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Anatomy and Physiology of the Human Body

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Physiology
Wordcount: 3361 words Published: 3rd Oct 2017

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Anatomy and Physiology

Part A

  1. Identify the parts of the digestive system on the diagram overleaf?(Refer to Brief)
  2. Explain the function of each part of the digestive system identified in the diagram above?
  3. Outline the composition of Proteins, Fats and Carbohydrates, and explain how each of them are digested and absorbed by the body?

Part B

  1. Draw a diagram of a typical cell and state the function of each of its organelles?
  2. Classify tissues into the four main groups; epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous, give an example of each? (Table format will suffice)
  3. Explain the difference between benign and malignant tumours?

Part C

  1. Label the urinary system using the diagram overleaf?(Refer to Brief)
  2. Explain the structure and function of each element of the urinary system?
  3. Draw the structure of a Nephron and explain how it produces urine?
  4. Name and explain three diseases /disorders which affect the urinary system?

Part A

(ii)Explain the function of each part of the digestive system identified in the diagram above?

  • Mouth
  • Oesophagus
  • Stomach
  • Liver
  • Gallbladder
  • Pancreas
  • Large Intestine
  • Small Intestine
  • Appendix
  • Rectum
  • Anus

In this section I will explain each of the stages of digestion where the food travels from the mouth into each section of the digestive system until it leaves the body from the anus.


This is the first part of the digestive system. The mouth is made up of the teeth, tongue and salivary glands. We put food in our mouth and chew it with our teeth the are four main types of teeth the first being incisors which we have four of in the top and bottom jaws these are sharp and cut through our food. Then we have the canines we have two in each jaw and are used for tearing our food. We then have the premolars which have four in each jaw for crushing and breaking down our food. Then we have the molars which there are six to each jaw and have the same action as the premolars. Our tongue moves the food around our mouth to our different teeth. It mixes with our saliva which is secreted from the salivary glands which contains water, mucus and the enzyme salivary amylase and when mixed with the food creates bolus which we then swallow using the aid of our tongue. (Class notes 2015)


This is an involuntary muscular tube that leads from the mouth to the stomach. It carries the food to the stomach by muscle contraction called peristalsis. This muscle contracts and relaxes to create a wave like motion for the food to travel down smoothly also releasing mucus to lubricate the travelling of the bolus to the stomach. (Class notes 2015)


Food gets to the stomach through the oesophagus and passes through the cardiac sphincter this blocks the food from travelling back up the oesophagus. In the stomach which resembles a large sac that can hold anything between 2- 4 litres of food depending on the person. The first part of digestion starts here the stomach churns the bolus around and adds enzymes to aid in the breakdown of the bolus to create chime. The stomach also releases hydrochloric acid to kill the bacteria that travel to the stomach contained in the food.(Class notes 2015)


The livers function in the digestive system is as follows it secretes bile into the small intestine and this is generally to breakdown the fat that has travelled to the small intestine it also takes the nutrients that have been adsorbed by the small intestine and changes them into chemicals that the body needs. It also breaks down drugs and alcohol that have been consumed. . (clevelandclinic.org 2015)


The Gallbladder is attached to the liver and stores the bile from the liver which is used to digest and break down the fats in the small intestine this takes place in the duodenum.


The pancreas is a gland that is just behind the stomach its function is to secrete both Exocrine and Endocrine. Exocrine is the pancreatic juice that contains digestive enzymes. Endocrine contains important hormones which include insulin and glucagon. Both of these help balance the amount of sugar in the body in different ways.

Large Intestine

The large intestine is approx. 1.5 metres long and connects the small intestine to the rectum and anus this is draped over the small intestine its main function is to draw the last of the nutrients and water from the food passing through it the left overs are faeces and the large intestine gets rid of this waste from the body through the anus.

Small Intestine

The small intestine is normally about 6 meters long and approximately 90% of digestion takes place here through the main 3 parts that are known as duodenum, jejunum and ileum. On the inside walls of the small intestine are villi that work for nutrient absorption and also have a group of lymph and blood vessels.


The appendix is commonly classed as a useless organ which is attached to the large intestine ascending it can store bad bacteria and this in turn can cause inflammation thus leading to appendicitis and removal of the appendix. Although it is disputed that the appendix can store good bacteria and after a bout of diarrheal illnesses it can reboot the digestive system. (webmd.com 2015)


The rectum is the last part of the large intestine the length being around 12cm long and is a store house for faeces. This is the leftover food, bacteria and undigested materials such as roughage that is found in vegetables and is all stored here until the rectum walls expand and we get the urge to defecate. (healthline.com 2015)


This is the very last part of the digestive system we defecate through the anus and is a voluntary movement in most people but not in infants. This is where we dispel waste which contains bacteria, undigested food.

Part A

(iii)Outline the composition of Proteins, Fats and Carbohydrates, and explain how each of them are digested and absorbed by the body?

