Construction Environment Built
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There is no doubt that the construction industries in built environment today face more challenges than in the past. The modern business environment is operating in a highly turbulent time. Demand for operational activities to achieve effectiveness and efficiency, the environment has increased the need for organizational accountability both in public and private sector. The UK construction industry is a growing sector and developing day by day. In this case project management is viewed as a tool that helps the organization to carry out selected project effectively and efficiently. This project management tool in the built environment does not guarantee the project success.
It has been seen that some project completed within the determined time and meet all requirements, but has not succeed. On the other hand, some project perceived as successful though they have failed to meet the most important criteria. However, in a project environment, the project management can provide the achievement of project and organizational goals. In addition, project management presents a greater assurance to the stakeholders that all resources are utilized and managed effectively. “Projects fail at an alarming rate. Quantitative evaluations show that as many as 30% of projects are cancelled before completion, wasting all the time money and effort spent on them. Surviving projects usually fail to deliver the full initial project scope or deliver late or overrun the budget”. (www.personal.usyd.edu.au/~wotoole/conf_paper.htm Towards the Integration of Event Management Best Practice by the Project Management Process J. O'Toole William, 2002).
Project management is very important when consequence is absence of proper project management or project management is not applied properly to the projects. Continues changes in project scope, the demand for efficient project management is emerged to maximize the resources. “Effective project management will help: meet or exceed customer expectations, maximize the use of your resources (time, people, money, space, etc.), bring the project to a successful conclusion on time and within budget, document what was done for any need of future reference, and build confidence in your team for future projects”. (THE.PROJECT.MANAGEMENT.HUTThe Importance and Awesome Power of Project Management in Today's Business Environment, Glenn J. n.d, may 5, 2007 www.pmhut.com/the-importance-and-awesome-power-of-project-management-in-todays-business-environmen)
The skills in Project management are not secret art especially in built environment. In regarding construction project success there are some techniques that should be developed. “Project management in construction is a practical, easy-to-read guide to defining, organizing, planning, and executing a construction project so that it is completed to the satisfaction of the principal stakeholders”.(Project Management in Construction Ashgate Publishing, Sep 2004, Pages: 208 www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/304749)
The concept of project management is traditionally familiar with construction industry and is widely applied on projects of all sizes and complexity. The role of project management in the construction industry is to put in important value to achieve the successful delivery of projects. Project management function is applicable to all types of projects in built environment. Application of project management to the construction industry is an important component to raise the standards by setting objective standards of competence and encouraging their usage. To achieve the construction project success in the field of built environment the proper criteria should be followed.
Team building, planning, controlling and monitoring, even terminating a project all are the part of the project management function. There are many reasons for which the construction projects are often completed late and the budget exceed the expectation. However, the department of the environment working with the construction industry, that encouraged a number of initiatives to promote improvements of successful construction. Skills of the construction workforce, information technology, research all these needs to be developed to achieve the construction project success. The right process makes built environment easy and application of information technology in the construction industry become available.
It is known that high levels of understanding issues facing by the governments and the industry leaders and the applicability of project management provide a theoretical framework for strategic planning and emphasize the tools for research into the economics of the industry. In the field of construction industry promoting the importance of built environment is a significant issue. Construction industry is the process that adding infrastructure to the UK built environment.
Commitment to the objective of project management is strong tool to continue and maintain a successful construction project. Excellent communication, well managed team leadership, capability to work at both internal and external levels of project management, being informed about when and how to make trade-offs and concentrating on business goal are to be said the techniques used to achieve the successful delivery of projects.
