The purpose of the blood pressure and pulse lab was to test many variables which could have an effect on blood pressure and pulse. The variable tested in this lab was the, “Effects of Changes in Posture”, the “Effects of Exercise”, and the “Effects of Cognitive Stress on Mean Arterial Pressure and Heart Rate”.
Blood is an essential factor for all living organisms. Blood is an important fluid within our bodies which delivers oxygen, nutrients and essential substances, to cells throughout the body. Blood also has the function of transporting various wastes materials / products, such as carbon dioxide, from various body cells through the respiratory and excretory organs. The activities performed in the blood pressure and pulse lab examined the rate at which blood flows throughout the body, and which factors would either increase or decrease the blood pressure, being the pressure of the blood within the circulatory system, and pulse pressure. Blood flow and blood pressure is determined by two distinct factors. These factors are the force needed to push the blood through the blood vessel and the amount of resistance of blood flow through the blood vessel. The average normal blood pressure in a healthy individual should be around 120/80 BP, but it is stressed that the blood pressure should remain a little lower than this pressure. The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system plays an important role in blood pressure and heart rate. The sympathetic nervous system through the Cardio acceleratory center increases heart rate in fight or flight situations. While the parasympathetic nervous system uses the cardio inhibitory center to decrease the heart rate.
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The mechanical events of the cardiac cycle are the sequences of events which take place in order for the heart to work properly. In the cardiac cycle there are two distinct phases. These two phases are the diastole phase and the systole phase. In the medical field the diastolic pressure and the systolic pressure are measured with the use of a stethoscope and Sphygmomanometer. The measure of pulse pressure refers to the difference between the systolic number (Top) and the diastolic number (Bottom). The normal blood pressure of a healthy individual is 120/80 BP; in this instance, the pulse pressure would equal 40mmHg (120 – 80 = 40mmHg). Blood pressure is constantly fluctuating; because of this doctors need to take an average blood pressure to adequately check for any complications in their parents. The average blood pressure is called the mean arterial pressure (MAP). To begin to calculated the mean arterial pressure one must first start by calculating the pulse pressure (PP). The Pulse pressure can be calculated by taking the difference between the systolic pressure (SP) and the diastolic pressure (DP); (PP = SP – DP).Using the Pulse pressure the mean arterial pressure can be calculated. The mean arterial pressure is equal to a third of the pulse pressure plus the diastolic pressure (MAP = DP + (PP*1/3) ).
The basic mechanical events of the cardiac cycle can be deduced into four phases. Phase one in the cardiac cycle is referred to as the First Diastole Phase. During the first diastole phase, the atria and ventricles within the heart are fully relaxed, as the Atrioventricular valves remain open. This allows De-oxygenated blood to flow to the right atrium, from both the superior and inferior vena cavae. The rate in which blood flows back into the heart is given the term Venous Return (De-oxygenated blood). The muscles incorporated in exercise require a lot of oxygen in order to perform their function, as a result there would be an increase in venous return. Blood within the right atrium is emptied into the right ventricle though the Atrioventricular or Tricuspid valve. At the end of diastole (the loading or filling phase), the amount of blood accumulated in the right or left is referred to as the end-diastolic volume (EDV).
The second phase of the cardiac cycle is referred to as the first systolic phase. During this phase the right ventricle receives incoming electrical signals from the purkinje fibers, which are the fibered branches which extend from the Atrioventricular bundle, in the intraventricular sulcus of the heart, and are dispersed from the apex of the heart. The purkinje fibers signal the ventricles to contract, which closes the Atrioventricular valves and forces the semilunar valves to open, pushing de-oxygenated blood into the pulmonary arteries. The pulmonary arteries’ function is to prevent the flow of blood back into the right ventricle. All of the blood is never fully ejected from the ventricles after systole. The amount of blood which remains in the ventricle at the end systole is known as end-systolic volume (ESV). The end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic help to calculate the stroke volume (SV) which is the volume of blood ejected from one ventricle during each beat. The stroke volume can be calculated by taking the difference between end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume, (SV = EDV – ESV). The stroke volume can also be used to calculate the cardiac output, or the rate at which blood is ejected from the heart, (CO = HR x SV).
