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Effects of Music on Plant Growth

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  • Miguel Cintrón
  • Ryan Cabral
  • Humberto Michel

 

The objective of this experiment is to determine if the different types of music affect the growth of the Euphorbia Miliiplant. If we put three Euphorbia Milii under the same conditions, with three different types of music, then the three plants will grow exactly the same, because we speculate that music does not have any effect on plant growth. We predicted that the three plants will grow to be exactly the same. We might have different results from what we expected as: one plant will grow larger than the other 2, because of its type of music; one plant will grow smaller than the other 2, because of its type of music, etc. Depend of the results this experiment will have an importance, because people will be able to make grow larger or smaller their plants. This is a benefit when it comes to control the growth of your plant. Farmer Chris Beardshaw claims that booming Heavy Metal band Black Sabbath has thoroughly increased the disease resistance of the plants in his greenhouse, though making them shorter. This could mean that music could be used as a method to make crops grow more efficiently. Euphorbia Miliiis a species of flowering plant in the spurge family Euphorbiaciae, native to Madagascar.

Theoretical Framework

The scientist of (all science fair projecs.com) they put in there hypothesis that the classic music will help with the growth. Of the plants, at the end, the hypothesis holds true and they observed and conclude that music is able to speed up seed germination and enhance plant growth. Although there may not be an available scientific explanation as to why music is able to enhance plant growth, the results are there for us to take advantage of. Music can be used in plant nurseries to speed-up seed germination and help us grow healthier plants.

The scientist of USCB SCIENCE LINE, they observed and conclude that music affects plant growth has been the subject of many, many science fair projects. It seems as though it is uncertain whether music really does have an effect. Sound is a wave traveling through air and it may be possible that changes in air pressure may affect plant growth but also they planted that was difficult to test this because there a lot of variables that need to be controlled i.e. soil composition, water, light, etc.

The scientist Dr. Singh (1962) published that when you switch on your radio, the sound wave will create vibration that will then cause your eardrum to vibrate. This pressure energy will be converted to electrical energy for the brain to translate into what you understand it as musical sounds.

Dr. Will Warner (2014) published that if the frequency of sound increased, then the growth of plants will increase. He conclude that his hypothesis was incorrect “the frequency of the sound was increased, and the classical music group grew the shortest”.

A scientist that published his report (answers.com) said that plants are not intelligent. In fact, they don't have a central nervous system. Music can only affect you if you understand it, and plants can't understand anything and plants have no auditory organs. They can't hear any more than you could hear through your skin if you had no ears.

A scientist of (kidslovekits.com) find out thatwe think that the classical music will help the plant growth and that the rock music will hinder its growth since studies have showed that classical music even concentrates the human brain and is good for you. After one week of experimenting, the following were the results.

The one that was in the best condition was the plant that was in the room with classical music. The second best plant was the one in the room with no music and the one that didn't do so good was the one in the room with rock music.

DorothyRetallack(1973) penned down her research. For her laboratory experiment in her studies for the degree in music she chose to study the effects of music in plants. After her researchRetallackdiscerned that the genre of music did not have anything to do with the response; it was the kind of instruments used and their resonance that probably made the difference. Her book says that loud frequencies of music played havoc with the health of the plants, resulting in a very slow and stunted growth; even death in some cases.

Dr. Matthew DavidFleischacker(2012) hetested the biological effect music would have on plants. The link above shows what was done in the experiment, but basically what they found was a direct relationship between the sound vibrations and the growth of the plant.

Joel Sternheimer(1991) studied and investigated the vibrational frequencies of amino acids. Ribosomes plays an important role in the creation of proteins from a variety of twenty amino acids depending on the need of the cell and its organisms. He also conclude When the frequencies are recognized, each of these notes can then be recorded into a sequence, or melody. Sternheiner successfully replicated the recorded melodies for the selected proteins. When these melodies were played, he noticed that it increased the manifestation of the corresponding protein and accelerated the growth of the plant. Sternheiner affirms that tomatoes grew two and a half times larger when his melodies were play.

A South Korean scientist Mi-JeongJeong(2007) would play Beethoven's Moonlight Sonata to rice plants and he conclude that due to exposure to music, the chemical changes that took place within the plant, could be studied and harnessed in order to throw better light and increase the blossoms of other crops, too.

Dr. Don Robertson (1973) he saw thatthe plants showed no reaction at all to country and western music, similarly to those in silent chambers. However, the plants "liked" the jazz that she played them.

He tried an experiment using rock in one chamber, and "modern" classical music of negative composers Arnold Schönberg and Anton Webern in another.

