Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com.
‘Personality determines behaviour – How this links / does not link to Project Management’
Personality determines behaviour – how this links /doesn’t link to the project management.
Psychologists have been contemplating identity for quite a while. Considering identity an accumulation of attributes goes right back to antiquated Greece and Rome, and quality scholars, for example, Gordon Allport, R. B. Cattell and Hans Eysenck molded the investigation of identity all through a great part of the twentieth century.
Nonetheless, the disappointment of identity qualities to reliably anticipate real human conduct in examinations all through many years of research was disheartening, and, during the 1970s, therapists, for example, Daryl Bem and the late Walter Mischel started to truly think about how conceivable it is that the consistency of identity attributes was only a fantasy, and that it was really the quality of circumstances, not identity, that controls how we carry on more often than not. Personality can be called as the outcome of various components of behaviour. As there are multiple behaviour which can be differentiated as one different than another. There are both segments which stands as connectivity between personality and also doesn’t shows any interconnection between them.
Personality according to John and Co. is an individual’s consistent pattern of feeling, thinking and behaving. (John, Reuben & Pervin 2008) Other researchers describe it as the characteristic of behavior, cognitions and emotional patterns that evolved from biological and environmental factors. (Corr, Phillip, Jay, Mathews, Gerrard, 2009).
Personality has been contemplated for many years and a few models are normally used to enable us ‘to foresee’ the probability of specific practices occurring. Research has demonstrated that investigation of an individual’s identity can’t foresee ‘one-off’ activities yet can give a sign with regards to the probability of practices we will appear after some time. Our identities interface with our condition so at any minute in time, we are a result of our identities and our recognitions. A generally utilized identity model that is helpful for fitness coaches is known as the ‘Plate’ identity model. Plate is an identity model dependent on crafted by analyst William Marston. Marston found that perceptible conduct qualities can be assembled into four noteworthy identity types. Each conduct type will in general show explicit qualities.
Individuals exhibit personality traits which create a special combination of patterns that influence behavior, emotion, motivation and thoughts in us. There are a whole range of personality tests available to us and in this essay I will explore two of those options to use. MBTI and 16PF
MBTI has its foundations from two different groups of researchers namely Mayer Briggs and Carl Jeung, Margerison and Mc Cann. It measures individual’s personality based on four different scales
- Scale A – How individuals relate to others (source of energy)
- Scale B – How they gather and use information
- Scale C – How they make decisions
- Scale D – How they organize themselves with others (relate to the external world)
So based one exhibited characters, an individual can categorizes his/her personality using this measure and on the other hand we can measure, determine and predict behaviors of other people.
Hunsley & Co do not see the MBTI measure as psychologically useful as it is not accurate and reliable. To them, individuals classifications change over time and again the MBTI scores do not relate to other measures of personality and behavior (Hunsley Lee & Wood, 2003)
Figure 1 MBTI Scale
Another way of measuring personality is using the 16PF questionnaire; Cartel identified primary and global factors. The global factors are five and often referred to as the second order, it gives and in-depth explanation of personality (Cartel R.B 1993). Other researchers like Costa, Mc Crae and Gobeck have come out with similar primary traits (Costa, McCrae 1992 and Gobeck 1990) called the five factor model or big factor five.
Figure 2 16PF Primary factors
Figure 3 16PF Global factors
Personality can be determined or influenced by many factors some of these are but not limited to; psychological (brain stimulation), physical (weight, height, skin tone, hair color) biological (DNA/genetics), hereditary (genes), social (family relationship, workplace relationship, community involvement) environmental (locations, weather, climate) cultural/religion (values, norms, rules, customs, traditional practices).
Raymond, Cartel identified trait- based personality theories and according to him those traits predict human behavior. Personality traits vary from one individual from another and could show different behavior or action from each individual or person.
As individuals we conduct or act in certain ways as especially towards other people. The way we act is termed as our behavior. Behavior therefor can be a series of actions or mannerisms portrayed by individuals, organisms and systems in conjunction with themselves or their environment (Wedgwood, Hensleigh, 1855) As individual goes through the journey of life his/her behaviors changes at different stages of life. For example childhood, adolescence, adulthood, parenthood and retirement.
Our behavior is most often impacted by the social norms, that is the rules and regulations in society exert pressure of human behavior. These rules then define acceptable and unacceptable behaviors for instance whilst comportment, punctuality, obedient and respectful are considered as acceptable; harassment, bullying, aggressive/abusive, discrimination and stalking are considered unacceptable in our society/cultures. Sometime some of the acceptable behaviors may even differ from one society from another.
