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Physical and Psychological Effects of Long Term Injury on Tennis Players

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Physiology
Wordcount: 2877 words Published: 23rd Sep 2019

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The physical and psychological effects of long term injury on nonprofessional and semiprofessional tennis players

Background (500 words) 393

Sports injuries are an unfortunate and prevalent side effect to taking part in athletic competition. If not treated properly, injuries endured while playing a sport couldn’t just have a negative impact on your performance, as well as may being not able to compete, but could also have devastating long term effects on your body physically and mentally. Fagher & Lexell (2014) believe that there two types of sports injury; acute and overuse. Acute injuries refer to the immediate happening of an injury (Flint et al. 2014), this of which is caused by a specific event for example this could be breaking a collarbone in rugby or an ankle in football. Overuse/chronic injury is a recurring injury (Flint et al. 2014) which is caused by repeated micro trauma, an example of this would-be tennis elbow. Whereas acute and overuse injuries can both be caused by physical factors, such as contact (Ivancic 2012). Once a sport injury occurs, “psychological consequences of sport injury encompass cognitive, emotional, and behavioral responses” (Wiese-Bjornstal, Smith, & LaMott, 1995).  Cognitive responses to sport injury could include; accepting and evaluating the injury in order to manage the injury and well-being, using cognitive coping strategies, experience injury related images and thoughts, accepting the benefits of injury and reducing self-confidence, esteem and worth. McGowan, Pierce, Williams, and Eastman (1994) showed that there was a significant decrease in global self-worth scores in 16 injured football players compared to 13 non-injured players. Emotional responses to sport injuries tend to develop from a number of negative emotions (e.g., anger, confusion, depression, disappointment, fear, frustration). Increased anxiety is also linked with injuries and not being able to achieve one’s goals (Podlog & Eklund 2006), as well as this an athlete will be experiencing frustration as they will not be able to perform a forehand in tennis like they normally would, for example to their full potential. Athletic identity is described as Madrigal & Gill (2014) as “the extent to which a person identifies with the athlete role.” Madrigal & Gill (2014) believe that a reduction in athletic identity can lead to depression. This of which can be through not being in social support groups, for example this could through team members, this causing the injured athlete to feel isolated. (Cassidy 2006a).

Methods (500 words) 769

From this research, I want to look into the effects of a long-term injury, mainly focusing in on the physical and mental side, as well as this I want to look into the different rehab they went through, what injuries they had and if it had an effect on them when coming back to their sport. In order for to carry out a successful research project, I need to think about what methods of data collection to use. There are a variety of methods that can be used, however each method is better suited for different research. Something I will need to take into consideration is whether the research I have found it qualitative or quantitative, this will help get better data. “Qualitative data analysis is the analysis of various forms of narrative data, including data stored in audio, videos, and other formats” (Denzin and Lincoln, 2005). Some methods of this include focus groups, individual interviews, and participation/observations. Whereas Quantitative Research focuses on numerical data or data used for statistics. Different methods of gathering quantitative data include; surveys, telephone interviews, longitudinal studies, website interceptors, online polls, and systematic observations (DeFranzo, 2011). I have decided to use two type of data collection methods these being a Questionnaire and a structured interview. As stated by McLeod, S. A. (2018) a Questionnaire is a “Research instrument consisting of a series of questions for the purpose of gathering information from respondents” They can be carried out in many different ways this can be; by post, face to face, computer or telephone. Questionnaires provide a quick efficient way of obtaining information/data from a large group of people. In my research questionnaire, I will be focusing on using both open and closed date in order for me to collect my data as it means that I will be able to gather quantitative and qualitative data.  The other data collection method I am using is an interview. The other method I will be using is an interview this of which today has become one of the most widespread knowledge-producing practices across the human and social sciences (Brinkman (2014). The interview can be described as a conversation ‘where knowledge is produced through the interaction between an interviewer and an interviewee.’ In most cases research interviewing involves a “one-way dialogue” with the researcher asking questions and the interviewee being cast in the role of respondent. (Brinkman. 2014 p.1008) . Having chosen an interview, it will allow me to ask specific questions and find out more in-depth knowledge, also as a result of me asking face to face and recording it down it will give me and accurate and emotional response of how they feel. “By conducting interviews, we honor day to day reality as knowledge, without allowing institutions to determine its validity. We deconstruct what is understood to be information and who is understood to be its owner” (Datacenter, 2010, p.3). The interviews will have a more structured approach, so for example the questions at the start will be more general and closed. Furthermore, as the interview progresses it will develop more of an unstructured approach, using this approach will help me to collect more specific qualitative data about the participants personal experiences and views/feelings.

