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Effectiveness of Pre-Workout on Bench Press and Deadlift Repetitions to Failure

7318 words (29 pages) Essay in Physiology

18/05/20 Physiology Reference this

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The Acute Effectiveness of Pre-Workout Supplements upon repetition to failure (lower and upper body) Repetitions to failure at 75% 1RM (maximum 15 reps) bench press and deadlift performance.

Introduction

 

The consumption pre-workout ergogenic are saturated in the sporting world; it has been on the increase in terms of popularity and use among both leisure and competitive athletes whom are keen on  enhancing their performance (Martinez et al., 2016). Outlaw et al., (2014) stated that the scientific research on physical performance enhancement supplements has led to the manufacturing pre-workout beverages, with the aim of enhancing  energy, alertness, strength, power, and body composition. Thus, leading to a success in the sportspersons’ overall performance. For example, studies have shown approximately 70% of young adults take some form of supplements to increase body mass, strength performance etc (Hoffman et al., 2008 and Froiland et al., 2008). According to Sokmen et al., (2008) researchers have discussed that well trained athletes are highly attracted to lawful pre-work ergogenic in comparison to the banned performance enhancing substance on the market. Though, the vast number of argued benefits of certain pre-workout supplements are not well tested or clinically proven to improve performance as most supplement manufacturers would claim (Martinez et al., 2016 and Outlaw et al., 2014). Therefore, it would be wise and incumbent for the sporting fraternity to further investigate performance enhancement supplements and their possible effect on various sports performance (Martinez et al., 2016) for efficiency and better performance results and also as a possible cost saving measure.

Hoffman et al., (2006) hypotheses that amalgamation of Creatine and Beta Alanine supplements would improve strength and power of athletes. It was the first time a study on amalgamation of both Creatine and Beta Alanine supplements was done. Results of their study demonstrated that this combination significantly improved the quality of the workout more so than creatine alone. Specifically, improvements in training volume was found to be associated with significantly greater gains in lean body mass and total reduction of fat in the body. Stout et al., (2006) also compared the combination of Creatine and Beta Alanine to creatine and B Alanine alone however, a substantial ergogenic effects were noted in the physically trained athletes, the opposite was the for the previously untrained men.

Figure 1. Ingredients and nutritional info of the Grenade .50 calibre. Taken from Grenade sports supplement website.

A known side effect associated with Beta Alanine supplementation is paraesthesia.  which is a sensation of numbing or tingling in the skin.  It appears when high doses of Beta Alanine are ingested.  It generally fades within one hour following ingestion (Harris et al., 2006 and Gross et al., 2014).  Interestingly, when Beta Alanine is mixed with a carbohydrate and electrolyte drink the appearance of this side effect appears insignificant (Hoffman et al., 2006).  Studies examining potential side effects from prolonged (greater than 15 weeks) supplementation durations have not been performed.  However, considering that Beta Alanine is an amino acid with an important physiological role in the body, in dosages studied that are similar to that consumed regularly in the diet, it is probably a very safe supplement to use to enhance performance (Artioli et al., 2009).

Research have also shown that caffeine as low as 3 mg/kg is adequate to enhance performance (Graham et al., 1995). The fundamental mechanisms for caffeine as an ergogenic, is that it reduces body’s overall ratings of perceived exertion which may contribute to enhanced performance even with mounting lactate levels. Diminishing of pain combined with perceived reduced effort may enable prolonged duration of exercise resulting in increased lactate level (Davis et al., 2009). Doherty et al., (2004) in their meta-analysis study stated that higher (e.g. 6 mg/kg) dose of caffeine ingestion has greater ergogenic effects. Nevertheless, studies have also shown caffeine in high doses can negatively influence performance (Cureton et al., 2007). Caffeine has also been abstained from sports drinks due to the claimed that it has diuretic effect (Cureton et al., 2007), which could potentially have detrimental thermoregulatory effects in sports (American College of Sports Medicine, 2009; Cureton et al., 2007 and Pipe et al., 2002). However, a study by Armstrong et al., (2007) refute this common notion, in contrast have shown that caffeine consumption does not result in water-electrolyte imbalances or hyperthermia.