There are a lot of factors that determine and influence behavior; some of these factors are creativity, attitude, weather and climate, genetics, social norms etc. An introverted person for example can show signs of an extroverted person based upon the environment he finds himself. During social activities like parties and watching sports and activities the introverted person is more likely to show extroverted behaviors.
In the case of Paula Bernstein and Elyse Schein, who were born twins but were separated at birth, genetics influenced their behaviors and personalities to the extent that they enjoyed the same kind of activities such as writing, similar taste in music etc. when they met for the first time at age 35 ( Spilius,2007, Kuntzman,2007).
Distinction between Personality and Deportment
There is a fundamental distinction is between personality and comportment. The word “personality” has many prevalent uses and many definitions. So, what does it mean? Essentially, personality is taken to mean a commix of values, world-views, set replications and characteristics which are relatively enduring aspects of the person.
What Is Personality?
What is Behavior?
Personality is taken to be what we are while comportment is what we do. We cannot transmute what we are but we can transmute what we do – for short periods of time at least. The competency to transmute comportment is at the root of the concept of management style.
Behavior or demeanor, on the other hand, is what we do. While much of our demeanor is of course the result of our values and notions, it is much more facile to deport differently than to transmute credence’s. Moreover, if we endeavor out different comportments – different ways of doing things – and find that they are a prosperity; this in itself may cause us to transmute even deeply held views and values.
Behaviour or demeanour, on the other hand, is what we do. While much of our demeanour is of course the result of our values and notions, it is much more facile to deport differently than to transmute credence. Moreover, if we endeavor out different comportments – different ways of doing things – and find that they are a prosperity; this in itself may cause us to transmute even deeply held views and values.
The word “personality” is utilized in everyday language quite differently from the way that the behavioural scientist utilizes it. People verbalize about other people as having a nice personality, a genial personality or even as having lots of personality. Sometimes people are verbally expressed to have no personality. The word, in everyday verbalization, inclines to have an evaluative meaning and refers to the degree to which we are magnetized, repelled or bored by another person. This is not the way that the efficacious manager or behavioural scientist utilizes the word.
Why is an Understanding of the Difference So Consequential?
Well self-vigilance in terms of preferred deportments is the fundamental facet of all exceptional bellwethers. If you ken what your preferred deportments are then you can acclimate and change these depending on the situation and the individuals you are dealing with. A good example of where this is of avail is in sales.
How personality affects behaviour?
Personality affects all aspects of a person’s performance, even how he reacts to situations on the job. Not every personality is suited for every job position, so it’s paramount to agonize personality traits and pair employees with the obligations that fit their personalities the best. This can lead to incremented productivity and job contentment, availing your business function more efficiently.
Links between personality and behavior
The links between personality and behavior will be discussed using the five-factor model and personality types and the likely behaviors associated with them.
Figure 4 personality types
Individual preparing dominance people who score high on the ‘D’ type factors appreciates managing issues and difficulties. These individuals will frequently be depicted as requesting, commanding, egocentric, solid willed, decided, forceful, yearning and spearheading. High ‘D’ individuals are frequently found in authority positions this doesn’t mean they are ‘great’ pioneers as their shortcomings regularly incorporate being poor audience members, and being eager and harsh toward others.
‘D’ type individuals are main concern individuals who hate to sit idle. They need straight talk and explicit replies answers to their “WHAT” questions
Individual preparing friends people who score high on the ‘I’ type factors impact others through talking and movement and will in general be passionate. They are regularly depicted as excited, attractive, enticing, warm, trusting, decisive and idealistic.
They like individuals and flourish in a social scene. It’s significant that others have an ideal impression of them. In reality high ‘I’ individuals are more intrigued by individuals than in achieving assignments. Time tends to make tracks in an opposite direction from them and everything takes a lower need when they’re talking about thoughts. They think everything will be okay and everybody is ‘such a pleasant individual’. They need opportunity of articulation; they can turn out to be effectively diverted as they experience difficulty remaining centred. They will in general think later on. They need answers to their “WHO” questions.
Individual getting ready consistent High ‘S’ people couldn’t care less for unexpected change, they like a suffering pace and security. These people are tranquil, free, understanding, obvious, deliberate, enduring, and dependable and can will when all is said in done be impartial and poker stood up to. Predictable people exist together well with others since they are versatile in their attitude. They may not articulate a word in case they contrast in light of the fact that they like to keep the amicability. They like to support other individuals and make incredible educators as they are remarkable gathering of people individuals.
Persevering people like to keep up common and obvious models. If they get thankfulness, they keep up a strange condition of execution. They like to feel incredible with anything new before truly starting it. Reliable people will require answers to their “HOW” and “WHEN” questions.