In this section I will create a chart covering the sources, functions and digestion of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in the human body and will show there different effects and how they fuel the body with energy.






Groundnuts, beans, whole cereals, fish,


Milk and cheese.

Protein builds the

Body and repairs muscle. It’s broken down in the digestive system and travels to the muscles as amino acids.

  • Stomach,

Pepsin breaks protein into large polypeptides.

  • Small intestine, enzymes break large polypeptides into smaller polypeptide chains.
  • Lastly still in the intestine enzymes the small polypeptides are broken into amino acids for absorption.


Dairy products, meat, fish, olive oil, cake, chocolate, avocados and sunflower oil.

Good fats help maintain a healthy diet and are essential to health. Bad fats cause weight gain and health problems such as clogged arteries.

  • Small intestine

Broken down by bile salts from the liver and turned into liquid.

  • Small intestine, its broken down further into fatty acids and glycerol to be absorbed.


Potatoes, pasta, apples, bread, meat, fish and dairy products.

Provide the body with energy for the muscles, nervous system and also help the body burn fat.

Carbohydrates get broken down to monosaccharide’s to get absorbed and then will become glucose to supply the body with energy.

Part B

  1. Draw the typical diagram of a cell, and state the function of each of its organelles?

In this section I will draw a typical animal cell as I see it and will give a breakdown of each of its organelles and how they function in the typical cell.

  • Cell membrane, this is the outer skin of the cell that holds everything inside the cell and keeps things outside the cell and also that controls movement into or out of the cell.
  • Cytoplasm, this is a gel like fluid which stores nutrients and water for the cell and also helps protect the cell acting like a cushion for cell movement.
  • Nucleus, this contains DNA and all the cells genetic characteristics and also direct the activity of the cell.
  • Nuclear membrane, this is the layer that holds the nucleus separate from the cytoplasm.
  • Endoplasmic reticulum, there are two types of endoplasmic reticulum these are rough (moves protein made by ribosomes) and smooth(steroid and lipid distribution) but both move the materials around the cell.
  • Ribosomes, these are responsible for protein production in the cell and are known as the protein factories of the cell. The protein is required for cell repair and growth.
  • Golgi apparatus, These are known as the postal system of the cell they transport package and deliver proteins lipids and enzymes throughout the cells of the body.(Class notes 2015)
  • Mitochondria, Also known as the power house of the cell because they supply energy to the cell. Chemical reactions in the mitochondria are the difference with the cell surviving also the energy released results in the formation of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) which is the primary energy transporter in the cell.
  • Lysosomes, clean the cell of waste generated through parts of the cell being bad and also clean the cell of bacteria. They also aid in the breakdown of food particles and then can be used for energy in the cell.
  • Vacuoles, these are storage areas in the cell that contain secretions or waste that are made by the cytoplasm and in different types of cells are used for digestion or storage.
  • Nucleolus, this is a tiny body inside the nucleus that directs the formation of ribosomes in the cell which then are stored in the cytoplasm of the cell.

Part B

(ii)Classify tissues into the four main groups; epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous, give an example of each? (Table format will suffice)

Here I will construct a table to outline the four main groups of tissues and give an example of each as I understand them.






  • Skin
  • Intestines
  • Internal organs
  • Glands
  • Bone
  • Cartilage
  • Adipose
  • Blood
  • Skeletal muscle (voluntary)
  • Smooth (involuntary)
  • Cardiac (involuntary
  • Brain
  • Spinal cord
  • Nerves


The outer body is covered in epithelial skin this helps protect against infection keeping germs out and all of our blood and muscle tissue on the inside. Outer skin on the body.

This connects the bones to each other holding them together while cartilage reduces friction between bones. The femur and the patella are connected to the tibia and fibula.

This consists of muscle that can contract and relax and keeps the skeleton attached to the body. The heart is an involuntary muscle that beats to circulate blood around the body.

This type can transmit messages to the brain and from the brain to the rest of the body to warn of pain and for movement.(touching)

Part B

(iii) Explain the difference between benign and malignant tumours?

I will now explain the difference between benign and malignant tumours and their different effects on the body and how they affect us. Tumours are cells that escape from their normal function and multiply out of control. They then form a lump known as a growth or a tumour. (Class notes 2015)

  • Benign

A benign tumour is not cancerous and does not spread cancer to the rest of the body it is an isolated growth usually grows in size and can put pressure on the area it’s growing in. The benign tumour can be dangerous if it grows on the brain although it’s not cancerous it can continue to grow in size and put pressure on the brain and lead to major problems.