A growth in body mass associated with creatine supplementation has been suggested to be a debilitating side effect by some individuals (Schilling et al., 2001). Though, for most athletes supplementing with creatine, weight gain is often a desired outcome.  There have been a host of anecdotal reports regarding creatine supplementation as an enabling genesis of  gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and muscular problems.  Muscle cramps has been the most frequently mentioned side-effect associated with creatine ingestion (Hoffman, 2008). However, it is scientifically agreed that performance declines progressively due to fatigue in the central and peripheral (Noakes et al., 2005) during exercise or energy exerting activities. Therefore, it is very common for people to resort to ingesting various supplementation to diminish or delay the effects physical exhaustion (Gonzalez et al., 2011 and Spradley et al., 2012).  With limited or no scientific studies to establish if the supplements in the market such as Grenade .50 Cal do actually increase or enhance general muscular performance (Martinez et al., 2016). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to find out the performance effect and if there are any significant evidence in the literature to support the ingestion pre-workout nutrition supplementation Grenade .50 Calibre (Beta Alanine) and Caffeine on bench press and deadlift performance repetition to failure at 75% of 1RM (maximum of 15 reps). 

Method

 

Subject Characteristics

Nine male participants whom were all students from Plymouth University. The study was a double-blind randomised trial that was parallel to Outlaw et al., (2014) and Williams et al., (2008) experimental design.  Basically, a double-blind study is when neither participant nor the investigator know which ergogenic was administered during the trial, this is it key in research in order to prevent the results from been skewed, it ensures both the participants and investigators preconceived  views cannot influence the results (Kendall, 2003 and Sibbald et al., 1998). Therefore, double blinding increases the validity and reliable of a study (Sibbald et al., 1998).

Table 1: Presents subjects characteristic measurements in Mean and SD, and range

N = 9

Mean

Range

Age (yrs)

21. 44 + 1.88

20 – 26

Height (cm)

178.22 + 10.67

153 – 190

Body Mass (kg)

83.22 + 14.16

56 – 104

Body fat (%)

16 + 2.83

10 – 19

Signed written informed consents were obtained from all the subjects for all the procedures, which was approved by the ethical review board of the Plymouth Marjon University before the study commence. Ethical standards were conducted in observance to Harriss et al., (2013) protocol; signed written informed consents were obtained after the protocols of study was described to all participants before commencing the study. For participants to be accepted for this study they were to be asymptomatic, free from injury or under rehabilitation program. Participants were physically active students who exercise roughly 3 to 4 days a week (Chatzopoulos et al., 2014 andBooysen et al., 2018).

Figure 2. is a bar chart that illustrates the age (yrs) distribution for all the students ages that partake in the study. The oldest participant was 26 yrs and the youngest were 3 individuals at 20 yrs. 33 percent of the participants were older than the mean age of 21.44 + 1.88yrs (3 students in total) and 33 percent of the participants ages were less the mean (3 students in total). The rest of the 33 percent falls within the mean age. Therefore, the age groups for this study seems to be evenly represented.

Equipment

Tanita Multi-Frequency Body Composition Analyser MC-180MA, Tanita Corporation, Tokyo, Japan was used to measure body fat, according to Siddqui et al., (2016) it has a very high accuracy in measuring body composition (fat and fat-free mass). The Tanita is also the means used measure height and weight. Urine sample were acquired and tested for hydration by Osmochek, Vitech Scientific. Gym aware was used to  measure velocities throughout repetitions in order to establish the speed at which the load is moved. Digital Automatic Blood Pressure Monitor, MX2 Basic, Omron was employed to measure blood pressure. Lactate and Creatine kinase were measured using YSI stat plus 2300 and Reflotron plus, respectively. Jump mat – Just Jump! Probiotics Inc. was used to assess counter jump movement. For data recording, fellow students and staff were recruited to assist in assessment in counting reps, sets, time rest period and record data (Baechle and Earle 2008, p. 243).

