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Stakeholders Project Organizations

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To address the theme of project requirements, carry out research and, from your findings, draft

Clearly structured notes that explain what is:

• Meant by the terms primary, secondary and tertiary stakeholders.

• The purpose of a scope document and what sections it should contain.

Stakeholders

Introduction:Stakeholders are anyone who has an interest in the project. Project stakeholders are individuals and organizations that are actively involved in the project, or whose interests may be affected as a result of project execution or project completion. They may also exert influence over the project's objectives and outcomes.

The project management team must identify the stakeholders, determine their requirements and expectations and to the extent possible, manage their influence in relation to the requirements to ensure a successful project.

Project

Project Stake holder

Project management

Project

Support

Project

Manager

How a Stakeholders directly involved in a project Figure : The Relationship Between Stakeholders and the Project

There are three kinds of stakeholders are involved in a project they are ivolved in a project internally or externally like that .

  • Primary stakeholders
  • Secondary stakeholders
  • Tertiary stakeholders

Primary stakeholders Primary stakeholders are those people and groups eventually affected by the project. Who expect to benefit from or be negatively affected by the change of project. In most projects primary stakeholders will be categorized according to socio-economic assessment. Thus, primary stakeholders should often be divided by gender, social or income classes, occupational or service user groups Primary stakeholders a direct link with the business-

--Customers.

-- Suppliers.

Secondary stakeholders: Secondary stakeholders are those with an intermediary role. They can be divided into funding, implementing, monitoring and advocacy organizations, or simply governmental, NGO and private sector organizations. Secondary stakeholders aren't exactly participating customer and suppliers.

Who is indirectly affected by the project plan.

Forestry companies

Landowners and or residents not inside the protected area but near

Tertiary Stakeholders: Tertiary Stakeholders are those who are not involved or affected, but can influence opinions either for or against. Tertiary- can still have an influence, but are not involved or affected, but can influence opinions either for or against Those indirectly affected by the program neighborhood organizations, academic institutions, elected officials, advocacy groups, professional associations, skeptics, opponents, and staff of related or competing organizations.

  • Local opinion leaders
  • Local media
  • Ecology departments of universities, research institutes etc.

Scope Document

Introduction: The scope document is a common term for at all document that refines and defines the requirements aspect of the triple constraint of time, cost, and requirements. In this general sense, it provides an overview of what the project is supposed to accomplish and clarifies how those accomplishments will be achieved. It may also provide the team members, customer, and project manager with insight on what is specifically not in the scope.

Section contain

This section summarizes some of the business issues around the project, including profiles of major customer categories, assumptions that went into the project concept, and the management priorities for the project. Vision Statement.

  • History of project (Before)
  • Assumption
  • Risk
  • Stakeholder
  • User

Vision statement:

It is important to a project manager vision and scope document. It is also one of the easiest to execute. A project faces some problem when a project run a good vision and scope document will help in this time

History of project (Before)

History of project section contains a summary of the problem that the project will solve. It should provide a brief history of the problem and an explanation of how the organization justified the decision to build software to address it.

Assumption

This is the list of assumptions that the stakeholders, users or project team have made. the rest of the vision and scope document should be ready before the Delphi meeting and used as the basis for estimation.

Risk

It should be generated by a project team's brainstorming session. It could include external factors that could impact the project, issues or problems that could potentially cause project delays or raise issues.

User

This is a bulleted list of the users. As with the stakeholders, each user can either be referred to by name or role however, if there are many users, it is usually inefficient to try to name each one. The needs of each user are described.

Task -2

To address the theme of how to grasp and communicate the “big picture” (a higher level view of the project overall, rather than a lower level view of, say, tasks for team members) carry out research and, from your findings, draft clearly structured notes that explain the benefits of visual forms of communication compared to, say, text or speech.

Provide examples of the following visual forms of communication to show that you understand how they work and what information they contain:

• Lifecycle models

• Activity networks

• Mind maps

Give a written explanation of how each of these methods may be used to communicate key ideas in a project.

Introduction: Planning and estimating a project has never been easy. All projects have certain characteristics in common. They all have a beginning and an end. In other words, they do not continue on forever. Projects result in the creation of one or more deliverables. Projects also have assigned resources - either full time, part time or both. There are other characteristics as well. All organizations can have projects. Projects can include building a house or office building, planning and executing a marketing campaign, upgrading desktop operating systems, installing a new phone system, developing an IT business application, etc.

Throughout the course of a project the plan always changes due to certain events,

Such as a change in the requirements. In order to support these frequent changes, a

Good planning process is essential.

