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Conflict is the disagreement between two parties or more parties such as individuals , groups ,organization or countries or departments Conflict can be internal to individuals. In terms of politics conflict can refer to revolutions or other struggles and to wars which might involve the use of military force in terms of armed conflict. Without the proper resolution of conflicts in social settings can result in stresses and tensions among different stakeholders. When an interpersonal conflict occur its effect is even more wide than two individuals involved . It can also affect many associate individuals and relationships. A clash of values , interests and actions or directions also results in a conflict. Conflict has a potential to destroy a relationship, ruin carriersor put a company out of business . It can be both functional( good) or dysfunctional (bad). The negative consequences arises from the failure to handle a conflict in constructive ways . Constructive conflict management produces creative solutions to problems , high quality relationships and constructive change.
3 conflict in I have been a part of in the recent past:
Conflict in the intergroup football match :
( Relationship with the conflicting party)
In the hostel of lovely professional university, there two football team called “team 1”, and “team 2” The two teams are both well-organized and successful. “I play for the team 1” .The teammates of both the teams are polite and self-disciplined. The two teams frequently exchanged visits. The senior player of team1 and team2 are friends and visited each other to exchange ideas and so does the teammates of both teams. On college occasions, such as exhibitions, open days and football matches, the seniors and teammates of both the team cooperated in planning and implementing such occasions and matches. They all work together to maintain order and discipline. Relationships between the two teams were very smooth.
(Analysis – how the conflict occurred)
The situation was like this till incident took place. The incident made the relations between the two teams considerably tense. Disturbance and anger prevailed between teammates of both teams .The incident occured during a football match between the two teams , “team1” and “team2”. After the first half of the match was over, the result was a draw.Each team had one goal. In the middle of the play one player from team 1 either accidentally or deliberately, collided with a player from team 2 in the penalty area of team2 goal. some spectators said that it was a clear obstruction to prevent the player from shooting the ball into team2 goal. Team1 player, was unable to stand up. The referee, decided to give team1 a penalty shot. His decision was supported by most of the spectators. But some supporters of team2 did not like the decision and expressed their objection.. This was followed by loud shouting and screams of protest and rejection . The referee tried to calm the situation in order to let the players continue the match, but his efforts went empty .They lost control. Disorder prevailed all over the place .team 2 students rushed to the field. Some tried to use violence against team1 players, then against the referee. Everyone was so tense, it was impossible to continue the match. The referee stopped the match, but some of team1 players protested. They started shouting because their team had a chance to score a goal from the penalty area. But that was the end of it,the college guard saw all these and the players of both the team were made to leave.The players from both sides were unsatisfied. Team2 students thought that their team was exposed to a predecided plan because the collision was unintentional. Team1 students considered that it was unfair to stop the match, which prevented their team from winning. Some players from both teams asked others to boycott the other team: No further cooperation, no exchange of visits on any occasion.
(Handling the conflict sooner rather than later by taking an initiative and setting time for discussion about the problem so as to define the problem and to build the attitude of understanding and wise conflict resolution.)
I with some of my team members used our wisdom and organised a meeting of all the players of my team”team 1″. In that meeting, we asked the members their opinion of what happened on the previous day: Different members gave different opinions ,some said team2 invented a problem to prevent our victory ,some others said team 2 dont like us and we wont play with team2 any more and have no longer talk with them But another member stood up and said:
Any dispute between two parties is due to misunderstanding. They thought that the collision was unintentional, hence there shouldn’t be a penalty; while we believed that it was an intentional hindrance. So, it is a misunderstanding which must be resolved by understanding in order to reach a solution to the problem. All team members agreed with this point and realised that it was just a match. Just because we didn’t win yesterday doesn’t mean we won’t win tomorrow. Some said we had many friends in team2, and what happened was not worth losing our friends.They realized that there was no need for violence and boycotting.