Protocol

Participants availed themselves on four occasions to the university strength and condition laboratory. The familiarisation trial was used to familiarise the participants with the equipment being used, to make participants aware of the test protocol and the associated risks and discomfort (Baechle and Earle 2008, p. 243). Participants body composition measurement were also taken. The familiarisation day was also used to establish their 1 RM for bench press and deadlift exercises. Establishing 1RM for bench press occurred as per Martinez et al., (2016) studies procedure; participants used an ordinary barbell to perform a set of  12 reps. Each participants conducted additional warm-up set with an approximate load of 75% of their deemed 1RM to prime the specific muscles of the  upper body for optimal performance. Then on the subsequent 3-4 sets the weight on the barbell was gradually increased in order to determine participants bench press 1RM. They performed the bench press in a supine position, under control the weighted barbell was eccentrically lowered to mid-chest and concentrically push till the elbows were completely locked. There was no given speed or time frame at which the load has to be lifted,  participants were work at their own pace (Outlaw et al., 2014). All the sets were separated by a 2 min rest period (Martinez et al., 2016).

The 1RM for the deadlift was established by performing a warm-up involves conducting a set of 10 repetitions and a set of 6 repetitions (Blatnik et al., 2014). They were given a minute rest after the 1st set of warm-up and 2 minutes post the 2nd set before the 1RM attempted (Trexler et al., 2016), the weight was progressively increased gradually from 30 to 90% of 1RM in an increments of approximately 10% (Blatnik et al., 2014). The participants were allowed a total number of  4 attempts in order to establish  their 1RM (McBride et al., 2011). All the sets were separated by a 2 min rest period (Martinez et al., 2016).

For the main trial participants reported at the strength and condition laboratory of Plymouth Marjon University on three different days with a minimum of 48 hrs post each assessment (lab visit)  to allow the participants to recover from fatigue (McLellan et al., 2010). 24 hours preceding the assessments in this study participants were asked to abstain from digesting caffeine products (Williams et al., 2008). To ensure participants arrived in a relative hydration state they were advised to drink a minimum of 1.5 litres of the water the evening prior and 500ml on the morning of testing (Kiitam et al., 2018 and Sassi et al., 2009). They were also asked to refrain from physical activities (Outlaw et al., 2014).

Upon arrival at the laboratory for the trial; the following were taken Consent, Par-Q, Height, weight, Anthropometric measurements (Body composition) (Tanita), Urine sample were collected to test for hydration status via a urine osmolality (Fortes et al., 2011). Resting Blood Pressure gained by Digital Automatic Blood Pressure Monitor, MX2 Basic, Omron (This procedure was repeated at the end of the workout and 24hr post workout). Baseline Bloods Lactate and creatine kinase are great indicators of muscle damage post exercise (Wigernæs, et al., 2000). Baseline vertical jump was conducted, this is because studies have shown that vertical jumping performance has a strong correlation with weightlifting ability (Carlock et al., 2004). Therefore, the vertical jump was a useful physical fitness mode in evaluating the fatigue effect from bench and deadlift.

Main Experimental Trial

To promote consistency, maximised performance and prevent injuries; all nine participants performed a standardised warm-up which was replicated for each consequent assessment day in the laboratory. The RAMP warm up entailed a 5 min rowing (Kilduff et al., 2008), followed by  appropriate activation and mobilisation work of the respective muscle group in a functional specific manner (Baechle and Earle 2008, p. 297). As already alluded the counter jump movement – baseline and post workout were used to gauge and highlight the fatigue or residual fatigue (Carlock et al., 2004) in order to see how performance was sustained in the various ergogenic they have been taking. Repetitions to failure at 75% 1RM (maximum 15 reps) bench press and deadlift performance, the 75% 1RM was established during the familiarisation trial. 3 sets of each with a 2 minutes rest in between sets as per Little et al., (2006) studies resting protocol. Participants were given 5 minutes rest  in between the bench and the deadlift allow for recovery (Williams et al., 2008 and Baechle and Earle 2008, p. 245). Gym aware was employed to record the velocities at which the deadlift and bench press weight were moved by each individual participants throughout the repetitions to assess effect fatigue as result repetitions.