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A paradigm is simply a belief system that guides the way we do things, or more formally establishes a set of practices. As described as Kuhn, (1962) A research paradigm is “the set of common beliefs and agreements shared between scientists about how problems should be understood and addressed” According to Lincoln and Guba (1985), a paradigm comprises four elements, namely, epistemology, ontology, methodology and axiology.  As the researcher, it’s important that i have a strong understanding of these as they make up the basic beliefs, values and norms that each paradigm will entail. I’m going to use research that goes under the interpretivist paradigm as it aims to access, interpret and understand people’s experiences of a social phenomenon. “The interpretivist paradigm developed as a critique of positivism in the social sciences” (Cohen & Crabtree, 2006).  I believe my interviews methods will fall under the interpretivist paradigm as it is from subjective experiences of individuals. Interpretivists avoid rigid structural frameworks such as in positivist research and adopt a more personal and flexible research structures (Carson et al., 2001) furthermore my questionnaires would fit under this they will be able to adapt to answers and not just answer yes or no.

Justification of Sample (200 words) 234

Having decided on what methods of data collection I’m going to use, I needed to decide on how my participants were going to be recruited. Therefore, as i was focusing my study on tennis player, I thought it would be a good idea to use the tennis center at the University of Bath, here they have different standards levels. I turned up to the development training and asked the players if they had a few moments to fill out a questionnaire on long term effects of sport injury on a tennis player. As well as giving them to the development training I wanted to be able to compare and contrast the results so I gave them to the high-performance squad, which consisted of players working towards a profession in tennis. When choosing my questions, I tried to make them as relevant and personal to the tennis players as I could. I started my questionnaire with a simple question as If my questionnaire is long and complicated, it will greatly lessen the chances of receiving a response (Gould, 2011). My first question was; “Have you experienced a long-term injury?” If yes “what was the injury?” and “How long were you out of sport for? I thought it would be a good idea to have this as the introduction question as it will show the participant if the questionnaire is relevant to them.

Ethical considerations (800 words) 718

McLeod, S. A. (2018) states that “Ethical considerations in research are critical. Ethics are the norms or standards for conduct that distinguish between right and wrong. They help to determine the difference between acceptable and unacceptable behaviors on the part of the researcher.” As the researcher, there are many ethical considerations that need to be considered, personally I think the most important is that I must ensure that the information provided by the participants is kept confidential this including; names, address, etc., unless they give their full consent. McLeod, S. A. (2018) describes Confidentiality as “the protection of personal information. Confidentiality means keeping a client’s information between you and the client, and not telling others including co-workers, friends, family, etc.” The ultimate goal is complete confidentiality for every research participant, which Baez (2002) refers to as the “convention of confidentiality.” The convention of confidentiality is maintained as a way to ensure the privacy of all people are protected, to build trust and rapport with study participants, and to keep up moral and ethical standards and honesty of the research procedure (Baez, 2002). There could be negative consequence if identities are revealed, especially if they are minors.  Baez, (2002) believes that the easiest way to protect confidentiality is to collect anonymous data.  This way the data can’t be traced back to anyone and no individual will be identified. As my questionnaires will be anonymous this will allow the participants to respond with more honest answers as they won’t be identified, it could also reduce any psychological factors, for example embarrassment. Furthermore, it will ensure the participants that their confidentiality is secured. Linking into this as the researchers I must ensure that those taking part in research will not be caused distress. They must be protected from physical and mental harm. This means you must not embarrass, frighten, offend or harm participants (McLeod, S. A. 2015). Another ethical factor that I need to consider is informed consent. This refers to participations taking part in research freely, and being told what it means for them to take part and what is involved, most importantly they have to consent to any research being taking part. A way of obtaining consent is through a consent form. This provides evidence of a participant’s agreement to be involved in a project. The contest form must include information about; the research, statement that its voluntary, risks and discomforts, procedures involved, benefits of the research, length of time, person to contact for any questions, the subjects right to confidentiality and the right to withdraw anytime. I will make sure that my Participants must provide informed consent prior to completing the questionnaire as well as before the interview. Furthermore, to back myself up I will have the consent form in the room at the same time as interview, this can then be used to show to the participant as evidence that they have signed and agreed to take part. During the interviews i would adopt a ‘position of an active and empathic listener, and I would encourage the participant to tell their story in their own words’ (Carless and Douglas, 2009).  Furthermore, at the start of the interview I will make sure that my participants are relaxed and feel comfortable, this will also help me build a relationship with them. After my research has been completed i will give the participants a debrief this will allow me to discuss the procedure and findings with them and explaining what i was investigating and what part they played. They will also have the opportunity to ask my any questions and concerns that they had. “The purpose of debriefing is to remove any misconceptions and anxieties that the participants have about the research and to leave them with a sense of dignity, knowledge, and a perception of time not wasted” (Harris, 1998). The debriefing will also help the participant leave the experimental situation in a similar frame of mind as when he/she entered it . Lastly my participants must know that they have the right to withdraw from the investigation at any time if they feel uncomfortable or don’t want to carry on and they should be allowed to withdraw their data. It’s important as the researcher that i make this clear from the start.

Benefits to participants

As a result of me carrying out my research I believe it will benefit my participants that are being involved as they will be able to personally relate if they have been suffering from injuries. Furthermore, they will be able to talk to other participants about their injures and the effects and will be able to see that they were not suffering on their own Also the data that I collect from the research could help them in the future.



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