These two scientists Creath and Schwartz (2004) have reported significant effects of music on the germination of seeds when compared to untreated control plants. Similarly, there also have been other reports on the enhancement of physiological conditions of the plants because of exposure to sound and music. It can be concluded that plants enjoy music and they have better effect when exposed to the appropriate style.

Dr. Lee. Patrick (2009) he published Silence grew the best and healthiest followed by spoken word (Harry Potter). Classical music (Vivaldi concertos) ended up just under spoken word. Bringing up the rear was a very small and unhealthy plant that was 'listening' to heavy metal and (harsh) world music (Mudvayne and Rammstein). He also concludes, “From my twenty days of information gathering, I have drawn the conclusion that all music/spoken word affect plant growth negatively. Some plants were affected more negatively than others were. Therefore, I can just repeat an old saying, 'Silence is golden.”

 

Scientists of (omgfacts.com) published that, differentkinds caused different effects. Plants responded best to classical and Indian devotional music. In a controlled environment, plants exposed to these kinds of music had lush and abundant growth and good root development.They observedplants that listened to rock did poorly, showing signs that they were in the dying stage. Plants exposed solely to white noise died quickly.

 

Scientists of (The handy science book.com) reported thatplants responded best to Indian classical and devotional music. In a controlled environment, plants exposed to these kinds of music had lush and abundant growth and good root development. Exposure to country music or silence brought about no abnormal growth reaction, while jazz produced growth that is more abundant. With rock music, plants did poorly. Their roots were scrawny and sparse and they seemed to be in a dying stage.Plants exposed solely to white noise died quickly.

 

 

Scientists and researchers have long studied the effects of music on plant growth. Chronicling how music, from hard rock and boogie-woogie to the most refined classical pieces, may or may not stimulate plants to grow fascinates both the most-educated botanist and youngest science fair participant in elementary school. Whether or not classical music has any effect on urging or retarding plant growth is a hot topic.

Also most scientist said thatwhile most mainstream scientists and botanists believe that no irrefutable evidence exists to prove whether classical or any other music stimulates plant growth, some researchers entertain the notion that sound waves may agitate the air around planets just enough to stimulate plant growth. In a question-and-answer section of the Science Centre Singapore's Website, one researcher quoted a United Kingdom biologist who suggested that a fan running in place of a loudspeaker blaring music would probably generate the same agitating effect. Some researchers believe that the frequencies of music played to plants need to be kept at or near 5000 Hz in order for it to be beneficial to plant growth or, more important, larger fruit size and more vibrant and fragrant flowers.

Also Russian researchers conducted experiments on onion plant roots that received consistent exposure to classical music. The music, composed by classical greats such as Mussorgsky, Chopin, Mozart, Wagner and Schubert, was chosen for its complex, rhythmic accents. The onion "listened" to the selected classical music six hours a day for 10 days. After 10 days, the onion roots were measured and examined at the cellular level. The scientists in charge of the experiment determined that the plants responded favorably to classical music by growing longer, roots that are more vigorous. Plants that listened to music with lyrics grew even longer roots.

 

 

A students from the Marshall middle school published thatthe plant that had to listen to music did in fact grow much, more than the plant that did not have to listen to music. The plant that had to listen to music grow about 8cm and the plant that did not listen to music grow 5.5cm which is about 3.5cm less than the plant that had to listen to music and this experiment in fact support our hypothesis.

 

 

These scientist (NuranEkici,FeruzanDane, LeylaMamedova,IsinMetinand MuradHuseyinov) reported thatstudy effects of strong, complex, rhythmic accent classical Music withsekundaandKvartaintervals. The frequently reprised and opus with rhythmic dynamically changing lyrics which Contain more EXTENSIVEKvintaoktavasepta intervals on mitotic index and root growth were Investigated in onion root tip During germination cells . For This aim, samples music from Wagner, Mozart, Mussorgsky Chopin, Tchaikovsky and Schubert Were Chosen. We found correlation between root elongation and Mitotic Index. Both kinds of music have positive effects on root growth and mitotic divisions in onion root tip cells but rhythmic dynamically changing lyrics affected much better. In This study, light microscopy techniques were used but ultra-structure of root tip cells will be studied with electron microscope in the following study.

 

A scientist from Australia has reported thatevery plant has a mouth, in fact more than one mouth. These mouths are called stomata’s and over a year ago at the University of California in San Diego, United States, scientists discovered a single mechanism that controls plants stomata.