Subjective markers set of questionnaires were prepared to measure fatigue, focus, energy, alertness these were adopted from Jagim et al., (2016) research measuring pre-workout effects upon anaerobic capacity and strength performance. Rate of perceived exhaustion (RPE) and delay onset muscle soreness (DOMs) scale was taken employing the same as Dos Santos et al., (2016) and Mcguigan (2016)  applied in their studies in which a visual analogue scale (VAS) in which to analyse perceptions of DOMS/pain post eccentric exercise training in adults and children. RPE – was taken immediately at the end of workout session. However, the DOMS scores were collected 24hrs post each assessment day. Simultaneously, the following where been taken either pre or post at their respective timeline. Blood were taken for the Lactate Baseline prior to the any of the physical exercises, also at the 3 minutes post bench, 3 minutes post deadlift and Creatine kinase – baseline test, 24hr post, 48 hrs post. CMJ were performed pre, post and 24hrs post the bench and deadlift trials, the CMJs conducted without any warm-up. The above process was repeated for all the other following laboratory trial visits less the anthropometric measurements.

During the all the 3 laboratory trial visits, subjects consumed either the pre – workout: Grenade .50 calibre pre-workout (11.6g), Caffeine- anhydrous powder (6 mg/kg), Placebo – maltodextrin 25g was taken, it is supposed to have no known effect in terms of improving performance.  In order to ensure biases influences are eliminated as per the double-blind protocol all the ingested products were taken in a standardised 200ml lemon flavoured fluid to make them taste the same, parallel to that of Martinez et al., (2016) study. All the products were consumed in line with their manufacturer’s recommendation. They were taken at random in order to eliminate training effects and any influences. The pre-workout supplement used in this study is available over the counter and marketed as Grenade .50 calibre pre-workout (11.6g). The pre-workout serving prescription was to blend half a scoop (11.6g) with  200ml of cold water and stir or shake (Martinez et al., 2016). The pre-workout ergogenic was consume approximately 30 minutes before trial workout session Outlaw et al., (2014).

Vertical jump

The vertical jump assessment was in the form of counter movement jump. Participants began in a standing position on Jump mat (Just Jump! Probiotics Inc., Alabama, USA) with feet shoulder width apart, participants then proceeded by flexing at the hips, knees and ankle while simultaneously swinging arms backwards in preparation for executing the jump. The individual arms would then propel forward in a concurrent motion over the head as they jumped in the air and then land on the mat, which would calculate the flight height. Each was allowed three  counter movement jump attempts  and best height was recorded, with a 2 min rest separating the jumps (Martinez et al., 2016).

Data Analysis

The data analyses for this study was performed using Microsoft EXCEL, participants collected data blood creatine kinase, (CMJ jump height, deadlift and bench press reps in all of the sets were plot in the excel sheet and the Mean and Standard Deviation (SD) were calculated for repetitions, work done, load lift velocity, peak power and creatine kinase in order to investigate the effects of the consumed supplement products on lower and upper body strength and power performance. All the illustrated data are therefore presented in mean and SD.

 

Results

 

The CMJ results

The CMJ height mean and SD results in this investigation for the Placebo, Caffeine and Pre-workout during pre, post and 24hrs supplements ingestion stages,  when analyse indicated the Pre-workout ergogenic (grenade .50 calibre) recorded the most consistence mean height performance in all the CMJ tests throughout. From pre (67.56 + 4.67cm) to post pre-workout consumption (67.78 + 4.60 cm) there was an increase of 0.33% in jump height. A similar percentile of -0.33% but in the reversed trend was observed at the 24hr testing phase, which was 67.56 + 4.30 cm jump height when compared to post pre-workout consumption results it shown a reduction in performance, even the effects of fatigue if present among the participants did not impede CMJ performance because the 24hrs assessments mean results was the same as before the pre-workout supplement was taken. The Placebo (maltodextrin 25g) did not improve performance across all the testing phase; from pre (67 + 4.36 cm)  to 24hrs (63.33 + 8.65 cm) there was a diminished in jump height by -5.48%. When the Caffeine product was taken jump height performance increased by 0.20% from pre (67 + 4.90 cm) to post (67.11 + 4.04) however, 24hrs later the test results (66.11 + 4.54) showed a reduced performance of -1.33%.

