Shawshank Redemption | Organizational Behaviour

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19th May 2017 Philosophy Reference this

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The movie I have chose in doing this assignment is Shawshank Redemption. This is a movie based on hope, friendship and strength. The Shawshank Redemption stars Tim Robbins as Andy Dufresne, he is the lead character and Morgan Freeman as Red. The original story is based on the book Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption written by Stephen King . Frank Darabont wrote the screenplay and directed the movie in 1994. This movie was released on September 1994.

The purpose of doing this assignment is to relate the movie Shawshank Redemption and apply it in the field of study which is ‘Organizational Behavior’. In doing this assignment, we have to examine the main characters and their differences, personality type and attitude. We also need to observe their emotions and mood portrayed. Apart from that, we need to identify if there is any perceptual bias in this movie and whether or not they are using the decision making process model when there is a need for important decision making. Motivational theories application, teamwork effectiveness, leadership style and power tactics are also crucial subtopics in relating it with the movie. The last two part of this assignment is to study if there is any conflict in this movie and the last part is about the change tactics implemented.

Analysis of Movie

The director of the movie Shawshank Redemption has establish a specific quality of his work as evident in the movie. The genre of this movie as stated in internet movie database is a combination of both drama and crime thriller. This is because the movie is based on prison life and how the hero adapt to the new situation which is in the prison life after been accused of murdering his wife and her lover and this is also classified as crime thriller because the storyline of this movie centered about criminal behavior of not only the inmates but the misconduct of guards and warden as well.

The Shawshank Redemption was directed by Frank Darabont based on the nove Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption by author Stephan King. This movie was made in 1994 and this movie was a 1994 motion picture adapted. This movie use a formlistic style which focused on the formal, or technical, elements of a film: i.e., the lighting, scoring, sound and set design, use of color, shot composition, and editing. The director of this movie try to make audience slowly and gradually noticed each personality or traits of each character in this movie instead of aggressively show to audience their distinct traits. The position of the camera or the angle chosen in this movie was not from a usual perspective or angle. Shawshank Redemption is one example of classical films.

The cinematography of this movie is by Roger Deakin. The movie had create a dramatic impact towards the audience by their options of color filter, the color chosen for example like the scenery outside the prison covered with walls and brick enhance the colour brown and when they are in the prison cell wearing their blue uniform, the color blue appeals more attractive.

This movie plays a lot with darkness and shadow. This is especially the scene when there is a violence involved for example the scene when the guards beats up the prisoners, though we can’t really see it because of the low light, we can still sense the presence of violence. When the guards walks or passed by the shadows followed, this reflects their dark side characters which is violent, harsh and have no mercy.

The climax of this movie does not give direct understanding to audience until the later scene, It gives audience the sense of suspend ,and the final part of this movie gives audience a feeling of surprise and excitement, after Andy had successfully escaped from the prison.

Lesson Learnt from the Movie ‘Shawshank Redemption’

Persistence

Andy is someone who is persistent and patience in reaching a specific aim or goal. Unlike many others, Andy do not easily give up even if there is a small obstacle stopping him. Andy keeps on trying and without fail to follow up with the authorities whom he asked for the fund to expand the library until it got approved. He wrote a letter a week for many years. He tried despite the fact that the warden told him they might not give him any money and finally Andy request was granted. Another good example that can be shown from this movie is when Andy requested a rock hammer in which he intend to make a hole at his cell wall to escape through the sewage tunnel. Even though he knows it might take years or maybe decade to accomplish it he determinedly and persistently commit to it because that is the only way he could escaped and he had ,managed to do so without anybody suspicions. This is to say ‘patience has a virtue’.

Look out for Opportunities make the best out of situation

In this movie, Andy had used his experience as a banker to gain trust from the guards and warden so it will be easier for him to get his plan accomplished if he had already established a basic foundation which is trust from them. In one of the scene, Andy overhears the captain guards complaining to his colleague about taxes that he has to pay for upcoming inheritance that he will get. Andy then takes opportunity from this situation by offering him advice about managing the taxes so he can avoid paying the tax for the inheritance. Later on, all the guards in the prison look up for him for advice. This situation gives him advantage as he is assigned to a special task when everybody came to see him to seek advice. Andy also gain warden trust in dealing with his illegal financial matters. This gives Andy advantage as it is easier to execute his freedom plan

The lesson that can be learned from here is we must look for opportunity in any difficult situation. Even in very bad circumstances, there is a way to get out of it by looking up for the options available to make the best out of the bad situation.

