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Studying X-ray Binary Systems

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Physics
Wordcount: 2691 words Published: 1st Feb 2018

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1.0 Mission overview (0.5 pages max.)

In response to the recent XMM Mission, relating to a mission of studying X-ray binary systems, The XMM-Newton mission helped scientists in solving a numerous cosmic mysteries, starting from the enigmatic black holes to the details about the origins of the Universe. Observation time on XMM-Newton is provided to the scientific community, which is applying for observatory periods. The proposed orbit details provide an order of magnitude lower particle background than those of other missions like Chandra and XMM-Newton, which would allow the detailed study and analysis of low-surface-brightness diffuse objects.

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This proposed mission will be advancement on previous studies by the improvement in capabilities with response to scientific developments of the last few years and would match well with the goals set out in the recent call for ideas on x-ray observations. It can be also possible to increase the focal length of used micropore optics, which improves the high-energy response curve, hence this mission would thus be very highly significant in scientific and technological steps beyond Chandra/XMM-Newton and would serve important and timely inputs for the next upcoming generation of huge X-ray observatories like XEUS and Con-X planned for the upcoming years 2015-2025 horizons. This proposed next generation mission focuses on Image restoration technique as well as ultra high photon imaging using the concepts of morphological Image processing and enhancing image quality. All software and electronic hardware scientific research like VLSI design, SoC design are taken care in digital signal processing of the Image.

The proposed mission is called N-XMM Mission (Next Generation XMM Mission). That comprises solutions for next generation imaging devices.

1.1 Instruments

  • European Ultra high Photon Imaging Camera (EUPIC) – The MOS CCDs, EEV type 22, have 600 x 600 pixels, each 40 microns square; they are frame-transfer devices and front illuminated. One pixel covers 1.1” with Image restoration technique. This instrument would work upon the quality of image capturing (i.e. Ultra high quality) and initial Image Rendering
  • Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) – It contains 182 identical types of gratings. The gratings are supposed to be mounted at grazing incidence into the in-plane or classical configuration, where both the incident as well as diffracted X-rays lies in a plane that is perpendicular (900 angle) to the grating grooves. This instrument is helpful in spectrum sensing and processing of X-rays as well as determines the elemental composition of specimen that is to be analysed
  • Optical Monitor (OM) – The Optical/UV Monitor Telescope is mounted on the mirror support platform alongside the X-ray mirror module devices. It can provide coverage from 170 – 650 nm of that central 17 arc minute square region of the X-ray field, thus permitting routine multi-wavelength analysis and observations of Multi Mirror targets simultaneously in X-ray as well as UV/optical bands of frequency. This instrument helps in sensing simultaneous bands of energy waves that can be used for further analysis and can be digitally processed using SoC electronic devices in between only.

1.2 Mirror

The main mirror of the telescope will be Deployable Mirror. This will allow the spectral instruments to achieve resolutions from 0.000005032 arcseconds to 0.005032 arcseconds in the optical region of the spectrum.

1.3 Cooling System

The cooling system on board will be Passive, to achieve a temperature of 470 Kelvin. The minimum operating temperature required by the instruments is 40 Kelvin.

1.4 Comments? (max. 50 words)

– Cooling System is taken Passive because the satellite has a mass of 50 kg and passive cooling is best for mass of 50 kg of for EUPIC, RGS and OM with a temperature of 470 Kelvin

– R = 1.22 (lambda/D) where, R is resolution, lambda is the wavelength and wavelength for x-rays are ranging from 0.01nm to 10nm and D=0.5m.

2.0 Mass budget

The total mass of the satellite will be 73 kg. The breakdown of the individual components is given below:

Mass budget

Satellite Structure:

50 kg


3 kg

Cooling System:

20 kg


0 kg

Total Satellite mass:

73 kg

2.1 Orbit Selection

The satellite will observe from Lower Earth Orbit, at a distance of Less Than Thousand kms from Earth. The orbital period will be 90-100 minutes, and the maximum fuel lifetime for maintaining such an orbit is 10 years. The mission duration will therefore be 5 years.

2.2 Launch vehicle and site

To reach orbit, the satellite will be launched on a Soyuz, operated by Roscosmos (Russia), from Baikonur, Russia. The maximum capacity of this launch vehicle is 8 t.

2.3 Comments? (max. 50 words)

LEO Taken because it is having a desired launch cost and supports every cryogenic and passive cooling systems

3.0 Financial budget

The total cost of the mission will be 257 million, broken down over the following areas:

Cost breakdown

Satellite Structure:

100 million


12 million

Cooling System:

5 million



Development cost:

117 million

Launch cost:

120 million

Ground control cost:

20 million

Operations cost:

140 million

Total mission cost:

357 million

3.1 Comments? (max. 50 words)

Now advancement is required in image restoration techniques, morphological kind of image processing techniques and SAS analysis of DATA. In all these fields new software’s can be made and used for clearer details.

4.0 Technical & Scientific Justification

X-ray physics astronomy in space depends on the focusing of X-ray photons by low-angle scattering from fine shaped “shells”. In most of the cases this kind of “optics” contains two sets of nested concentric shells with their shapes identical and similar to sections of different cones. Two grazing-incidence scatters would result in focusing of the X-rays on the shell axis. The previous ESA’s XMM-Newton mission had three mirror modules with outer diameter 70 cm, that too each having 58 nested shells that would be focusing on the X-rays onto CCD detectors some distance of 7m from the mirrors. XMM is in a highly eccentric orbit having apogee distance 114000km, perigee distance 7000km and inclination angle 39ï‚°. In this highly eccentric orbit, it is exposed to fluxes of electrons and ions of various high energies from Magnetospheric and Heliospheric sources.

  • Big Data sets used for the analysis of different mission-critical engineering problems were produced by various scientific missions (IMP, SOHO, ACE, Equator-S, ISEE) which would never anticipate such applications
  • N-XMM has its own on-board radiation monitor similar to that we had in X-NMM, to which there can be an early resistance in the project preparation. It would be an important resource on the spacecraft;
  • Spacecraft operators would have a keen interest in the state of the space weather and hence would certainly use the predictions of particle enhancements.

N-XMM wouldinclude the following types of science instrument:

  1. European Ultra high Photon Imaging Camera (EUPIC) – 3 CCD cameras are used for X-ray imaging, high resolution spectroscopy, and X-ray photometry; XMM-Newtoncarries 2 MOS cameras and one pn. The gratings change the direction of about half of the telescope incident flux to the RGS detectors so that about approx. 44% of the original incoming flux sets to the MOS (Motor only sync) cameras. The EUPIC instrument at the focus point of the third X-ray telescope with an highly energised unobstructed beam; uses pn CCDs and hence is directed to as the pn camera. The EUPIC cameras perform task of extremely sensitive imaging analysis over the telescope’s field of view (FOV) of 25 arcmin and in the energy ranging from 0.11 to 24 keV with moderate spectral density (E/ΔE ~ 20-50). All EUPIC CCDs operates in photon counting mode with a fixed frequency and mode dependent frame read-out frequency
  2. Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) – Contains two very identical spectrometers for the purpose of high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy as well as spectro-photometry.
  3. Optical Monitor (OM) – Used for optical imaging, UV imaging and grism spectroscopy


$textstyle parbox{2cm}{{bf Satellite}}$

$textstyle parbox{2.5cm}{{bf Mirror~PSF {emFWHM} [$~{bf

$textstyle parbox{2.5cm}{{bf Mirror~PSF {em HEW}[$~{bf

$textstyle parbox{1.8cm}{{bf E~range [keV]}}$

$textstyle parbox{2.2cm}{{bf A$_{bf e}$space at 1 keV [cm$^{bf 2}$ ]$^a$ }}$

$textstyle parbox{2.8cm}{{bf Orbital target visibility [hr]}}$




0.15 – 15






0.1 – 10






0.1 – 24




4.1 Figures/Diagrams/Tables for Technical & Scientific Justification


Figure.1 – Payload Design

Figure.2 – Mechanical Design of XMM-OM Telescope




Figure.3 – Schematic view of available orbits.


Figure.4 – Images Taken by LASCO and EIT

Figure.5 – Optical Design of RGS


Frequency range

2200 .. 2290 MHz

Antenna output transmitting power

+36 dBm (+2 dBm / – 0 dBm)

Transmitter modulation

BPSK 4 Mbps

Power consumption

ï‚£30 W


Frequency range

2025 .. 2110 MHz


2058 MHz

holding range


Error bit rate

Less than10-6@–105 dBm

Receiver demodulation

BPSK 256 kbps

Power consumption

ï‚£3 W

Receiver sensitivity

-105 dBm min @ error bit rate = 10-6



circular/ RHC




max. 40dBm CW



Operational temperature

-40° … +120°C

Uplink frequency range

2025 … 2110 MHz

Downlink frequency range

2200…2290 MHz


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