It should involve

  • Reducing Risk
  • Reducing uncertainty.
  • Conveying Information to the customer helps
  • support better decision

Life cycle models are:

There are three kinds of life cycle model

--Waterfall model

--V Model

--Spiral model

Waterfall model

But I like waterfall model instance of V model and spiral model. It easy to dived into isolated stage. Which is perfect for project because one stage complete another stage started .so it is sure that the stage is complete. Each stage realize on when previous stage complete. Every stage has a miles stone. It is easy to know about a project to se Waterfall model because it has various stages

V model: I cont like v-model because of:

-emphasize on testing.

-- Time consuming

-- Waste money because of taste in all phases.

Spiral model: it's difficult to represent its not understandable to project team.

Visual forms of communication

System acceptance test

Business Requirement

Analysis

Design

Code & test

Integration Test

Fig: Water fall Model

0

6

6

Task 1

0

0

6

6

14

20

Task 2

6

0

20

20

7

27

Task 3

20

0

27

27

7

34

Task 4

27

0

34

34

4

38

Task 5

34

0

38

38

2

40

Task 6

38

0

40

40

40

0

0

40

40

Fig: Activity Network Diagram

Fig: Mind Map

Life cycle model

Written explanation

Waterfall Model:

Waterfall model is a popular life cycle of the project life cycle model . Often considered the classic approach to the project development life cycle, the waterfall model describes a development method that is linear and sequential. Waterfall development has distinct goals for each phase of development.. Once a phase of development is completed, the development proceeds to the next phase and there is no turning back.

Advantages / Disadvantages

- Most-widely used process model

- Controls schedules, budgets & documentation

- Tends to favor well-understood system aspects over poorly understood system components

- Does not detect development areas behind schedule early in the lifecycle stages.

Business Requirement: what is requiring in a business to do met in order to successes of a project.Establishes the components for building the system, including the row matatiels of a project and other necessary components

Analysis: in analysis stage of a project a project manager is accept the all knowledge of a project how to solve it when it's solved (project).

Design: The design defines the major components and the interaction of those components, but the design does not define the structure of each component. It is determine the external interfaces and tools to use in the project.

Code & test: Implements the detailed design specification this only for code and Determines whether the project meets the specified requirements and finds any errors present in the code.

System acceptance test: Acceptance testing is conducted within the testing area .its purpose is to allow the customer to confirm that the complete system. A detailed acceptance test plan is produced prior to testing which identifies the test to be conduct.

Mind map

A Mind map which represent a project with a graphics. Mind map is a diagram used to represent words, ideas, tasks or other items linked to and arranged radically around a central key word or idea. It is used to generate, visualize, structure and classify ideas, and as an aid in study, organization, problem solving, decision making, and writing.

Mind mapping, on the other hand, is a more intuitive way to manage projects, particularly if you have a lot of responsibilities and it's easy to let something slip if it's not right in front of you

Mind map show the level Strategic, Tactical, Operational And who is responsible for a particular work of a project.

Activity network

Activity Networks is one of the most popular planning techniques. However, the activity networks diagrams have since been applied to activity planning for a wide range of projects. The approach is very scalable, enabling it to be applied effectively to the planning of activities spanning even a very short time frame. The activity network is a diagram that represents the activities required and their inter-dependencies, their start and finish dates and the time necessary for their completion. The resources required for each activity are also included on the diagram. Activity Networks are made up of a series of activity boxes, each of which depicts a discrete activity or task.

It is easy to know of a project details by using activity network such as

Early Start Time: Est. represent of the start time of a project

Duration: How long time the project continues.

Early finished time: when the project complete

Activity description: this is which task is depends other task.

Last Start Time: Last finished time minus Duration

Last finished time: Last Start Time of succeeding activity

Float & Critical Path: once the resources required to complete each activity have been identified and the activity network updated to reflect these, then the start and finish dates can be added. With the shape and size of the planned area of work now visible, the total cost of the resources can be calculated. There will always be a critical path running through any project, from the first activity to the last. The critical path is defined as that series of activities that have zero float. The concept of float is central to critical path analysis, as it represents the ability to schedule an activity, or sequence of activities, within a flexible time slot rather than having to perform it immediately. This enables the more efficient management of resources across all of the activities in the network.

How to calculate Float of a project Reading through activity networks from left to right gives the total duration of the planned work. Reading back through the network, subtracting each duration shows those activities that have any spare time. This spare time, known as float, is a very useful concept in relation to resource scheduling and smoothing. Float identifies parcels of time that can be used to introduce flexibility into the planned work, enabling the more efficient use of the available resources.