The building process maintains follows an identifiable life cycle at the time when important environmental impact occurs. However, this process is result to the function and rules of project management of varying degrees of formality that is liable about the procurement, control, and direction of the resources required. The function project management is practiced as it seeks to continue the explicit and implicit performance factors. “The roles, duties, and responsibilities of the project manager are examined to establish the positions during the life cycle at which the environmental impact of the building process is determined and the opportunities available to the project manager to exercise environmental responsibility whilst pursuing the satisfaction of explicit performance requirements”. (The role of project management in the environmental impact of the building process, cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=2280109 BALDRY D, 1997)
Single project management provides the project portfolio management efficiency. The previous research reminds that the single project management is related with project portfolio level outcome. “A questionnaire survey with 279 firms verifies the hypothesized role of information availability, goal setting and systematic decision making in achieving portfolio management efficiency.” (Science direct International Journal of Project Management Volume 25, Issue 1, January 2007, Pages 56-65 Martinsuo Miia & Lehtonen Päivi, 2006 linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S026378630600069X). So, reaching project management goals and portfolio management efficiency are two different hypothesized links.
Project management is known as a general issue, but most of the time so many of us get it wrong. Even if one gets it right once, the next time project is often so disappointment. The reason behind it may be unable to embed project management into all aspect of the organization and don't learn from the mistakes. In the built environment of construction industry the organization needs to consider which projects will delivery strategic objectives.
Project management has emerged as a well-built discipline which is practiced by high level of training, certified experts as organizations have come to observe that they would not stay in business if they cannot handle their projects. However, many organizations are still limiting or reducing the application of project management to the tactical level. It is so much important for the organization to stay in the survival of the construction enterprises in built environment.
Notably, the role of project management is defined especially by the following strategies:-
- Executive championship: high level of buy-in decision and the guidance to give support the portfolio manager. “Even organizations that have established a formal Project Management Office need an executive champion, particularly when the office is understaffed.” (J. Wessels Don, 2007)
- Business acumen: in order to meet the organization objectives, the project managers need to take quick decision about which projects are necessary.
- A solid project management process: leadership is an important tool to do the excellent job to create strategic portfolio in regarding project management of construction industry. the project managers and their teams should maintain and continue the practice of just-do-it.
- Timeframes and budgets: the budget and timeframes should be within the control of project so that the projects would not set up for failure from the beginning. It is known that construction industry is sixth largest industry in United Kingdom. So, it is needless to mention the importance of successful project planning and the budgets in a timeframe. The construction industry comprises a huge amount of investment and cost that is to be said unrecoverable. Hence, if the proper implementation does not occur especially in the UK built environment then there is the possibility of a large amount of loss.
“According to the latest figures (April 2003) from the Office of Government Commerce statistics, 569 PFI contracts have been signed in the UK, 418 of which are already operational. The combined capital value of these contracts is £53 billion, although the value of individual projects ranges from under £1 million to over £1 billion. In the construction and property sector, the scope of PFI has been wide-ranging, including roads, bridges, sewage treatment plants, waste incinerators, hospitals, schools, prisons and office accommodation. But despite the large number of projects procured to date, the effectiveness of PFI is still subject to considerable debate.” (www.emeraldinsight.com/.../EmeraldFullTextArticle/Articles/1120230502.html www.rics.org)
- Requirements analysis: most of the cases it has been viewed that the organization does not follow and meet the proper requirements. This lack leads to a risky result for any type of organization.
- Stay the course: the benefit of project management is that it helps to stay in the course when the objectives and goals are determined. Whatever the task is, whether it is difficult or easy, staying in the course makes it possible to fulfill.
It is strongly recommend that the benefit, challenge, objectives, goals, strategies all should be selected in a systematic manner for the better outcome. Furthermore, the stages of project management are to be considered and implemented in a normal procedure. The following diagram shows the stages involved in project management.
Figure 1: Stages of project management
The above figure suggests that at first the organization would focus on what would be their task and strategy that already mentioned. Then the next step would be to emphasize on how those task and strategy can be implemented. To implement successfully, the organization must have to consider the following criteria in accordance with their objectives:
Adequate formulation: the project management helps to formulate the required data and information adequately and make the function more reliable.
Sound project organization: sound project organization means how smoothly and efficiently the organization can run. When the proper project is implemented then the organizational activities become functional and easy to retain.
Proper implementation planning: whatever the plan is should be implemented properly. The organization needs to follow the right way to make their plan of project effective and desired. It is strongly recommended that the right thing at right way would be implemented at right time and obviously at the right place.