(Agreement of both the team members on the wise solution to resolve the conflict )
Everyone seemed to have agreed on a wise solution to the problem. After a brief talk with the team 2 players A committee was formed of five members .The senior player was asked to chair the committee, because he was respected by the players of both the teams. In the evening of that same day, the senior player talked with the team leader of team 2 and asked
him for his opinion, and what to do to end the misunderstanding andattain peaceful conflict resolution between the two teams and after discussion, they agreed that the dispute was due to misunderstanding which was not worth boycotting between the two team. He also told them that a committee was formed for resolving the conflict.A committee of team 2 was formed and the next day both the committee after a long discussion expressed their sorrow for
what had happened during the last football match. Before the end of the meeting, a member hurried to shake hands with someone from the other committee. Then all the other members rushed to shake hands .
(Evaluation of the idea approved by both the teams)
One of the member of the committee proposed an idea of a rematch and was supported by all athers members from both the committee All clapped welcoming the idea. A friendly match was played again between the two teams “team1 and team2”. If one player fell, a player from the other team hurried to help him. If a player collided with another, he apologized to him. Nothing
happened to disrupt the match.The match ended in a draw. Each team had two goals. And the friendship begins again.
2.The interpersonal conflict in my life
(Analysis of its occurrence )
Interpersonal conflict is the generally occurring thing of life . Anyone could encounter in the daily life . I and my friends, for example sometimes during an outing to celebrate some occasion disagree about what to eat and the particular place to go like either we should go to the mall or some restaurants or to the Haveli in jalandhar , and, most important of all when I have a serious discussion related to some topic with my friends i enter into conflict with my friends over the feedback I give them when they were wrong. And, even at the university i study I have conflicts all the time with the group member over what major or minor projects we should take on so as to work on it and also how to work with the people involved and then whom to ask for help .Conflict even occurs with the hostel roommates on the topic of cleaning the room . Interpersonal conflict exists almost everywhere. We act violently when tolaly not agreed with one’s opinion . Disputes between neighbour over playing of song in loud volume , arguments between girls and boys.
( Importance of interpersonal conflict in my life)
The importance of interpersonal conflict mainly depends on how we are handling it. Their are three terms either flight, fight or unite which may be used to describe different choises whenever we encounter any type of conflict . Flight is the exit option as called by the scholars which means that sometimes we can walk just away from ithe conflict. If someone ais showing an unfriendly behaviour toward myself instead of giving him the answer I can just drive away. If my hostel neighbours or some hostile personalities becomes an impossible harassing individual then instead of getting into the conversation I can move away . I certainly have the option of fighting but it is not the road rage either the violent anger deaths that are most to be worried at this point. To some extent it reflects our very human nature of tendency toward violence , selfishness and greediness. I and my friends have found ways to become better friends and try to create a win win situation by talking through differences in our opinion. I can settle almost every complaint in a way that not only satisfies the opposition party involved but also makes to establish a good friendly relationship with them. We get united to solve our differences in a very cooperative way. If the interpersonal conflict however becomes very violent then uniting require intermediation from a third party who may be an individual or group who helps in finding those common interests which could serve as the basis for any type of agreement between the conflicting parties.
(Possible outcomes and Role played by individual involved in the conflict)
The three terms flight, fight and unite which suggest that an individual facing an interpersonal conflict has basically has three options. The first two of the terms are almost always opposite to the desired outcomes . Interpersonal violence is almost having the opposite of the desired effect . let take an example to view this . let consider the story from the bible of David and Goliath. In the story written in bible the normal sized David kills the very big size Goliath by using a stone and a strap used to fire the stone. As far as the Bible is the story in the bible is concerned it ends there .If david had done such an act in todays world he would be most probably either got himself arrested and had spent his rest of life in the jail and if somehow if the Goliath might have got saved or he might have not been killed then he will definitely have got himself back again and would have tried to take revenge from David and even if he got killed his friends who are also of the same giant size individuals would have tried try to get back at David house by throwing boulders of more size than davids stone at David. In the real world in the 21st century in which we are living generally I have encountered such events when you say something to anyone then either he or a group of supporters will give you their answer in their way which may have some agreesiveness or violence which means that if we use interpersonal violence in response to interpersonal violence then the result may be even more interpersonal violence in return . So it can be concluded that flight does not provide better optional term . However flight at this point of discussion does not mean necessarily that we physically run away from the conflict. Instead what we can do is simply putting it on the back burner and delaying in dealing with it making a hope that somehow the conflict just gets end which implies that individuals have the primary responsibility in choosing the option of unite and then cooperatively solve their problem whic they are having with the other concerned party.