Individual planning consistence people who score high on the ‘C’ type stick to standards, rules and structure. They like to do things well and do them well first time. They are moderate paced and undertaking centred. High ‘C’ people are normally depicted as mindful, attentive, flawless, deliberate, exact, and key. Faultlessness is fundamental to ‘C’ people, and they will when all is said in done be skeptical of themselves. They will examine covertly to get some answers concerning a subject before discussing it out in the open. People can imagine that it’s difficult to scrutinize high ‘C’s as they don’t show their feelings. They will when all is said in done guarantee their security. They make day by day motivation. Pleasing people need answers to their “WHY” and “HOW” questions.
The Factor Model of Personality
Amid the most recent years similarity about the fundamental identity qualities has developed. It has been expressed that they are extraversion, neuroticism, appropriateness, honesty and receptiveness to encounter. These measurements are steady over the life expectancy and straightforwardly identified with conduct. They likewise appear to have a physiological base. (Revelle and Loftus, 1992)
The five variables are the accompanying;
The extraverts will in general be all the more physically and verbally dynamic though the self-observers are autonomous, held, consistent and like being distant from everyone else. The individual amidst the measurement loves a blend between social circumstances and isolation. (Howard and Howard, 1998). Extraverts are brave, decisive, straight to the point, amiable and loquacious. Self-observers are tranquil, held, modest and unsociable.
The suitability scale is connected to philanthropy, nurturance, mindful and passionate help versus antagonistic vibe, lack of interest, narcissism and desire. Pleasant individuals are benevolent, delicate, kind, thoughtful and warm.
The reliable, concentrated individual is focusing on just several objectives and endeavours hard to see them. He is vocation situated, while the adaptable individual is progressively hasty and simpler to induce starting with one errand then onto the next. Uprightness has been connected to instructive accomplishment and especially to the will to accomplish. The more faithful an individual is the more skilful, obedient, methodical, capable and careful he is.
The people with a propensity towards neuroticism is increasingly stressed, volatile and inclined to trouble. Passionate security is identified with quiet, steady and loosened up people, while neuroticism is connected to outrage, nervousness and discouragement. The name neuroticism doesn’t allude to any mental deformity. An increasingly legitimate term could be negative affectivity or anxiety.
Individuals with a high transparency have more extensive interests, are liberal and like curiosity. This factor identifies with brains, receptiveness to new thoughts, social interests, instructive bent and innovativeness (Howard and Howard, 1998). These people are refined, stylish, scholarly and open. The receptiveness to experience can be associated with exercises like composition, science and craftsmanship (Wallach and Wing, 1969).
In project management personality assessment is very important and therefore plays a very major or crucial role. Personality assessment is done to understand people and also manage dynamics when they are in groups or teams. For example there is a better understanding that other people may demonstrate different personality traits and therefor they should not be judged, but rather with the help of Johari window, there is always the chance of discussing the undiscussables (which often finds people in the areas of Dark, Blind and Façade) to development a stronger relationship which brings information to the ultimate area called Arena on the Johari window
Known Not known
by self by self
ARENA / OPEN
FAÇADE / HIDDEN
DARK / UNKNOWN
Known by others
Not known by others
Figure 5 Johari window
How the concept “personality determines behaviour” links to project management
Individual’s conduct is one of the KEY factors that drive effective task. In this day and age – virtual venture or project groups frequently not co-found – are ordinary. In this condition, it is fundamental that conduct, feelings and culture be surely known by undertaking administrators.
States of mind and practices swing between outrageous highs and lows, which is troublesome for undertaking groups and different partners to manage or get it. It can make it amazingly troublesome for others to work with a narcissistic partner since their conduct may make pointless clash, lead to hatred, and result in critical measures of disturbance. In spite of the fact that the practices because of this quality might be accidental, the outcomes can be annihilating to others around them.
Uninvolved forceful conduct is a standout amongst the most-dubious attributes to work with on the grounds that it is difficult to confine and demonstrate. Partners who are inactive forceful could possibly realize they carry on as such. In any case, the effect is probably going to result in different partners getting to be irate and baffled. Regularly this kind of partner seems helpful and cordial yet misses due dates, retains data, denies responsibility, and may even utilize amusingness to veil negative remarks coordinated at different partners. Issues have an expanded shot of going uncertain when aloof forceful partners are in charge.
Due to the fact that personality predicts behavior, the 16PF has been very useful for recruitment purposes. Many organizations rely on the 16PF to evaluate employees when recruiting for positions such as executives, managers and leaders. Also, occupations such as police and security protective services use 16PF to screen people for personality characteristics.
