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Ethics are principles of professionals conduct. Ethics is broader than what is stated by law, customs and public opinion. For example, accepting gifts from father in law might be socially acceptable but not ethically.
Ethical behaviour may differ from society to society for example: birth control is mandatory in communist societies but not in catholic Christian society.
Ethical standards are ideals of human conduct. Defining ethical standards is not an easy task.
Ethics is the study of standards of conduct and moral judgment; moral philosophy, a treatise on this study. Thus we say that ethics is the system or code of morals of a particular person, religion, group, profession, etc.
Ethics, according to VSP RAO (2004) is defined Ethics as: "a body of principles or standards of human conduct that govern the behaviours of individuals and groups. Ethics arise not simply from man's creation but from human nature itself making it a natural body of laws from which man's laws
Ethics has been applicable to economics, politics and political science, leading to several different and unrelated fields of applied ethics, including Business ethics and Marxism. Ethics has been applied to family structure, sexuality, and how society views the roles of individuals; leading to several distinct and unrelated fields of applied ethics, including feminism. Ethics has been applied to war, leading to the fields of pacifism and nonviolence
Business ethics can be defined as blueprints of principles and values that governing decisions and actions within a company. In the business world, the organization's culture sets standards for ascertaining the difference between good and bad decision making and behaviour.
A definition for business ethics boils down to knowing the difference between right and wrong and choosing to do what is right. The phrase 'business ethics' can be used to describe the actions of individuals within an organization, as well as the organization as a whole.
WHAT IS ENGENEERING ETHICS?
Engineering ethics course is not about preaching virtue rather, its objective is to increase your ability as engineers to responsibly confront moral issues raised by technological activity.
CODE OF ETHICS FOR ENGINEERS
Engineers Uphold and advance the integrity, honour and dignity of the engineering profession by:
I. Analysing their knowledge and skill for the enhancement of human welfare;
II. Being honest and impartial, and serving with fidelity the public, their employers and clients:
III. Making efforts to increase the competence and prestige of the Engineering profession
FUNDAMENTAL CONNONS FOR ENGINEERING ETHICS
1. Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health and Welfare of the public in the performance of their Professional duties.
2. Engineers shall perform services only in the areas of their competence.
3. Engineers shall issue public statements only in an Objective and truthful manner.
4. Engineers shall act in professional matters for each Employer or client as faithful agents or trustees, and shall avoid conflicts of interest.
5. Engineers shall build their professional reputation on the merit of their services and shall not compete unfairly with others.
6. Engineers shall act in such a manner as to uphold and enhance the honour, integrity and dignity of the profession.
7. Engineers shall continue their professional development throughout their careers and shall provide opportunities for the professional development of those engineers under their supervision.
WHAT IS ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS
Environmental ethics determines classical ethics to a breaking point Environmental ethics involves high risk. Environmental ethics requires risk. Environmental ethics help in ascertaining poorly charted terrain, where it is easy to get lost. One must hazard the kind of insight that first looks like foolishness. Some people see environmental ethics with a positive frame of mind--expecting rights for rocks and chicken liberation, misplaced concern for chipmunks and daisies. Elsewhere, you think, ethicists deal with sober concerns: medical ethics, business ethics, and justice in public affairs, questions of life and death, peace and war.
Environment ethics aims at appropriate respect for life. But we do not just need a humanist ethic applied to the environment, analogously to the ways we have needed one for business, law, medicine, technology, international, or nuclear disarmament. Respect for life demands an ethic concerned about human welfare, like the others and now concerning the environment. But environmental ethics in a broader sense stands on a frontier, as radically theoretical as it is applied.
1.2 IMPORTANCE OF ETHICS IN ORGANIZATION
Ethical consideration in business is important to managers as individual's personals life and business life cannot be neatly separated with respect to moral judgements. A lot of factors contributed for ethical consideration becoming a primary concern for today's organizations. Some factors are discussed below:
1: If organization does not behave in accordance with the social system expectation, it might not merely lose its market share or face another piece of legislated control but might lose its very right to exist.
2: Even if the manager insist on a narrow definition of his role as merely a producer of goods, it is essential that he take these intangibles into consideration since they are the real motivating force in an organization.
3: The public is insisting that business leaders are, in fact responsible for the general social welfare that the manager's responsibility go far beyond those of running the business.
4: Ethics play a crucial role in organization as without ethics organization may go hay why from its ultimate goal and as a result the real sense for existence remain undercover .