In the second diastolic phase, the semilunar valves are closed and the Atrioventricular valves are opened, as a result oxygenated blood within the pulmonary veins and beings to fill within the left atrium. At the same time, blood from both vena cavae fills within the right atrium. The mitral valve closes preventing any oxygenated blood from flowing back within the left atrium. In the second systolic phase, Atrioventricular valves close and semilunar valves open. Similar to the first systolic phase, Purkinje fibers send messages to the ventricles signaling them to contract, in which oxygenated blood is pumped into the aorta. The aortic semilunar valve prevents any oxygenated blood from pumping directly back into the left ventricle.
Reclining for 3 minutes
It is expected that arterial pressure and pulse rate would most likely decrease; when someone is resting the body is controlled by the parasympathetic system which uses the cardio inhibitory center to decrease heart rate.
Standing up quickly after reclining for 3 minutes
It is expected that arterial pressure and pulse rate will increase, when the subject is in the standing position versus when they are laying down their blood has to overcome gravity and the heart has to work harder to produce the force necessary to push blood to the upper limbs.
Standing at attention for 3 minutes
It is expected that arterial pressure will decrease compare to standing up quickly after reclining for 3 minutes, because 3 minutes is a long enough period for the body to adjust to the effects of gravity and to assess the force needed to pump blood to the upper extremities. It is hypothesized that the standing at attention for 3 minutes’ data will be an intermediate between the reclining test and the standing up quickly after reclining test.
Immediately after exercising
it is expected that arterial pressure and pulse pressure will increase, because muscles involved in the exercise demand more oxygen which will increase the amount of venous return and increase the heart rate and pulse pressure.
One, Two, and Three, minutes post exercise
It is expected that arterial and pulse pressure will decrease compared to immediate testing after exercise. As the individual begins to rest after strenuous exercise the body begins to incorporate the parasympathetic nervous system and through the cardio inhibitor center, it begins to decrease the heart rate.
It is expected that cognitive stress will increase the blood pressure slightly, because stress is believed to trigger the sympathetic nervous to increase the heart rate.
“For Procedures, Refer to Lab 6, Activity 2, in the Anatomy and Physiology Lab Manual”
Data & Results:
Lab Activities Data Tables
Proper use of the Sphygmomanometer:
Subject: Brianna Burton
We were told by the instructor there was no need to perform a trial 2
Effect of Postural Changes
Subject: Same as above
Sitting Quietly (Baseline)
Reclining (After 2-3 minutes)
Immediately Upon Standing
After Standing for 3 Minutes
Subject: (Well-Conditioned) Aaron Banks Fitness Index: 50
Subject: (Poorly-Conditioned) Justin Kim Fitness Index: 44
HR: 90 BPM
HR: 101 BPM
HR: 103 BPM
HR: 100 BPM
HR: 98 BPM
HR: 98 BPM
HR: 87 BPM
MAP: 96.67 mmHg
MAP: 97.33 mmHg
MAP: 89.33 mmHg
MAP: 92 mmHg
MAP: 84 mmHg
MAP: 84 mmHg
BP: 122/98 mmHg
BP: 128/90 mmHg
BP: 138/86 mmHg
BP: 120/82 mmHg
BP: 122/90 mmHg
BP: 122/90 mmHg
HR: 82 BPM
HR: 120 BPM
HR: 119 BPM
HR: 111 BPM
HR: 110 BPM
HR: 110 BPM
HR: 108 BPM
MAP: 106 mmHg
MAP: 102.67 mmHg
MAP: 103.33 mmHg
MAP: 94.67 mmHg
MAP: 106.67 mmHg
MAP: 100.67 mmHg
MAP: 103.33 mmHg
Number of misspelled words forward = 1
Number of misspelled words backward = 3
The purpose of the “blood pressure and pulse” lab was to test many variables which could have an effect on blood pressure and pulse. The variables tested in this lab were the, “Effects of Changes in Posture”, the “Effects of Exercise”, and the “Effects of Cognitive Stress on Mean Arterial Pressure and Heart Rate”.
In activities the variable being tested is the “Effects of Changes in Posture”. For the baseline the subject, in this case Brianna, sat quietly as her baseline blood pressure, pulse rate, was tested, and her mean arterial pressure (MAP) was calculated. The results for Brianna’s blood pressure was 110/70 mmHg, which is about the average blood pressure (120/70 mmHg) in a healthy individual. Her Pulse pressure was 80 beats per minute (BPM). Given these values her baseline MAP, was calculated to be 83.33 mmHg (MAP = 70 + ((110 – 70))*1/3) ). In the next test, the effect of reclining for 2-3 minutes was tested. In this test, after reclining for 2-3 minutes, her blood pressure, and MAP remained the same as the Baseline test. It was observed that her pulse rate did in fact decrease: (80 > 76 BPM), though it is not known if this decrease in the pulse rate is significant enough. In the hypothesis above it was expected that arterial pressure and pulse rate would most likely decrease when someone is resting because parasympathetic nervous system would begin to signal the body to relax affecting the cardiac centers (CAC deactivated CIC activated). The activation of the cardio inhibitory center decreases the heart rate and pulse pressure.