Role of the third party in solving the conflict
The term third party intervention here refers to an individuals or group of individuals who get themselves involved in a conflict so as to help the disputing parties in managing or resolving it. They may be acting as a consultants by helping one side or both the sides in analyzing the conflict and planning an effective alternatives or suggestions or response to it. They basically act as facilitators for arranging meetings so as to guide the disputing parties involved so as to achieve productive discussions. Most mediators have the involved disputing parties to sit down together and explain to each other their views about what the problem generally is and their opinions in order to solve their problem by geting the views from both the parties mediators usually get the parties so as to develop a common understanding to the both parties about the situation which in return produces a solution which helps in satisfying interests of all parties involved in conflict. They can only suggest a solution which the conflicting parties may or may not accept. An arbitrator who plays a very powerful role takes into consideration the presentations made from both the sides and then deeply examine it whether the presentation is verbally or written . He also examines the other evidence related to the conflict so as to determine who is right and who is wrong in the conflict so as to solve and settle the conflict in a peaceful manner.
3.Conflict in the Academic Seminar
(Analysing the Factors generating conflict in the academic seminar)
The seminar itself
The first area is the seminar itself with a particular topic, purpose and procedure. Generally
all three should be agreed on by the participants. it turns out that participants in fact do not agree on the assumptions and start to discuss the purpose of the seminar, what topic should be discussed, what procedure to follow and what methodological principles are relevant. The conflict generating differences are, in all cases, differences of opinion. These differences may, just as in the general case, be experienced as grounds for conflictual action or not. If they do and are followed by some form of counter argument concerning one of the presuppositions of the seminar, for example, what the topic should be. An example
of this would be simulated conflict, which, for example, could occur in a seminar with an
officially appointed opponent whose job it is to test a candidate´s strength by presenting
(potential) counter arguments and difficult questions.
Intra- and interpersonal conflict
The conflicts in an academic seminar can be both intrapersonal and interpersonal. Intrapersonal conflicts occur when a person both wants and does not want to present a counter argument against another person. If this inner conflict is left unresolved, it might in some cases be overtly expressed in formulations such as “you are totally right but ……” or “this is not meant as a criticism but …… “. Intrapersonal conflicts are, thus, often related to interpersonal conflicts and can tend to promote ways of handling conflict such as compromise and avoidance.
(Analysing the relation between the environment and the seminar)
The relation between the environment and the seminar provides another source of
conflict influencing factors. Academic seminars are usually promoted and attended by people from a university setting. This means that over and above the roles given by the seminar – participant and participant/chairperson – most of the persons will have social identities given by the surrounding social institution. They will be, for example, professors, lecturers, graduate students or undergraduate students. It is quite likely that these extra-activity relationships will influence the relations in the seminar. A graduate student might, for example, abstain from a counter argument against a professor because of the difference in social position and power between them. We, thus, here see a conflict between the ideal goals of an academic seminar and individual goals given by restrictions of the surrounding social environment. In some cultures respect for the elderly might prevent students from questioning and arguing with teachers. On the same grounds gender roles might prevent women from presenting counter arguments. Common human ethics may also come into conflict with the goal of a seminar, since participants may abstain from giving counter arguments on the grounds that they do not want to hurt each other´s feelings. Some individuals are very ambitious, extrovert and wish to be dominant. Such emotions and needs may lead them to present more counter arguments than is called for. Sometimes, this tendency is strengthened by the tradition in academia to use behavior of this type as a basis for career promotion. Likewise feelings of like and dislike, love and hatred between participants which may be based on phenomena which are completely extraneous to the particular seminar, at hand, may lead participants to agree or disagree with each other, independently of what would best serve the interests of truth seeking.
(Different Alternatives used for conflict handling in seminar)
Conflict may be handled in many ways. It may, for instance, be prevented,
pursued, restricted, avoided, managed or resolved.