There are two cells that make up the stomata and these two cells are connected to the resonant frequency of calcium, when the cells come in close contact with this frequency of calcium they close. However, what these scientists found was if the frequency were change slightly the plants stomata would open again after an hour even if the presence of calcium were still strong. This proved that exposures to high tones, music and bird songs stimulated the plant to vibrate and keep their stomata are open to increase the exchange of gases, therefore increasing growth because plants absorb fertilizer via their stomata.

 

In addition, heincluded whatDorothyRetallackdo, that was held one of the first and most famous experiments performed on the effect of music on plants. Her experiment found that plants grew better under the influence of classical music compared to rock and roll and when jazz music was played some plants would lean towards the speaker and others would lean away. She found these findings whilst she studied her degree in music. She later went onto pen that it was not perhaps the type of music but the instruments played. She also stated that loud frequencies of music had negative effects on plants where the plant sometimes even died.

 

A scientist ofmallstuffs.composted thatwhen the plants were beam with acid rock music, all the plants leaned away from the direction of music. When Mrs.Rattallackrotated the pots 180 degrees, all the plants leaned away in the opposite direction. Plants hate i.e. acid rock music. When the level of rock in the music was reduce, the movement of plants leaning also reduced. For EX : when Spanish tune , 'La Paloma ' was played , the leaning was only 10 degree from the vertical, very less than the 60 + degree of rock music . Plants fiddling with music beamed 15 degrees Leaned Towards the source of music. These experiments were done using continuously 25+ days for eighteen plants per chamber. All varieties of plants like squash, seed, flowers, leafy vegetables etc.

 

Methods

The materialswe used in this experimentare:ThreelabeledEuphorbiaMiliispecimens, a onehourWaltzplaylist, aonehourReggaetonplaylist,a one hourElectronicaplaylist,a journal fordocumenting, gardening tools,rulers (cm, inch,) to measure the plants, a camera, to take pictures of the experiment's stages.To start we will take all threeEuphorbiaMiliispecimens (each already labeled according to their music type) and keep them in a controlled environment out in the sunlight. All plants will be given the same amount ofcare and water, and every day for one hour they will be each put to listen to their respective musicfor one hour, we already have playlists set up for this.Every change will be documented with rulersand cameras. Wewill write down all size and color changes as well as take pictures for demonstration, This process will take from the start of the experiment to approximately two or threeweeks before the Science Fair.

References

All Science Fair Projects

http://www.all-science-fair-projects.com/print_project_1301_143?print=1

UCSB Science Line

http://scienceline.ucsb.edu/getkey.php?key=1495

Hub Pages

http://hubpages.com/hub/the-effect-of-music-on-plant-growth

Google Documents

https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1mxwiSK_4LVr9X4apl7T5tqflmXo5fEg8UpKPGsvssEY/embed?hl=en&size=s#slide=id.p13

Answers.com

http://www.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_effects_of_music_on_plants

Kids Love Kits

http://www.kidslovekits.com/projects/plantmusic/index.html

Ehow

http://www.ehow.com/how-does_4596442_does-music-affect-plant-growth.html

Info.com

http://topics.info.com/How-do-different-kinds-of-music-affect-plant-growth_2902

Buzzle.com

http://www.buzzle.com/articles/does-music-affect-plant-growth.html

The Independent

http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/music/news/want-bigger-blooms-blast-your-plants-with-black-sabbath-and-avoid-playing-cliff-richard-8579013.html

SiOWfa12

http://www.personal.psu.edu/afr3/blogs/siowfa12/2012/10/music-can-help-your-plants-growseriously.html

Dovesong.com

http://www.dovesong.com/positive_music/plant_experiments.asp

California State Science Fair 2005

https://www.usc.edu/CSSF/History/2005/Projects/J1631.pdf

Omg Facts

http://www.omgfacts.com/lists/15202/Music-affects-plant-growth-and-now-we-may-know-why-Not-all-music-has-the-same-effect-though?%2Fl%2F15202=

Deerfield Patch

http://patch.com/illinois/deerfield/bp--how-do-different-kinds-of-music-affect-plant-growth#.VCYEM_l5MnM

Wikipedia (2014)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euphorbia_milii

Gardenguides.com

http://www.gardenguides.com/116597-classical-music-its-effects-plants.html

Plantingscience.com

http://www.plantingscience.org/index.php?module=pagesetter&func=viewpub&tid=2&pid=2829

Scialert.net

http://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=ajps.2007.369.373

Ecocitizen Australia

http://www.ecocitizenaustralia.com.au/affect-of-music-on-plants/

Mallstuffs.com

http://www.mallstuffs.com/Blogs/BlogDetails.aspx?BlogId=393&BlogType=Spiritual&Topic=How%20music%20effects%20plant%20growth


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