Hope and faith

Andy did not lose faith even when he was accused of murdering his and her lover and was sentenced to life imprisonment. He knew there is still hope for him that he would get out from the prison even if it took decades. Andy spent his time mostly hoping for a better future;to be free, escape from jail. He has his vision clear in mind and had planned it thoroughly. Andy starts working towards his vision the moment he first step into the prison. Andy has faith in what he is doing, this can be seen when he commits in executing the plan without anyone suspecting him.

Andy also sparks hopes for Red. This is because before Red met Andy, Red has lost his hope accepting that he will never see freedom again however Andy has change Red and that he then he now have some light of hope and the sense of possibility for him to be free.

Andy does not only have faith in himself but also with Tommy. Tommy is the new con that just gets in to Red’s group. Tommy approaches Andy because he wants to get his GED and have heard that Andy had helped few inmates before. Andy then spends a lot of time teaching Tommy because Tommy doesn’t even know how to read. It can seen clearly from this situation that Andy have faith in Tommy otherwise he wouldn’t teach him and Andy hopes the best for Tommy in taking the test and at the end Tommy did pass the test with C+ though at first Tommy feels he will not pass the test and that has let Andy down after all the hard work.

Hope is a fundamental basis for all future plans and dreams. Without hope, one can never believe that life can change better. Hopeful people will not easily gave up on their mission to improve the life circumstances even when there is an obstacle. Andy has also mentioned in letter he wrote to Red “Remember, Red. Hope is a good thing, maybe the best of things, and no good thing ever dies. I will be hoping that this letter finds you, and finds you well. Your friend, Andy Dufresne.”

Success is a reward for hardship

Andy is rewarded with freedom after decades of hardship. Andy had spent 19 years digging a tunnel every night to escape prison. He had carve a chess piece from the rock and the Andy hides the residual rocks in his pants and safely dispose then on the prison ground during outdoor activity. Andy quest for freedom had made him determined in doing the task given to him with hope that he get to take advantage out of every situation. When Andy had escaped from the it is like a payback for all the hardship he went through in the prison, the excitement that only a free man can feel after a long journey in which the outcome is not certain.

Islamic Perspective

In the movie Shawshank Redemption, we could see that there a number of Islamic values that is upheld especially by the main character Andy Dufresne. We could also see some opposing values that is highlighted in this movie. From Islamic perspective, the Islamic values that is visible are we must help those who is need and patience has a virtue. The discouraging act in this movie on the other hand is in a total disagreement with the Islamic values and principle, for example, we should not give up in life by committing suicide, we must not get involve in corruption, bribe or swindling money, we should not take someone’s else life on purpose.

Values that is accordance to Islam in this movie ;

We must help those who is in need

In Islamic perspective, Allah wants us to be kind and help those who is in need without expecting any return from them. In this movie, Andy had willing to teach Tommy who is illiterate until he passes his exam. Andy is someone who is kind hearted and willing to help his friend.

Patience has a virtue

Patience is to be said as a condition for success and prosperity. It is shown from this movie that Andy patience is rewarded with freedom. This shows the importance of being patient and how patience can make us be a better person. Andy is patient and even in a bad situation, he remains calm.

We should not give up in life by committing suicide

In this movie Brooks gone crazy after known that he will be set free soon. This is because he had institutionalized. After few days out from the prison Brook had commit suicide by hanging himself with a rope because he couldn’t handle freedom and think there is no life for him out there because he was in prison almost all his life. From Islamic point of view, suicide is forbidden and we must not give up in life and must have faith everything has a way out. We must pray to Allah and zikir so can find peace in our self and that can lead us in rational state or mind

We must not involve in corruption

Allah had forbid us from practicing bribery and swindle money. The practice of bribery involves power abuse or profit gaining which contradicts to human law and moral. In this movie, the warden is corrupt and takes bribes. The Warden makes a plan to send the prisoners out on a community service program. The warden then takes bribes from other construction companies because the inmates are taking job away from these companies. He then asked Andy to launder money for the warden by setting up many account in different banks using a false identity he create. From Islamic point of view accept a bribe in any form and in any circumstances is forbidden. It is also haram to give a bribe to someone else as this is to get something which is the right of someone else. Therefore it is our interest to avoid involving in corruption

Do not involve in killing or murder

It is not allowed to murder anyone who is innocent of any crime. In Islam if we kill someone who ids innocent we are committing a huge sin. In this movie, the warden had killed Tommy because Tommy is a key escape for Andy as he knows the real person who actually murders Andy’s wife and her lover. Tommy had heart his previous cellmate told him about shooting a couple in a club house and later on his husband gets blamed. Andy than told the warden what he just knew , warden then had Tommy shot to death and tell everyone he got shot when he was trying to escape. The rationale behind his action is he don’t want Andy to release and tell the authority about the money laundering and murder in the prison.