1. Prevention of conflict – Conflict can be prevented by taking action, before an
actual conflict has developed, to prevent conflict generating features from
occurring. Some of the methods for doing this consist in encouraging mutual
consideration and building mutual obligations, i.e. “If I help you/are nice to you,
you will help me/be nice to me” and vice versa. In general, creating similarities
between people tends to remove the risk for conflict.
2. Avoidance of conflict – Avoidance of conflict, in the specific sense intended
Here , refers to a case in which conflictual action is expected (because of actual
conflict generating features or experienced grounds for conflict), but does not, in
fact, occur. It also refers to the case where the paries “agree to disagree”, where
avoidance is used to prevent the continuation of a conflict.
3. Compromise – Compromise is a symmetrically regulated type of conflict Handling, where all parties inhibit their claims and demands to some degree, so that mutual compatibility between the claims can be reached and conflictual action can cease.
4. Dominance and submission – Dominance and submission occur when conflict is terminated by one party winning and another party losing. If the conflict and what is to be gained or lost is kept fairly restricted and regulated, we have a case of competition. Competition is, thus, a way of regulating conflict with the goal of restricted dominance and submission. If the conflict is unrestricted (as in war) victory, defeat and extermination appear as other ways in
which conflict can be terminated.
(Choosing the appropriate alternative)
A more appealing way to use conflict-preventing measures within the setting
of the academic seminar is to try to prevent emotional and personal conflict while
maintaining and encouraging cognitive conflict.when an argument against another participant in the seminar is presented, it is often easier and safer to keep quiet or talk of something else
in order to avoid a cognitive conflict, which could run the risk of triggering a personal
or social conflict. Another possible outcome is compromise. This form of conflict handling is really better suited for conflict concerning interests and decision making than for conflicts
occurring in truth seeking, yet it occurs fairly commonly in academic seminars, which
perhaps shows us that also cognitive disagreement, in reality, often involves conflict of
interests and decision making.. Other names which perhaps are more appropriate would be win-lose, correct-incorrect or pro et contra argumentation. In this method, the truth of a particular claim (proposition) is to be determined through the outcome of an argument between one (or more) person who proposes (defends) the claim and another (one or more) person who opposes the claim. Ideally, in this way of handling cognitive disagreement (conflict) the correct argument wins and the incorrect argument loses and the person who was putting forth the incorrect argument admits defeat and revises his beliefs accordingly. In reality, unfortunately, arguments are often only partly right or wrong or it is difficult to determine by objective methods which argument is right, so settling the argument becomes a matter of decision, which is why compromise often becomes a reasonable way of handling an argument.
(Types of Mediation so as to control the conflict resolution process)
In studying how conflicts are handled and settled, it can have some interest to determine
who controls this process. In principle, at least three cases can be distinguished.
The parties themselves (one or both): This is probably the most frequent case. If the settlement is symmetrical, both parties participate in the control. If it is asymmetrical, one of the parties dominates and dictates conditions.
Third party: Third party control occurs when a conflict is handled and settled by bringing in a third party, for example, a negotiator, a therapist or a judge. Disputes in court are typically settled by a judge. In the case we are studying – the academic seminar – the chairman can, to some extent, have this third party role.
Impersonal standard: Both when the conflicting parties themselves or a third party is controlling a conflict settlement, they can make use of impersonal standards such as the law, scientific method or a lottery. They, in a sense, abdicate some of their power to these standards. In the case of the academic seminar, reference to an assumed impersonal standard of scientific method is very important and in all types of conflict handling in the seminar, considerations of method will be brought in to justify the outcome that is being proposed. When participants disagree about method, they still frequently attempt to justify their positions by reference to more abstract principles of method.
The effect of the conflict on various psychological aspects like:
a) Personality :
Generally the conflict which i faced with other individual was due to personality clash that caused to some extent internal stress . The conflict is due to difference in like and dislikes of both the parties which is experienced by both individuals or groups involved .Getting to the depth of the issue become very much important otherwise it can result in emotional agitation for everyone who are involved in the conflict.In all personality refers to growth and development of the psychological system of an individual as a whole .It is the measure of how an individual interact and react with others.
With the help of personality measurement unfamiliar behavioral patterns in others can be measured alongwith the strange feelings within self .The classic personality types are the introvert and extrovert type of personalities.The introvert type of personality gets irritated from extrovert type when the personality clash of both occurs.