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For the next test the “Effect of standing quickly after 3 minutes of reclining was tested. Immediately after standing up, her Blood pressure, Pulse rate and MAP was determined. Her blood pressure was 118/78 mmHg, her Pulse Rate was 92 BPM and her MAP was 91.33 mmHg. The MAP was calculated by using the formula: (91.33 mmHg = 78 + ((118-78))*1/3)). During this test Brianna’s Blood pressure, Pulse Rate and MAP significantly increased, ((BP: 110/70 >> 118/78 mmHg) (PR: 80 >> 92 BPM) (MAP: 83.33 >> 91.33 mmHg) as expected in the hypothesis. In the hypothesis it was expected that arterial pressure and pulse rate would increase, when the subject is in the standing position versus when they are lying down. When Brianna quickly stood up her heart had to overcome the effects of gravity; the heart has to work harder to produce the force needed to effectively push blood to the upper limbs and the head. Also immediately standing activates the sympathetic nervous system, which activates the CAC increasing heart rate. This hypothesis is accepted, based on her data the blood pressure, pulse rate and MAP did in fact increase when she stood up.
Next we tested the “Effects after standing for 3 minutes”. After standing for 3 minutes Brianna’s blood pressure was 112/72 mmHg and her pulse rate was 85 BPM. Given these values her MAP for this test was calculated to be 85.33 mmHg (MAP = 72 + (112-72)*1/3). In the hypothesis it is expected that the arterial pressure would have decreased compared to the standing up quickly after reclining for 3 minutes test. It was hypothesized that arterial pressure would decrease because 3 minutes is a long enough period from the body to properly adjust to the effects of gravity and to assess the force needed to pump blood to the upper extremities. As stated in the hypothesis the blood pressure, pulse rate and MAP did in fact decrease based on the standing for 3 minutes test, because of this, the hypothesis can be accepted (BP: 110/70 >> 112/72 mmHg) (PR: 80 >> 85)) (MAP: 83.33 mmHg >> 85.33)
In the next test, we tested the effects of exercise on the Body, comparing a “well-conditioned” person and a “poor-conditioned person”. For the first test a well-conditioned person was chosen. The baseline BP for this individual was around 132/80 mmHg. Immediately after exercise the blood pressure was 132/80 mmHg. This shows that there was an increase of blood pressure dependent on the effects of exercise. In the hypothesis it is expected that arterial pressure and pulse pressure will, increase, because muscles involved in the exercise also increase the venous return which will increase heart rate. For this test as hypothesized the Heart rate also increased (90 >> 101 BPM). After 5 minutes of resting the blood pressure and Heart of the subject decreased lower than the baseline, indicating some level of human error in reading the equipment effectively. Despite this, it is found that the blood pressure and pulse rate at 5 minutes was significantly lower from the baseline in the well-conditioned person vs. the poor conditioned person. In the poor conditioned person. Their baseline blood pressure was 122/98 mmHg and after exercising for 5 minutes it was 128/90 mmHg. After 5 minutes the poor conditioned person’s blood pressure was 118/96 mmHg. Again in this experiment it’s hard to compare the two subjects because there seems to be some human errors in effectively checking the blood pressure since it is lower than the baseline. After 5 minutes the well-conditioned persons systolic pressure dropped from 128>>108 SP despite the diastolic pressure increasing from 70 >> 72 mmHg DP. The fitness index to the well-conditioned person was 50 and 44 for the poor conditioned person. Based on the fitness index both subjects display the poorest physical conditioning possible.
For the final test the effects of cognitive stress was tested. Based on this experiment’s results it is difficult to determine whether or not cognitive stress had any effect on the blood pressure. It was hypothesized that cognitive stress would increase heart rate because stress activates the sympathetic nervous system, which increases the heart rate. There seems to be no correlation between cognitive stress and heart rate, so the hypothesis is rejected.
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