5: Ethics are the backbone of the organization. In absence of this backbone the organization would not be able to maintain healthy relations between employee and employee, employee and employer, employer and managers etc.
1.3 BREIF SUMMARY OF ASSIGNMENT
The assignment on ethics clearly states what are the moral values, beliefs, thinking etc. which are socially acceptable. This assignment helps to give a clear picture about what is accepted and what is not accepted, what is ethical and what is unethical, what is good and what is bad etc. It also help in understanding that ethics do differ from people to people moreover from society to society(birth control is mandatory in communist societies but not in catholic Christian society) This assignment describe the definition of ethics, its important both in society and in organization. Thus we say that this assignment help one to understand the insight of the prevailing conditions stating what is accepted and what is not.
WHAT IS ETHICAL DILEMMAS?
Ethical dilemma is also known as moral dilemmas. An ethical dilemma is a situation or problem in which each available and possible course of action breaches some otherwise binding moral principles to decide what is ethical and what is unethical.
Thus we say that moral dilemmas refer to a situation which involves conflict between moral requirements. These situations have very apparent conflict between moral imperative
IS NUCLEAR ENERGY SAFE?
Yes nuclear energy is safe because we know nuclear energy is useful, clean and effective because, at present, 137 nuclear reactors are generating more than one-third of Western Europe's electricity and 440 in all are supplying one-seventh of the world's electricity
Earlier some people misunderstood the by-product of nuclear energy i.e. Radiation as deadly. But radiation is part of our natural environment and we can survive with it. All of us are exposed to natural radioactivity every minute, mainly from rocks and soil. The radiation bombarding us increases up to 10% when we sleep next to another human. Nuclear power is a gift from nature. It can be harnessed cleanly and safely.
NUCLEAR ENERGY ENVIRONMENTFRIENDLY
The nuclear energy is environment friendly as it is safe and it could be explain via example.
1: The Exelon Corporation runs 17 nuclear power plants all over the country and shows how these plants help reduce climate change.
2: The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is a non-profit group, which works to reduce climate change through methods of nuclear energy production.
These are one of those groups working to create new technologies that will make nuclear power a safer and more environmental friendly source of energy because they believe it is a necessary source for controlling climate changes.
Perhaps Nuclear energy has the lowest impact on the environment including flora, fauna, air, land, and water. It produces no harmful greenhouse gases, isolates its waste from the environment, and requires less area to produce the same amount of electricity as compare to other sources.
NUCLEAR ENERGY COST EFFECTIVENESS
The nuclear energy is not at all cost effective because the biggest financial crunch with nuclear power is the time period it takes to build the reactor. Large and heavy construction together with the various public notices and enquiries and legal procedure makes it an expensive process. Moreover Construction alone will take 5-6 years. During this time interest must be paid to the creditor without any return since no electricity will be produced till construction work is complete.
NUCLER ENERGY USEFUL TO UK'S SOCIETY AND PUBLIC
Nuclear energy is useful UK's society and public due to certain reasons which are discussed below:
1: POWERING OUR ECONOMY: Through nuclear energy the United Kingdom generates a fifth of the country's electricity (19.26% in 2004). The Nuclear Installations Inspectorate oversees all nuclear power installations and, as of 2006, the United Kingdom operates 24 nuclear reactors. The country also uses nuclear reprocessing plants, such as Sell afield
2: DEVELOPMENT: Nuclear energy in playing an important role in development as in year 2007, there have been some significant developments towards nuclear fusion being implemented to solve the predicted energy crisis, most significantly and recently the drawing-up of plans to build one fusion power station, that will 'supply power to the National Grid within.
3: REDUCTION IN POLLUTION: The major cause of pollution is the burning of fossil fuels. Nuclear energy plants produce electricity through the fission of uranium, not the burning of fuels. Consequently, nuclear power plants do not pollute the air with nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, dust or greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide etc.
MAP SHOWING NEW NOMINATED NUCLEAR SITES IN ENGLAND
HOW TO SOLVE ETHICAL DELIMMAS
There are certain things that make ethical dilemmas particularly difficult to solve is that they often involve conflicts between two or more deeply held beliefs. Consider the example given below:
A friend of yours just had a baby. He's the most homely baby you've ever seen. While holding her new baby boy in her arms, your friend asks, "Isn't he the best looking baby you've ever seen? Now you value honesty. But you also believe you shouldn't needlessly hurt someone's feelings. You have an ethical dilemma!