Summary: project Lifecycles model which represent the Controls schedules, budgets & documentation with graphics about a project .Activity Network which is needs for time management of a project such as est,eft lst,lft float,critical path etc, Mind Map It is used to generate, visualize, structure and classify ideas, and as an aid in study, organization, problem solving, decision making, and writing.

Task-3

On the theme of team selection and management, carry out research and, from your findings, draft

Clearly structured notes on the team working theories devised by:

• Tuck man

• Belbin

• Myers-Briggs

Write a summary of how knowledge of each theory might assist a project manager in the selection and development of an effective project team.

Write notes that show how to assess the risk of team failure, using a risk matrix to document at least TWO possible risk scenarios, such as loss of key personnel or infighting between team-mates.

Summaries the contingency plans you would call into effect, if the risks were realized.

1700

SUMMARY of Tuck man theory:

Tuck man model explains that as the team develops maturity and ability, relationships establish, and the leader changes leadership style. Beginning with a directing style, moving through coaching, then participating, finishing delegating and almost detached. At this point the team may produce a successor leader and the previous leader can move on to develop a new team.

Tuck man theory basically consists of four thing

  • Forming
  • Storming
  • Norming
  • Performing

How to create a project group

Storming 2

Forming 1

Performing 4

3

Norming

Forming

In the beginning step of a project which is forming the team is assembled and the task is allocated Firstly. Team members tend to behave independently and although goodwill may exist they do not know each other well enough to unconditionally trust one another. Time is spent planning, collecting information and bonding.

Storming

The second step of a project which is Storming The team starts to address the task suggesting ideas from a project. Different ideas may compete for ascendancy and if badly managed this phase can be very destructive for the team. Relationships between team members will be made or broken in this phase and some may never recover.

In extreme cases the team can become stuck in the Storming phase. If a team is too focused on consensus they may decide on a plan which is less effective in completing the task for the sake of the team. This carries its own set of problems. It is essential that a team has strong facilitative leadership in this phase.

Norming

The thread step of a project which is Storming in Tuck man model As the team moves out of the Storming phase they will enter the Norming phase.

This tends to be a move towards harmonious working practices with teams agreeing on the rules and values by which they operate.

Team leaders can take a step back from the team at this stage as individual members take greater responsibility.

The risk during the Norming stage is that the team becomes complacent and loses either their creative edge or the drive that brought them to this phase.

Performing

The four step of a project which is performing in Tuck man model Not all teams make it to the Performing phase, which is essentially an era of high performance.

Performing teams are identified by high levels if independence, motivation, knowledge and competence.

Decision making is collaborative and dissent is expected and encouraged as there will be a high level of respect in the communication between team members.

Summary of Myers-Briggs theory:

The Myers-Briggs personality typology, unlike some other typing theories such as the Enneagram or Four Temperaments, uses a combination of several aspects to arrive at a "composite" type, based on the interaction and relative weight of different behavioral and attitudinal factors. The types are expressed as combinations of four letters, as follows:

E or I (Extravert or Introvert)

S or N (Sensing or intuitive)

T or F (Thinking or Feeling)

J or P (Judging or Perceiving)

Summary of Belbin theory:

The term Team Roles was first coined by Dr Meredith Belbin, but is now used more generically to describe team types. A Team Role is defined by Meredith Belbin as: "A tendency to behave, contribute and interrelate with others in a particular way." It is usually written Team Roles, but can also be found as teamroles or team-roles.

Belbin Team Roles improve self-knowledge and understanding among individuals and teams. Team Roles depict a current behavioural pattern ,Preferences aren't fixed, since many factors can influence behaviour, whether a new job, promotion or circumstances outside work.

  • Co-ordinator

  • Shaper
  • Resource Investigator

  • Company worker

  • Monitor evaluator
  • Team worker
  • Completer finishers

  • Specialist

Co-ordinator: The co-ordinator is a person-oriented leader. This person is trusting, accepting, dominant and is committed to team goals and objectives. The co-ordinator is a positive thinker who approves of goal attainment, struggle and effort in others.

Shaper: The shaper is a task-focused leader who abounds in nervous energy, who has a high motivation to achieve and for whom winning is the name of the game.

Resource Investigator: The resource investigator is someone who explores opportunities and develops contacts. Resource investigators are good negotiators who probe others for information and support and pick up other's ideas and develop them.

Company Worker: Implementers are aware of external obligations and are disciplined, conscientious and have a good self-image. They tend to be tough-minded and practical, trusting and tolerant, respecting established traditions.