Fig. 3 A bar chart that illustrate the 9 participants counter jump movement test in mean and SD scores for the pre, post and 24hrs ingestion of supplements in this study. Participants mean and SD were for the Placebo; pre 67 + 4.36 cm, post 66.78 + 4.55 cm and 24hrs 63.33 + 8.65 cm. Caffeine; pre 67 + 4.90 cm, post 67.11 + 4.04 cm and 24hrs 66.11 + 4.54 cm.  Pre-workout ; pre 67.56 + 4.67 cm, post 67.78 + 4.60 cm and 24hrs 67.56 + 4.30 cm. 

The Bench Press results

 

Figure 4. A bar chart that shows the Bench Press mean and SD for Work done (Weight x Repetition) in the sets for each taken performance enhancement products. There bar chart indicates reduction in work done for all the ingested supplements as the workout sets progressed. The mean work done for Placebo set 1 = 848.64 + 190.23 set 2 = 710.28 + 165.97 kg  and set 3 = 557.78 + 146.87 kg. Caffeine set 1 = 829.47 + 235.36 kg set 2 = 749.44 + 208.15 kg and set 3 = 558.06 + 152.96 kg. The Pre-workout set 1 = 866.78 + 211.02 kg set 2 = 740.89 + 193.29 kg and set 3 = 588.08 + 216.15 kg. Once more, the Pre-workout produced the highest mean work done 866.78 + 211.02 in the 1st set, it also had the highest work done in the 3rd set. Therefore, this shows the Grenade .50 calibre have an edge over the Caffeine and maltodextrin 25g in producing overall work rate.

Figure 5. A line graph that presents the Bench Press mean and SD velocity times at which the mean loads were lifted in every supplement product trial in the Bench Press in the given 3 sets for each ergogenic. Caffeine set 1 = 0.50 + 0.14 m/s, set 2 = 0.48 + 0.13 m/s   set 3 = 0.46 + 0.14 m/s. The graph shows when the Caffeine was consumed the mean speed at which participants were able to lift the load did not drop too steep in comparison to the Placebo set 1 = 0.45 + 0.12 m/s, set 2 = 0.42 + 0.09 m/s and set 3 = 0.39 + 0.08 m/s and the Pre-workout set 1 = 0.51 + 0.13 m/s, set 2 = 0.47 + 0.10 m/s and set 3 = 0.43 + 0.08 m/s.

Figure 6. A line graph that shows the Bench Press reps mean and SD for the different ingested ergogenic products. The mean and SD reps for the sets were; the Placebo set 1 = 11.22 + 2.05 reps, set 2 = 9.33 + 1.32 reps and set 3 = 7.33 + 1.41 reps. Caffeine ingestion; set 1 = 10.78 + 1.86 reps, set 2 = 9.78 + 1.79 reps and set 3 = 7.33 + 1.58 reps. The Pre-workout; set 1 = 11.44 + 2.13 reps, set 2 = 9.78 + 1.99 reps and set 3 = 7.67 + 2.24 reps.

The Deadlift results

 

Figure 7. A bar chart that shows the Deadlift mean and SD for Work done (Weight x Repetition) in the sets for each taken performance enhancement products. There bar chart indicates reduction in work done for all the ingested supplement trial as the workout sets progressed. The mean work done for Placebo set 1 = 1412.92 + 699.03 set 2 = 1216.17 + 497.12 kg  and set 3 = 841.92 + 448.25 kg. Caffeine set 1 = 1614.92 + 748.85 kg set 2 = 1200 + 483.14 kg and set 3 = 961.67 + 345.38 kg. The Pre-workout set 1 = 1724.17 + 537.06 kg set 2 = 1370 + 455.17 kg and set 3 = 1045.83 + 381.60 kg. Like, the bench press the Pre-workout had the highest mean work done in the sets in comparison to the other ingested products (Caffeine and maltodextrin 25g). Therefore, this shows the Grenade .50 calibre is an efficient ergogenic.