  • Malignant

All malignant tumours are cancerous and can spread through the body causing secondary tumours or metastases. Malignant tumours spread through the blood and lymphatic system around the body. Some malignant tumours can spread very quickly and aggressively to other parts of the body even though the primary tumour may still be small while sometimes they can grow slower and not spread as quickly. Through research it has become clear that malignant brain tumours are the most aggressive and have the ability to spread to the spine and other parts of the body. Although malignant tumours are treatable by surgery to remove the tumour and also may require a follow up treatment of radiotherapy and chemotherapy to rid the body of anymore cancerous cells malignant tumours can return.(nhs.uk 2015)

Part C

(ii)Explain the structure and function of each element of the urinary system?

The function of the urinary system is to clean the body of waste products and excess fluid and to also produce a hormone controlling at the rate red blood cells are made and the enzyme for regulation of blood pressure.





The kidney is a bean shaped organ that we have two of containing around 1 million nephrons in each kidney They are around 11cm long and 6cm wide weighing 150g. Kidneys are inside a membrane known as the renal capsule to protect it from trauma and infection. There are two main areas the renal cortex and the renal medulla.

The function of the kidney is to clean and filter your blood to also recycle fluids and nutrients required by the body and produce urine for excretion.


The ureter is around 12 inches long and connects kidneys to the bladder it’s made up of muscular tissue that contracts and also contains mucous to help prevent infection.

The function of the ureters is to carry the urine from the kidneys down to the bladder.


The human bladder is a hollow sac for storing urine it is comprised of three layers of smooth muscle and also coated with a mucous membrane and located in the pelvic area.

The bladders function is to store the urine. When the walls of the bladder contract this results in urination. The normal bladder can hold approx. 470ml of urine. In the bladder we have an internal sphincter which relaxes voluntarily to expel urine.


This is a tube that connects the bladder to the outside of the body.

The function of the urethra is to carry the urine from the bladder to the outside of the body it’s longer in men than women.

Part C

(iii)Draw the structure of a Nephron and explain how it produces urine?

Below I will draw the structure of the nephron and explain how the nephron produces urine to rid the body of waste fluids. We do not realise how important it is to dispel urine and how important it is to survive.

Each kidney contains about 1 million nephrons these are the filtration system for the body to clean the blood and expel waste and reabsorb nutrients.

Filtration in the Bowman’s capsule.

Blood travels into the kidneys by the afferent arterioles. These are small blood vessels that turn in to the glomerulus. Meshes of capillaries that are surrounded by the glomerular are also known as the Bowman’s capsule. The blood in these capillaries are under pressure and the capillary walls can let water and other materials through into the capsule. The capsule is a gathering point for the waste products of the blood. Although it has collected other materials that are not waste and shall be absorbed by the nephron as they pass through. (An introductory guide to anatomy and physiology (Louise Tucker) 4th edition)

Re-absorption in the convoluted tubule.

When the filtered materials are collected by the capsule they move into a system of twisted tubes that are known as convoluted tubules. The tubes that flow away from the bowman’s capsule are the proximal convoluted tubules. These flatten out to form a long loop, called the loop of Henle which flows to the medulla and back to the cortex. Lastly there is more twists called the distal convoluted tubules This is where the reabsorption takes place in these tubules. The cells in the lining can absorb any water, ions and water that the body requires and shouldn’t be disposed of as waste.

Only 1% of liquid that travels through the Bowman’s capsule is expelled as urine all the rest is reabsorbed. (An introductory guide to anatomy and physiology (Louise Tucker) 4th edition)

Collection in the pelvic calyces

This is where the nephron flattens out into a straight collecting tube in the medulla. These tubes form a collection called the pyramids of the medulla the tops of these travel up to the renal pelvis. These branches of the pelvis attach to the tops of the pyramids and gather the waste liquid. It’s the funnelled back towards the pelvis and then empties into the ureter and then can travel to the bladder and down to the urethra to be expelled as urine. (An introductory guide to anatomy and physiology (Louise Tucker) 4th edition).

(iv)Name and explain three diseases /disorders which affect the urinary system?

Kidney stones

These are solid stones which are made up from deposits from substances that are found in urine. They form and are found in the renal pelvis, ureters and the bladder they are very sore on the patient and sometimes require surgery for removal or can be broken down with laser treatment and then passed in the urine.


This is involuntary defecation or urination but mainly urination that is more common in the elderly, pregnant women or women that have had babies. It is the involuntary leaking of urine and also happens from sneezing or coughing or sometimes the bladder may be full and you may not make it to the toilet in time. It is very embarrassing for the people who suffer with it.


This is an inflammation of urethra and causes painful urination. This is the tube that carries the urine from the bladder to be expelled by the body. It is a bacterial infection and causes discomfort when urinating it can burn the sufferer when dispelling urine and it may cause discharge also. Though more common in women due to women having a shorter urethra than men.


(An introductory guide to anatomy and physiology (Louise Tucker) 4th edition)

(Class notes 2015)

(clevelandclinic.org 2015)

(healthline.com 2015)

(nhs.uk 2015)

(webmd.com 2015)


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