Team worker: Team workers make helpful interventions to avert potential friction and enable difficult characters within the team to use their skills to positive ends. They tend to keep team spirit up and allow other members to contribute effectively.

Specialist The specialist provides knowledge and technical skills which are in rare supply within the team. They are often highly introverted and anxious and tend to be self-starting, dedicated and committed

Risk of Team failure

Diagnosing Team Failure

Teams are put together to combine the knowledge and expertise of team members, this helps to gain greater strategic thinking and enhanced creativity in business solutions. When teams fail to perform as expected, an attempt is usually made to pinpoint and blame the people responsible. However, the answer doesn't always lie in replacing the team or firing the ‘scapegoat' but in answering the question, ‘what went wrong with the group as a whole and why?' Unless we make an attempt to identify the underlying causes, it's unlikely the solution will be found.

Factors Identifying Six Common Problem Areas

  • No Trust Between Team Members When team members don't trust each other or are suspicious of each others motives, the end result is a team that is not cohesive in its approach.
  • Ineffective Interaction and Unproductive Team Meetings All the complexities of team dynamics come to the fore at the meeting. The meeting is one of the most critical aspects of the team process with strategies and innovative solutions to problems emerging during this time.
  • Poor Role Clarity Role clarity is a must in a team situation. When roles are not clearly defined, this can lead to conflict and confusion on tasks.
  • Losing Focus of Business Objectives If you don't know where you are heading, how can you get there!? At times a team fails because the goals are unclear to the team members.
  • Faulty Analysis of Market Conditions and Flawed Company Policies At times a team can fail due to uncertainties in market conditions and an inability to read the signs of change.
  • Poor Time Management A team should plan its goals and activities whilst keeping time constraints and deadlines in mind, otherwise their efficiency level in managing and implementing a task can

Risk Matrix

A Risk Matrix is a tool used in the Risk Assessment process, it allows the severity of the risk of an event occurring to be determined.

http://www.databasepublish.com/solutions/project-services/risk-management

The identified risks are collected into a Risk Matrix. The Risk Matrix includes the rating of severity, mitigation strategy, owner and contingency plan for each risk. These proposed actions are formulated to address the risks that can be avoided upon implementation of a mitigation strategy. For example

Impact

Probability

High

No Trust between team member

High

Poor Role Clarity

High

Poor Time Management

Medium

Faulty Analysis of Market Conditions and Flawed Company Policies

Law

Ineffective Interaction and Unproductive Team Meetings

High

H/H

Mitigation/Contingency Required

H/H

Mitigation/Contingency Required

H/H

Mitigation/Contingency Required

H/M

Mitigation/Contingency Required

H/L

Mitigation/Contingency

Recommended

Midium

M/H

Mitigation/Contingency Required

M/H

Mitigation/Contingency Required

H/H

Mitigation/Contingency Required

M/M

Mitigation/Contingency Recommended

M/L

Mitigation/Contingency Optional

Low

H/H

Mitigation/Contingency

Required

H/H

Mitigation/Contingency

Required

L/H

Mitigation/Contingency Recommended

L/M

Mitigation/Contingency Optional

L/L

Mitigation/Contingency Optional

Probability / Impact Ranking Chart for Risk Matrix of a project

The company or organisation then would calculate what levels of Risk they can take with different events. This would be done by weighing up the risk of an event occurring against the cost to implement safety and the benefit gained from it.

Contingency

Introduction:A project contingency or management reserve is an amount the consultant or the contractor may want to include the unexpected resources that may be overlooked or tasks that may have to be redone because they might not work for the first time. Contingency provision is to cover the elements of unforeseen minor changes in the technical and design specification.

Contingency Plan: A defined set of tasks agreed upon by appropriate members of the Project Team that will be undertaken to manage the Project Team in the event the Risk occurs, roughly equivalent to an organization's various Disaster Plans. Tasks should be assignable to a single accountable resource.

Given the substantive effect that the Risk is judged to have on the Project, the Contingency Plan may be relatively short with the realization that if it is invoked, it will ultimately give rise to a larger Project Plan detailed elsewhere. Otherwise, the guidelines for granularity etc. of individual tasks are identical to those described for the Mitigation Strategy.

All risks with a must have an associated Contingency Plan

If the decision has already been made to cancel the project if the Risk occurs, the Contingency Plan should state this fact

Comments - Any additional comments that the Project Team would like to add to the documentation of the Risk that will help non-team project stakeholders better understand the Risk and its management.

