Nordin et al., 2010:132).

The astonishing fame of cell phones is shown by the way that by April 2012 more than 60 million iPads had been sold According to the CIA World Fact Book (South Africa Communications, 2012)

.Worldwide sales of Smartphones increased 24 percent to 172.4 million units in 2009 according to Gartner, Inc. Popularity continues to grow because it provides services like emergency notification systems, customer service, customer payments, inventory management, employee dispatching, travel directions and non-profit fundraising. For an example, When the Red Cross recently used Mobile to raise funds for Haiti almost $5 million was raised in less than 48 hours- all via Mobile (Valk, Rashid & Elder, 2010).

4. Mobile devices and interactivity

There are four sorts of intelligence: “up close and personal” intuitiveness, “PC intervened” intelligence, “human-PC” intelligence, and “synchronous gathering” intelligence. Intuitiveness helps understudies to create ideas and place them in their right setting. This thusly helps understudies to build up their very own intellectual structures. Intelligence likewise give understudies chances to make their own learning condition. This, thus, has a noteworthy effect on their learning since it brings about more dynamic learning and gives valuable input to the address (van’t Hooft, Brown-Martin & Swan, 2008).

5.Advantages and disadvantages

 Advantages

  • Mobile computing can improve the customer service
  • Powerful solutions can link directly.
  • Supports for more flexible working practices by providing customer friendly services (Wagner, 2005:44).

Disadvantages 

  • Cost required to set up the equipment’s and training is high

Cyber security system is needed to ensure the safety of imported data from getting exposed to unauthorized people via mobile devices (Wagner, 2005:44).

6.Ongoing Research on mobile technology

  • M2M networking for IoT-based Intelligent Environments – efforts within this context focus on the interconnection of large numbers of such heterogeneous smart objects, enabling the communication provision for applications spanning from Intelligent Transportation Systems to Intelligent Building Management. This is performed through the usage of cognitive radio inspired M2M communications(Quinn, 2011:18).

Real-Time Monitoring of Available Bandwidth

  • Optimization Concepts for Capacity Analysis of Wireless Communications – The research develops novel optimization concepts, models, and mathematical programming algorithms for capacity analysis problems in wireless networks. Solving these problems generate insights and understanding going beyond the state-of-the-art of performance analysis of wireless communications (Quinn, 2011:18).
  • Generating Road Traffic Information from Cellular Networks(Quinn, 2011:18)

7. Future Analysis

Future of the technology could go from faster transfer speeds to the ability to communicate a relative who lives in a newly found planet. Some recent expected upgrades include- Flexible mobile devices, wearable technology, and mobile wallets completely replacing notes and coins, 5G networks and devices which are capable of interpreting ones’ thoughts.

It is not strange to predict that one day when a new born is born the first thing the doctors would do will be implementing a mobile device so small into their bodies enabling communication and access to information in ways which we cannot imagine (Wagner, 2005:44).

Electro vibration technology will change the mobile touchscreen experience dramatically. You will be able to feel different kinds of texture. This advancement can also lead to socially beneficial trends. For instance, blind people can use it for Braille, and access smartphones like everybody else.

Running out of battery power is one of the most persistent and frequent complaints of most smartphone users. The availability of the ultra-rapid charger that comes with an advanced battery technology that will allow you to charge your phone completely in just 30 seconds (van’t Hooft, Brown-Martin & Swan, 2008).

8. Conclusion

As stated in the report above mobile technology has evolved from where it was first invented, up to date. It will obliviously continue to expand the horizons and touch human lives. Mobile technology which was foreign to many has now become an essential part in life. It will further help people to break barriers and explore the world and quite possibly the world beyond our world.

Mobile technology has its’ advantages and disadvantages towards the society. It is worth noting that sufficient precautions should be placed in order to manage the misuse of the technology. This could be done through proper education and guidance in regard to this technology. Proper practice should always be promoted  (Naismith et al., 2004:36).

Encouragement on further research to develop the technology should be promoted. Universities and individuals interested in that matter should have easier ways to access funds for their researches.

9.References

NAISMITH, L., LONSDALE, P., VAVOULA, G. & SHARPLES, M. 2004. Literatureview in mobile technologies and learning. [Online] Available from:

http://www.futurelab.org.uk/resources/publications-reports-articles/literature

reviews/Literature-Review203 [Accessed 15 October 2009]:1-47.

NORDIN, N., EMBI, M.A. & YUNUS, M.M. 2010. Mobile Learning framework for

lifelong learning. Procedia Social and Behavioural Sciences, 7(C):130-138.

QUINN, C. 2011. Designing mLearning. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.

South Africa Communications 2012.  [Online] (Updated 6 March 2012) Available

from: http://www.theodora.com/wfbcurrent/south_africa/south_africa_communications.h

tml [Accessed 25 June 2012].

VALK, J-H., RASHID, A.T. & ELDER, L. 2010. Using mobile phones to improve

educational outcomes: An analysis of evidence from Asia. The International

review of research in open and distance learning. [Online] Available from:

http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/794/1487 [Accessed 13

November 2011].

VAN’T HOOFT, M., BROWN-MARTIN, G. & SWAN, K. 2008. Anywhere, anytime

learning using highly mobile devices. [Online] In: Tomei, L.A. Encyclopedia of

information technology curriculum integration. Available from:

http://www.books24x7.com/book/id_18674/viewer.asp?bookid=18674&chunkid=0

907360816 [Accessed 16 December 2010].

WAGNER, E.D. 2005. Enabling mobile learning. EDUCAUSE Review, 40(3):42

44.


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