It the process by which by which any individual interprets or organises his sensory impressions so as to give meaning to the surrounding environment .People behaviour is generally based on perception of what the reality is and not the reality itself. When we observe any people we attempt to develop explanations about their behaviour in different ways . our perception of the individual action is significantly influenced by assumptions we make about the individuals internal state. Whenever we observe the individual behaviour we make an attempt to determine that whether it was internally or externally caused
Thinking/ Reasoning :
The individuals involved in the conflict uses the referenced criteria with some matter in hand to select the most appropriate option of the desired alternatives in order to solve the conflict by creating a win-win situation. By thinking and reasoning process it can be evaluated that why and whether the option selected for resolution is the most appropriate one or not .The thinking and reasoning skills helps to compare and contrast all the important activity which occurred in the conflict it helps in analysing the relationship with the conflicting parties .It organizes the alternatives so as to categorise it to give it a meaning and also provides a well clear and detailed argument which contains no errors in the logic involved in solving the conflict.
Problem solving occurs when an the individuals involved in the conflict needs to move from a given state of solution to a desired goal state so as to resolve it .Understanding the problem is the most important thing which has to be done while solving any type of problem. Most people do this mistake of not understanding the problem and face difficulty in solving it . Not understanding the problem means that we are solving the problem from a wrong angle .Which may result in the disagreement from both the parties . The way in which we handle the mistakes must be considered. Whenever an individual get himself indulged into a problem which he finds difficult to solve then he become frustrated. Frustration delays from solving problems . An individual should be as calm as possible while attempting to overcome a problem which is the most challenging part in solving the problem.
Conflict resolution skills attained that could be applied in organizational context
In any organization the ability to solve problems by the employee means the difference between success or failure . Being calm and open-mindedness is an essential part or skill in solving the problem in the organization . After all the conflict i encountered i attained the skill of innovation, critical thinking, making different strategies and implementation of my creativity in the organization to solve the problem if it arises. The skills include the systematic study of the actors, profile and causes and also dynamics of conflict .These skills attained helps to gain a better understanding of the context in which the employees work while solving the conflict and their role in that context.
In an organization we generally work as a team and conflict is plays a major role in improving the performance of the team and leads to a better decisions and also produces more creative ideas and a most preferable output from the team and if it is not properly managed it hinders the team from achieving their personal goals . So a proper management techniques attained from the past conflict I can apply the same to solve the problem in an organization. The most favourable and difficult condition is to create a win-win situation between the conflicting parties in an organization .failing in creating a win – win situation is mainly because each parties might fail to understand the other party win position and even if understood criticising of win positions of other party may take place and where the win positions are being accepted then each party focuses on the difficulties of apparent differences rather than bringing out new ideas and trying to come up with new methods for the solution.The following skills attained helps in solving the conflict between two parties in organisation by creating a win-win situation:
Clarifying about what the conflict actually is and the decision that is to be made jointly. Clarification helps to prevent the steady outlook in the discussion which make the conflict endless or the argument which is going round in circles as different problems are solved by different people in the organization.
By finding out the winning position of the other party whic includes listening to the other party views without any argument and then declaring yours need so as to let the party know about your win position the at last accept others win position without arguing at their win positions.
Brainstorm ideas: Both the parties have different desires so to meet their desires creative ideas is to be generated without expressing any disagreement with ideas .As different ideas leads to different alternatives.
Evaluate those ideas to see if any meet the win criteria of both parties.
Positive approach for handling conflict always leads in the effective solution of the problem.
The most important thing is that more and more ideas should be suggested instead of criticising one another ..
If the ideas were evaluated and none of the ideas satisfies the conflicting parties involved then to end the conflict we must get prepared so as to compromise our win position.
And even if none of the ideas meet hte requirement of solving the problem then the third party mediator must be reffered so as to solve the problem which may involve referenced mediation by a senior manager to make the executive decision.
At last once agreement is reached then the final step which is to be followed is to articulate and conclude .Make everyone ensured about the final desision and why it has been made so as to avoid the future conflicts.
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