Personality as a predictor of behavior is also used for team alignment and team building in project management. In the quest of forming teams for projects, project management organizations make sure the teams are well balanced with people who are explorers, organizers and advisors (All round team) in order for the project to be successfully delivered. The team management wheel serves as a guide for forming project management teams or groups, as it is a fact that a well-balanced team is more likely to be successful than unbalanced counterparts in terms of project delivery.
Figure 6 Team management wheel
Understanding personality as a concept helps project management teams predicts the behaviors of stakeholders and uses the appropriate techniques to manage them. Examples of such techniques are; using the left- and right-hand columns, Johari window, reframing, letter of inference etc. Stakeholder management is crucial to a project being delivered successfully.
In project management setting understanding personality and the behaviors it predicts among people help both management and individuals to invest in themselves in order to be proactive and manage themselves effectively. Personal development brings about self-awareness, a sense of direction, improved focus and effectiveness, motivation, creative resilience and more successful relationships. All of these benefits contribute to increase performance in output by the project team.
Currently the 16 PF questionnaires is largely used both inside and outside organizations as career development planning, coaching and counseling to help people understand their strengths and limitations and also plan career path and self-development goals (Carson, 1998, Cattell RB 1970, Krug & Johns 1990).
With reference to the big factor five, people with propensity towards neuroticism are increasingly stressed, volatile and inclined to trouble. During transactional analysis such people are more likely to adapt the role of a child. Therefore, having these knowledge help project managers to frame their questions or adapt techniques which will yield adult to adult conversations rather than parent to child if their personality type is not identified.
Lastly personality helps project management organizations, consultants and experts to build profiles of induvial which are very useful for dealing with various issues. For instance, these profiles can be used during conflict resolutions, assigning tasks and responsibilities. Examples of the individua profiles are personality and emotionally intelligence profiles.
The aim of this research paper was to find out whether personality determines behavior and it can be linked to project management. None of the literature reviewed in my research concluded that personality determines behavior. However, there are vast evidence that personality predicts or influences behavior and this very useful in project management settings. Project management organizations use it in different areas, for example it is relevant in recruitment, personal development, conflict resolution, stakeholder management, team alignment and team building just to mention a few.
- Argyle, Michael; Lu, Luo (1990). “The happiness of extraverts”. Personality and Individual Differences. 11 (10): 1011–7. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(90)90128-E.
- Buhler, Patricia M. “Opening Up Management Communication: Learning from Open Book Management.” Supervision. Vol. 60, No. 2, Feb. ’99: 16 – 18.
- Corr, Philip J.; Matthews, Gerald (2009). The Cambridge handbook of personality psychology (1. publ. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Daft, Richard L. Management. Forth Edition. The Dryden Press: 1997 (42 – 47). SOPAAN-II Volume 1, Issue 1, January-June 2016
- Daniels, Aubrey C. Bringing Out the Best in People. How to Apply the Astonishing Power of Positive Reinforcement. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994.
- Dean, Ed. “TQM in the Real World.” April 26, 1998. http://www.mijuno.larc.nasa.gov
- Digh, Patricia. “Developing a Diversity.” Association Management. Vol. 51, No. 2, Feb.99: 53.
- Dittle, Sally A. “A Contingency Approach to Understanding Negotiator Behaviour as a Function of World mindedness and Expected Future Interaction.” The Journal of Psychology.Jan. ’96, Vol. 130: 59 – 70.
- Goldman, Abigail & Johnson, Greg. “Layoffs Test Mettle of Mattel Chief.” Los AngelesTimes. April 16, 1999: C2.
- “Human Relations Movement. Promises and Problems of the Classical Theories.”http://www.utexas.edu/courses/speclass/courses/350/notes/hres350.html.
- Hunsley, J., Lee, C. M., & Wood, J. M. (2003). Controversial and questionable assessment techniques. In S. O. Lilienfeld, S. J. Lynn, & J. M. Lohr (Eds.), Science and pseudoscience in clinical psychology (pp. 39–76). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
- Integrated Quality Dynamics Inc., “TQM Basics.” April 26, 1999. http://www.iqd.com/tqm.htm.
- Kuntzman, G. (2007, October 6). Separated twins Paula Bernstein and Elyse Schein. The Brooklyn Paper. Retrieved from http://www.brooklynpaper.com/stories/30/39/30_39twins.html
- Spilius, A. (2007, October 27). Identical twins reunited after 35 years. Telegraph. Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/1567542/Identical-twins-reunited-after-35-years.html.
- Wedgwood, Hensleigh (1855). “English Etymologies”. Transactions of the Philological Society (8): 111–112.
Cite This Work
To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:
Related ServicesView all
DMCA / Removal Request
If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on the UKDiss.com website then please: