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Helicopter Toy Parts and Material Analysis

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Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays.

Published: Mon, 12 Mar 2018

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

2. Selection Process of Suitable Materials

3. Potential Failure of Product

4. Sustainable Engineering Aspects of Selected Materials

5. Practical materials evaluation

Helicopter Base

Heli Pipe

Helicopter Case

Helicopter Rotor

6. Conclusion

7. References

1. Introduction

Now-a-days all over the world use of technology has been increased more than demands. In all aspects technology is surrounded us. Such use of technology comes from the concept of automation. To automate the communication system in the air helicopter connects the era to a new technological world. Helicopter has made the communication easier than before. It is used even the security purpose recently.

Helicopter mainly is used in the defense sector of a country. But today at every university is taking advanced step to do research on helicopter. Helicopter toy is used to do aerodynamic research in university laboratories. Drone is the latest recent research of helicopter.

“Everything should be automated” that is the motive of people of every sphere. Complexity of parts selection increases with the demands of them. To select the appropriate parts for a product implementation one is to take so many risks and hazards. It is not easy to choose quality products to be implemented. Quality product selection process enhances full process of the product implementation. New research demands new types of parts to buy for latest technology. Latest technology expands the way to do research more in the advanced level.

2. Selection Process of Suitable Materials

Before running a project or product we need to select appropriate materials that are available and appropriate for our design and design implementation. Some points need to be remembered before buying parts such as costs, availability, acceptability, material properties, environment friendly or not, stressing capability etc. Depending on these properties product is designed and shows performance. The best the quality of material the best the performance of the product. Performance evaluation completely depends on these properties.

For designing a helicopter the following parts are needed for basic functioning. Such as body, blade, blade shaft, fans, case, rotor, heli base, heli pipe etc. These parts are made of aluminum, plastic, carbon fiber, fiber glass etc. All the parts are available at stores. All the parts are bought separately from the near able and reliable stores and then assembled. After complete assembling a helicopter gets ready. After doing that rotating parts are set. The machine code need to be embedded and make the helicopter ready to fly. Maximum helicopter runs with remote control. If it happens then a remote control need to be bought with higher performance and radio frequency quality. If the remote control efficiency degrades then helicopter will not be operated from remote distance.

Remote control contains some area embedded on the board. The left portion controls the collective control and right side button controls the cyclic controls. It also contains throttle stick, direction stick, left and right trims buttons etc.

3. Potential Failure of Product

Some critical moments rises after buying the materials. The parts do not show their performances perfectly according to their specifications. Like, for helicopter, a rotor does not rotate according to the code embedded. This occurs because of the temperature or other natural effects. If any product says it is 100% efficient it shows 80-90% efficiency in reality. Some deviation happens each time. Calculations should be done considering these unavoidable issues.

Potential failure contains the metal fatigue and creep and their effects. When fatigue occur the metal get weakened and metal stress capability is lessened. Frequent loading and unloading cause fatigue to the metal properties. Fatigue depends on some other natural criteria such as temperature, humidity and metal stress. The stress tolerance capability of metal indicates the longevity. High stress tolerance let the metals to be lasted for more time. Steadiness of materials provides services to the developed products.

Another effect of failure or damage is creep of metal. Creep stands for deformation. Deformation of particles inside the metal depicts in the microscopic view.

4. Sustainable Engineering Aspects of Selected Materials

At the time of choosing materials for design engineering value should be added to this design. Engineering term increases the value of products. Engineering terms introduce a product with technical aspects. Every materials/parts should be technically evaluated. Technical evaluation makes the product acceptance to all. If a product meets the technical specification perfectly then the product is good for use. Technical specification depicts the product life cycle at once. Having higher product development life cycle lasting for long times.

Sustainability aspects of engineering contain four types of aspects. These are very suitable for a design a product and its implementation. These are

  1. Development process aspect defines sustainability of a process of product development at initial level. It considers the usage not only of natural but also financial resources.
  2. Maintenance process aspect defines the sustainability of product during its maintenance time. It occurs until the new system replacement.
  3. System production aspect is the sustainability of product as a real product.
  4. System usage aspect is the sustainability in the application level of a product as a real life product.

5. Practical materials evaluation

Helicopter Base

For better performance of helicopter base material should be strong and stress free. Corrosion is a real enemy of any metal substance. Base should be designed like a helicopter can land easily and comfortably. For this design magnesium and aluminum has been selected. The total substance of the heli base is a mixture of Magnesium and Aluminum. Where the percentage of Aluminum is 2.38% and Magnesium is 97.62% in the aspect of weight. The table showing the percentage of Aluminum and Magnesium is given below:

Heli Base Material List

Element

Weight %

Atomic %

Mg K

2.38

2.64

Al K

97.62

97.36

Total

100

100

Heli Pipe

Heli pipe is very important portion of helicopter development. It stands with the heli rotor. It helps rotor to move smoothly and swiftly.

Element

Weight %

Atomic %

C K

2.24

9.50

Si K

0.46

0.84

Cr K

18.74

18.37

Mn K

1.19

1.10

Fe K

68.68

62.68

Ni K

8.13

7.06

Cu K

0.56

0.45

Total

100

100

Helicopter Case

Helicopter case is for carrying the helicopter equipment together. All the equipment can be settled here. The case may be made of aluminum, fiber, plastic or steel.

Table for case of helicopter

Nr

1

Specimen width b0 mm

10.16

Specimen thickness a0 mm

1.7

S0 mm­­2

17.27

Rp 0.2 MPa

E-Modulus MPa

3146.43

RB MPa

38.13

W up to break J

0.27

Rm MPa

39.25

Fmax %

1.14

Break %

1.30

Helicopter Rotor

Heli rotor is the part that rotates and helps the helicopter to move upward. It rotates horizontally. It depends on the aerodynamic effects. The rotor consists of spider, blade, slider, pitch control rod, mast, damper, scissors assy, extension rod etc. The rotor moves not only horizontally but also vertically. It functions with the decentralized force to move. Using this feature it move left, right, up and down direction.

Nr

3

4

Specimen width b0 mm

7.52

8.02

Specimen thickness a0 mm

0.76

0.79

S0 mm­­2

5.715

6.336

Rp 0.2 MPa

41.36

40.86

E-Modulus MPa

2150.76

3748.69

RB MPa

38.92

28.66

W up to Fmax J

0.20

0.13

W up to break J

1.45

1.53

Rm MPa

46.63

47.89

Fmax %

2.27

1.10

Break %

12.81

12.25

From the above table it is clear a comparison has been done with Nr = 3 and Nr = 4. Column 2 stands for Nr3 and column 3 stands for Nr 4. Column 3 S0 value is less than column 4 where, W value upto Fmax is greater than column 4.

6. Conclusion

As helicopter is used frequently in the university researches its parts should be used more carefully. Doped materials can be harmful for product performance and evaluation. Aero dynamic calculation should be done very carefully with technical evaluation because if there is an unwanted occurrence from nature the product will face failure permanently. This should be in mind.

7. References

Budiyono, T. Sudyanto, H. Lesmana (2008), First Principle Approach to Modeling of Small Scale Helicopter

J. Gordon Leishman, Second Publish (2006), Principles of Helicopter Aerodynamics

Al-Oqla, F.M. and Dweiri, F.(2006), Material selection using analytical hierarchy process, International Journal of Computer Applications in Technology, vol.26, no.4, pp.182-189

Ashby, M.F. and Johnson, K.(2010), Materials and Design: The Art and Science of Material Selection in Product Design, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann

Ashby, M.F.(2005), Materials Selection in Mechanical Design, MRS Bulletin, vol.30, no.12, pp.994-997

Ashby, M.F. and Cebon, D.(1993), Materials selection in mechanical design, Journal of Physics, vol.3, no.C7, pp.C7-1- C7-9

Bijker, W.E.(1997), Of Bicycles, Bakelites, and Bulbs: Toward a Theory of Sociotechnical Change, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press

Boks, C. and Diehl, J.C.(2006), Integration of sustainability in regular courses: experiences in industrial design engineering, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol.14, no.9-11, pp.932-939

Lemaitre, J. and Desmorat, R.(2005), Engineering Damage Mechanics: Ductile, Creep, Fatigue and Brittle Failures, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Miller, W.S., Bottema, J., Zhuang, L., Smet. P.D. and Haszler, A.(2000), Recent development in aluminium alloys for the automotive industry, Materials Science and Engineering: A, vol.280, no.1, pp.37-49

Gareth D. Padfield, 2008, Helicopter Flight Dynamics, Page 75

Alastair Cooke, Eric Fitzpatrick, 2009, Helicopter Test and Evaluation, page 268

www.cis.cornell.edu/ics/compsust-org/compsust12/papers/24.pdf

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