Consequence - when applicable consequence can be documented in the comment section

Task- 4

On the theme of building the right product, and building it right, carry out research and, from your findings, draft clearly structured notes that define and make clear the difference between:

• Validation and

• Verification

Of what is to be constructed.

Write a description of the checking and testing process that is covered by the term “validation and verification”, and which takes place throughout a project lifecycle. The description should state

What is checked, how, when and why it is checked?

Intoduction: validation and varification both are testing. Every project life cycle need to validation and verification test because validation test checked the Are we building the product RIGHT ?and verification test checked are we building the right product? . validation and varification checked in teasting phase in project lilfecycle model.

Varification: The standard definition of Verification goes like this: "Are we building the product right?" Verification is a process that makes it sure that the project is developed the right way. The project should confirm to its predefined specifications, as the project development goes through different stages, an analysis is done to ensure that all required specifications are met.

Validation: Validation is a process of finding out ”Are the building right product?” Whatever the project product is being developed, it should do what the user expects it to do. The project product should functionally do what it is supposed to, it should satisfy all the functional requirements set by the user. Validation is done during or at the end of the development process in order to determine whether the product satisfies specified requirements.

Basic diference between Varification and validation

Varification:

  • Are we building the product right.?
  • Verification is project quality assurance.
  • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents, plans, code, requirements, and specifications. This can be done with checklists, issues lists, walkthroughs, and inspection meetings
  • Verification evaluates documents, plans, code, requirements, and specifications. Validation, on the other hand, evaluates the product itself. The inputs of verification are checklists, issues lists, walkthroughs and inspection meetings, reviews and meetings.

Validaton:

  • Are we building the right product?
  • Validation is project quality control
  • Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed
  • The input of validation, on the other hand, is the actual testing of an actual product. The output of verification is a nearly perfect set of documents, plans, specifications, and requirements document.
  • In common usage, validation is the process of checking if something satisfies a certain criterion. Examples would include checking if a statement is true (validity), if an appliance works as intended, if a computer system is secure, or if computer data are compliant with an open standard. Validation implies one is able to document that a solution or process is correct or is suited for its intended use.

Validation, verification, and testing techniques throughout the life cycle

Life cycle validation, verification, and testing are extremely important for the success of a simulation study. This paper surveys current project VV&T techniques and current simulation model VV&T techniques and describes how they can all be applied throughout the life cycle of a simulation study.

The processes and credibility assessment stages of the life cycle are described and the applicability of the VV&T techniques for each stage is stated. Verification, validation and accreditation (VV&A) activities should be an on-going process throughout the life cycle of models and simulations (M&S). It is important to note that there is no single set of VV&A tasks, events, or methods that would apply every time to every situation.

The VV&A emphasis and methods used vary depending on the particular life cycle phase it is in, previous VV&A and use, the risks and uncertainty, its size and complexity, and of course, the resources available. For simplification, this paper discusses the activities and tasks during the early stages of model development and addresses each of the VV&A efforts separately, along with its associated activities. It outlines the specific VV&A activities and products that are appropriate to each phase of model development

What is checked?

  • Code Validation/Testing:
  • Integration Validation/Testing:
  • Functional Validation/Testing:
  • User Acceptance Testing or System Validation

How and when it's checked:

Code Validation/Testing: Developers as well as testers do the code validation. Unit Code Validation or Unit Testing is a type of testing, which the developers conduct in order to find out any bug in the code unit/module developed by them. Code testing other than Unit Testing can be done by testers or developers.

Integration Validation/Testing: Integration testing is carried out in order to find out if different (two or more) units/modules co-ordinate properly. This test helps in finding out if there is any defect in the interface between different modules. Functional Validation/Testing: This type of testing is carried out in order to find if the system meets the functional requirements. In this type of testing, the system is validated for its functional behavior. Functional testing does not deal with internal coding of the project, in stead, it checks if the system behaves as per the expectations. User Acceptance Testing or System Validation: In this type of testing, the developed product is handed over to the user/paid testers in order to test it in real time scenario. The product is validated to find out if it works according to the system specifications and satisfies all the user requirements. As the user/paid testers use the software, it may happen that bugs that are yet undiscovered, come up, which are communicated to the developers to be fixed. This helps in improvement of the final product.

Why checked

  • Code validation: for in order to find out any bug in the code unit/module developed.
  • Integration test: This test helps in finding out if there is any defect in the interface between different modules.
  • Functional validation: This type of testing is carried out in order to find if the system meets the functional requirements.
  • System Validation: The product is validated to find out if it works according to the system specifications and satisfies all the user requirements

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