According to my analysis and conception ethical dilemmas could be sought out in three ways:
1: KNOW YOUR VALUES: There are certain values about which society agrees. For example, we tend to value honesty. Our discussion here isn't designed to change your values - instead, it's about applying them. Before you can apply them, you have to know what they are.
2: SELECT A MODEL: According to the analysis, Moral Issues in Business, ethical theories can be divided into two classifications: consequential theories (the formal term for these is teleological theories) and non-consequential theories (formal name is deontological theories). As a result a proper model is must.
3: USE A PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS: Now you know your values and you have a model with which to apply them. The remaining piece is to follow an orderly process to solve the problem, because not all ethical dilemmas are as simple as your friend and her baby that we discussed in the previous example.
ETHICAL RESONING: Ethical reasoning is a type of reasoning directed towards deciding what to do and, when successful. And it comes into play when various individuals enter into relationships with mutual obligations. Ethical reasoning involves weighing of values held by the individuals to result in some course of action or outcome. In short it is a deciding factor determining what is ethical and unethical.
3.1 MORAL VALUES:
Moral values is a combination of moral (i.e. what is ethical) and values (i.e. social principles) MORAL+VALUES. Moral values are essentially what society views as acceptable, or fundamentally right. Moral values often originate from religious views and understanding. Morals can be things that aren't necessarily dictated by laws, example, it's may not be illegal to have an affair, but is it morally right? Moral views can also be reflected in the laws passed, such as the proposition at concerning the sanctity of marriage. You could view the moral value of the public as shifting, seeing how a proposition like that is even necessary.
3.2 ALLERNATIVE TO NUCLEAR ENERGY
At present there are large numbers of alternatives which are available for nuclear energy. But the alternative I am giving is based on my conception and theory which is discussed below:
"Just select a particular land suitable for cultivation only by natural means in order to maintain the fertility so that the soil is unaffected. Plant more trees. Within the duration for the growth of the trees construct some turbines and equipment's just nearer to the cultivated lands. Cut half of the plants and burn it so that the steam is used to drive turbines from which we can produce electricity. The merit is that the Carbon di-oxide liberated will be consumed by the trees itself. So it is eco-friendly and non-polluting. As bio manures are used the fertility of the soil is maintained. It'll be an efficient method. May it is modest now but definitely when compared to hazardous wastes in nuclear energy its better."
3.3 ANALYSIS ON NUCLEAR ENERGY
Unlike every coin has two aspects "A NEGATIVE AND A POSITIVE "similar is the case with nuclear energy it has positives as well as negatives.
4. My recommendation to the UK government would be to attain "a perfect balance" between use of nuclear energy and use of other alternative (renewable) sources like solar, dams, wind power etc. Because To generate nuclear energy uranium fuel is used, use an isotope of uranium which is then subjected to nuclear fission.
And it leads to radiation as a result it leads to saviour diseases like cancer etc. So the UK government should be cautious regarding nuclear energy and should operate within the limits aiming at a perfect balance with other alternatives.
4.1 HUMAN CENTERED ETHICS
It is also known as "anthropocentrism" The anthropocentric belief is that human beings are the sole bearers of intrinsic value or possess greater intrinsic value than non-human nature. It is therefore acceptable to employ the resources of the natural world for only human ends. Anthropocentric ethics is adequate to the task of grounding care for the natural environment. The human involvement in ethics play a very crucial role thus we say that anthropocentrism focus on human ethics.
4.2 SCIENTIFIC CENTERED ETHICS
The term scientific ethics may refer to the ethics of doing science. Scientific ethics is a branch of applied ethics. Scientific ethics is a subset of professional ethics, the special rules of conduct adhered to by people engaged in those pursuits called professions. It is distinct from, but consistent with, both ordinary morality and moral theory. The codes of professional ethics derive from the two bargains that define a profession: the internal code of practice and the external bargain between the profession and society.
4.3 BIOCENTRIC ETHICS
Bio centric ethics refer to any theory that views all life as possessing intrinsic value is known as bio centric ethics. Bio centric ethics represents a significant departure from classical and traditional ethical thinking. I.e. it focuses on attitude and character rather than moral values.
4.4 ECOCENTRIC ETHICS
The term eco centric ethics was propounded by" Aldo Leopold's" according to him Any ethics that places an emphasis on ecological wholes and moves away from individual plants and animals; value is placed on these ecological systems as wholes. Thus we say that ecocentric ethics are the holistic ethics rather than the individualistic ethics. Ecocentric ethics appeals to ecology in one way or another for help in explaining and defending its conclusions.
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