Figure 8. A line graph that presents the Deadlift  mean and SD velocity times at which the participants given mean load were lifted for every performance enhancement product during the trials for the Deadlift in the 3 sets. In the Caffeine trial participants experience the least drop in performance load lift velocity. The mean recorded velocity for the Caffeine assessment were set 1 = 0.56 + 0.10 m/s, set 2 = 0.53 + 0.08 m/s   set 3 = 0.50 + 0.07 m/s. The Placebo trial scores were set 1 = 0.51 + 0.13 m/s, set 2 = 0.50 + 0.09 m/s and set 3 = 0.48 + 0.10 m/s and for the Pre-workout set 1 = 0.54 + 0.10 m/s, set 2 = 0.52 + 0.07 m/s and set 3 = 0.48 + 0.07 m/s.

Figure 9. A line graph that shows the Deadlift reps mean and SD for the different ingested ergogenic products. The mean and SD reps for the sets were; the Placebo set 1 = 10.33 + 3.50 reps, set 2 = 8.78 + 2.86 reps and set 3 = 5.78 + 2.22 reps. Caffeine ingestion; set 1 = 11.56 + 4.46 reps, set 2 = 8.67 + 2.74 reps and set 3 = 7.00 + 2.29 reps. The Pre-workout; set 1 = 12.22 + 1.99 reps, set 2 = 9.78 + 2.05 reps and set 3 = 7.44 + 2.01 reps.

Table 2: Presents the Deadlift executed peak power mean and SD data in watts for all the ingested performance products. The data showed the Pre-workout registered the highest peak power. Then followed by Caffeine supplement.

 

Placebo

Caffeine

Pre-workout

Sets

 

 

 

 

 

 

1st

802.75 ± 170. 21

839.81 ± 85.21

 

848.01 ± 171.66

 

2nd

774.46 ± 143.65

 

800.82 ± 167.34

 

801.47 ± 165.68

 

3rd

742.02 ± 168.09

 

747.21 ± 151.84

 

767.20 ± 153.22

 

Figure 10. A bar chart showing the Creatine Kinase measurement taken before the supplement consumption and workout, at the 24hrs post workout and 48hrs post workout. It is presented in mean and SD units per litre (U/L) for the different consumed products. The mean and SD measurement were the Placebo trail, pre 249.67 + 141.04 U/L , 24hr 520.33 + 261.15 U/L and 48hr 270.67 + 296.42 U/L. Caffeine ingestion trial, pre 276.20 + 228.40 U/L, 24hr 421.71 + 229.83 U/L and 48hr 145.51 + 269.07 U/L. The Pre-workout trial, pre 228.33 + 80.32 U/L, 24hr 723.44 + 425.15 U/L and 48hr 495.11 + 384.96 U/L.

 

 

Summary

The results from this investigation showed that the different sports performance enhancement products have their own benefits however,  the Grenade .50 calibre pre-workout (11.6g) trial had the most total number of repetitions performed in both the bench press and deadlift. The mean Work done (the weight x number of repetitions) across all the ergogenic trials in this study were higher in Pre-workout supplement (Grenade .50 calibre) in comparison to the Caffeine and maltodextrin 25g Placebo). However, it was observed that in the Caffeine trial the fatigue effect very mildly affected load lifting velocities in the bench press and deadlift workout.  Therefore, if a sports person would like to focus more on the how quick the lift a weight then a Caffeine based supplement would more suited for them. For explosive performance both the Caffeine and Grenade .50 calibre would enhance performance because had the ability induce peak power which is key anaerobic performance.

 

Discussion

The findings of this investigation were the mean and SD results from the data collected seems to propose that the Grenade .50 calibre pre-workout is more effective in enhancing strength and power performance in both the CMJ, bench press and deadlift assessments. However, on analysis of the data it was established in the Caffeine trial participants were able to sustain a relatively high load lifting velocity for the bench press and deadlift. These results are consistent with the conclusion of Martinez et al., (2016). Whom  investigated the effect of acute pre-workout supplementation on power and strength performance in thirteen male subjects who were physically active through some form of sporting activity (Martinez et al., 2016). However, the findings in this study were in contrast to Williams et al., (2008) results, they found Caffeine ingestion did not lead to improved performance either muscle strength or anaerobic exercise. The similarity of this investigation  to Martinez et al., (2016) study is both employed Nine male only subjects, with an approximate mean weight: 84.1 + 10.3 kg however, their subjects mean ages were dissimilar; for  this investigation it was 21. 44 + 1.88 yrs, in Williams et al., (2008) their age was 26.2 + 4.3 yrs. The consumed supplements were not the same, therefore, this could have been a major reason why the conclusions may have differed.