Advance action: advance action needs to take before going to consider about any project success. Good project management thinking helps to identify and recognize the advance actions those are needed to run in the built environment of construction industry. The success or final outcome of the effort depends mostly on the proper advance action.
Timely available of funds: the project management plays a major role in regarding budget issue. The budget issue is equal important for achieving the desired success. Barriers are involved when the project is maintained and run. Available of funds is one thing that formulate the process of a successful project outcome.
Judicial equipment tendering and procurement:
Better contract management: management is to be defined as planning, controlling, organizing and implementing the functional activities. Contract management is the field where all things related with the planning, controlling, organizing and implementing. The more managed contract, the more desired success can be gained. However, project management to success of construction is similar with blood to a body. “Communication on projects between owners and contractors can sometimes be difficult”. (Bulletin; volume 9-04, edition 3 www.ehbrunjesassociates.com/newsletters/09_2004.pdf). In UK construction industry, the external environment is very competitive and challenging. At every step, the organization has to face these challenges and only proper project management can make these challenge completed.
Effective maintaining: the well maintenance of project is the heart of successful construction project. In the perspective of UK construction industry, effective maintaining can lead to a high level of success.
“Project Management is not a catch phrase dreamed up by some marketing director. It is a well-developed body of science with its own processes, technologies, certified professionals, trade associations, and body of literature. So far, lawyers have not been a part of that world, but that is about to change”. (A. Loft Donald, n.d www.mmmlaw.com/articles/article_349.pdf)
The importance and need of project management with the augmentation of scope and complexity of construction project cannot be ended in words. At first the life cycle of a project should be discussed:-
Life cycle of a project
- Project development and preliminary engineering
- Bidding and contract negotiation
- Engineering design
- Purchase and procurement
(Chandra Prasanna, PROJECTS, TATA MCGRAW HILL. P-28.8)
Figure 2: life cycle of a project
Project management is the primary means which manipulate the organizational strategy. Projects are to be said as unique units of work that put into action the policies and strategies of an organization.
Construction projects are directly linked with the strategic vision and mission of the organization. As far as owners or operators of physical facilities are concerned, construction projects are the means of supporting their organizational goals. Organizations are constantly faced with new demands on their physical facilities. Owners of facilities are continually re-shaping the way they design and organize their work practices, which in turn directly impacts the performance of their physical facilities. (Gerard Whelton Michael, 2004, www.leanconstruction.org/pdf/WheltonMichaelPhD2004.pdf)
In the field of UK construction industry the importance and need of project management is an important issue, because all organization, whether large or small, at one time or other, are engaged in manipulating new undertakings. “These undertakings may be diverse, such as, the development of a new product or service; the establishment of a new production line in a manufacturing enterprise; a public relations promotion campaign; or a major building programme”. (Azzopardi Sandro, project smart.co.uk www.projectsmart.co.uk/evolution-of-project-management.html)
The development of project management within a construction industry related organization allows the management teams to work in partnership. Proficiency, locally, nationally or globally the implementation of project management bears some legal and ethical importance.
The contribution of project management to a modern developed country like UK is a considerable topic. It is a formal methodology used to ensure that the projects would be completed on time and within the budget. However, project management is used historically in the construction industry, where methodology is firmly established.
In the area of project management ability, making decision in a changing environment is the major concern. The rapid growth of project management is to be stated as an indication of a change in business function throughout all organization. It is implemented in construction industry to bring about change in organization platform so that they can lead change in organization.
The trinity of project management is time, cost and quality (content or scope). All these things are the major objective function on a project. “The importance of effective project management is by no means restricted to new plant development and construction”. (K. SchimmollerBrian,pepei. pennnet.com/display_article/102426/6/ARTCL/none/none/1/The-Changing-Face-of-Project-Management). For careful management, maintenance and plant outage work is necessary, especially for in light of growing competitive pressures.
Project management in today's UK construction industry is faced with the challenge whereby the essential roles and functions they are performing witness a gradual shift in focus. To continue and retain their professional competency, application of project management in construction adapt to the changing environment by depending on efficiency and knowledge acquired through training and experience.