When comparison was conducted among the different ingested supplements trials the Pre-workout had the highest mean creatine kinase at the 24hr and 48hr assessment points  723.44 + 425.15 U/L and 495.11 + 384.96 U/L, respectively. Ehlers et al., (2002) found individuals with higher anaerobic power recorded the lowest creatine kinase. Therefore, this investigation is contrast with Ehlers et al., (2002) given that the pre-workout ergogenic trail exerted the highest mean peak power in the deadlift exercise in this study. If the normal creatine limit of 170 unit per litre for men (Ehlers et al., 2002) was utilised participants creatine kinase mean results would have been; 24hr after the exercise the Grenade .50 calibre resulted to approximately four times and the Caffeine resulted to approximately two and half times over the normal creatine kinase limit. 48hr post exercise the Grenade .50 calibre reduced to three times over the normal limit and the Caffeine dropped to minus 0.4 of the normal limit. This may have been as a result of work done because work done is achieved via muscle contraction and exertion of force which the primed means of muscle damaged.

The elevated creatine kinase at the different  phases in this study are expected according to Ehlers et al., (2002) If the muscle damage occurs the normalisation and removal of the creatine kinase from the blood  tend to take approximately 3 days. While,  it is typical to endure muscle damage with physical activities however, excessive damage may lead to a condition known as exertional rhabdomyolysis which is the degeneration of skeletal muscle caused by excessive unfamiliar strenuous exercise and can result to death in healthy sportspersons (Ehlers et al., 2002).

According to the reference intake information on the pack; the Grenade .50 Cal (11.6 g) pre-workout supplements contain over 20 ingredients (See Figure 1).  The key ingredients were Creatine, Beta Alanine, Niacin and Folic Acid. Creatine Monohydrate; which increases physical performance in successive bursts of short-term high intensity exercise (Persky 2001).  Creatine provides athletes the ability to sustain a higher quality workout that stimulates the greater physiological response (Hoffman, 2008). Furthermore, Baechle and Earle (2008) also discussed that many studies have shown depletion of muscle creatine phosphate leads to diminished in performance. Therefore, this ingredient may have been the reason why participants were able to sustain performance in this study. Beta Alanine on its own as performance enhancement is very incomplete though, the supplementation of Beta Alanine helps in the synthesis of carnosine and also in the muscle buffering capacity process thus, improving performance (Baechle and Earle 2008, p. 193 and Dunnett et al., 1999). Niacin and Folic Acid are believed contributes to the reduction in tiredness and fatigue during and post exercise (Henry C. Lukaski, 2004).

 

Conclusion

Based on the  overall  results of the participants performance in the Creatine and Pre-workout supplementation trails. Sports coaches, trainers and nutritionist should pay considerable attention to the performance enhancing products they would avail to their sports men and women. Particular attention should be given to what they are trying to achieve,  this investigation has highlighted Grenade .50 calibre pre-workout ergogenic is great for repeated workouts such as work done, peak power and endurance strength in athletes performance. However, this investigation has shown Caffeine would be more ideal supplement if an individual or team sports requires loaded functional movement to be done in a fast velocity and also to gain swift recovery from previous endured fatigue. Please note due the lack of heterogeneity in the participants used in this research  means the conclusions from the study are not a dependable template for the broader general sporting population. 

The side effects of these products should be factored in such as the diuretic effects on caffeine consumption, which may lead to dehydration and hyponatremia. For the Pre-workout (Grenade .50 calibre) ergogenic as the data in this study indicated participants creatine kinase both at individual and group level were elevated to a significant level above the normal limits, meaning even the at 48hrs post previous session the residual fatigue remains therefore posing the risk to life as already discussed. The high residual creatine kinase may have negatively impacted the  subsequent trials in this investigation.

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