The main storyline about this Shawshank Redemption

The story is about a banker named Andy Dufresne that works in Maine. He has been convicted of murdering his wife and her professional golfer lover. He was announced guilty and sent to the dangerous Shawshank Prison. He feels lonely and isolated at first. He then befriends a fellow inmate that had been convicted for a long time named Red. Red befriend with him because Red can sense there is something in Andy. Red has the capability to smuggle in things into the prison. Andy’s first request made to Red is a rock hammer and he said that he like to collect rocks and sculpting as a hobby but Red thinks that Andy will use the rock hammer as a tool to escape from the prison. Next, he requests a poster.

Overtime, Andy befriend prison guards and give them his skill in financial as an advisor to them. One particular guard has an eye for him to use Andy for his benefit which is to use Andy bookkeeping skill in order to organize a money laundering scheme for him, so that he can use the laundered money after he retires. Andy takes up project expand the prison library by writing letters to Maine state senate for funds. When the library has more resources and materials, he also helps the other fellow inmates to get their high school diplomas.

One day, a new and young inmate, Tommy, arrived at Shawshank. He tells Andy that in other prison he overhears that there is one prisoner has killed a banker’s wife and her professional golfer lover. Then the murder was framed on Andy. Andy tells the warden about the new information but the warden is having a doubt about it. Norton Warden shot Tommy to death because he afraid that Andy will reveal the laundering scheme that he and Andy are doing together. Since Andy does not have a new witnessed for his new trial, he does not want to help Norton Warden with his scam anymore but the he is trying to threaten Andy by destroying the prison library.

Next thing, Andy is gone from Shawshank prison. He had escaped by digging his way out of the wall using his rock hammer and the escape hole has been hidden behind a poster. Andy’s escape took around 20 years for him to be free from the prison. Then, Andy takes money from Warden Norton’s scam under the named registered for Randall Stephens and leaves the town. Norton Warden commits suicide by pulling a trigger up to his chin after he found out that Andy used him.

Red received an empty postcard from Fort Hancock, Texas and Red interpret it is from Andy that has made it into Mexico and gain his freedom. Furthermore, red passes his parole board and he works at a grocery store and lives in a halfway house. One day, he bought a compass from a pawn shop and follows Andy’s instructions for him to find a small box under a large black stone. The box contains a huge amount of money and direction to find Andy’s current location. Red bailed his parole and leaves the halfway house and he takes a bus to Fort Hancock, crosses Mexico and reunited with his friend, Andy again.

The main character of the Shawshank Redemption

The main characters for this movie are Andy Dufresne and Ellis Boyd Redding or also to be known as Red.

The differences among the main characters of this movie

All of the two main characters are male as portrayed in the movie and they are all having different character. Andy Dufresne is white people and Red is black or African American. There are no statements in the movie that show each of the character age. The descriptions of each character are as follows.

Firstly, Andy Dufresne possessed the banking skills since he works in a bank at Maine. It has been shown at the beginning of the movie. Since he has the skill in the banking field, he also helps the prison guards by giving financial advice to them.

He also is being in charge to get the fund for the expansion of the prison library by writing the letter to the Maine state senate. Besides that, he does not mind to lend a helping hand and it can be shown when Andy helps one of the guards, Warden Norton in laundering Norton’s money. Furthermore, he helps fellow inmates to gain their high school diplomas. It can be seen that Andy has a kind heart when it comes to help others.

Moreover, Andy is a creative person. It is because he uses only the hammer rock that usually used by the geologist for collecting rocks and sculpting as his escape to freedom tool. He also hid his escape hole using the poster that he request from Red. So, it is one of his creative ways to escape that he kept it for himself.

Secondly, Red is the second main character in this movie. Red is seen to be gaining some respect by others because he has the capability to smuggle thing into the prison. He is also one of the first Andy’s friends in the prison because he sees something in Andy when he first meets him. Besides that, when Andy escaped from the prison, he misses Andy. It shows that he values the friendship that he has with Andy. He is a secret keeper for Andy as an example, Andy launders money for Warden Norton by creating a fraud account under the name Randall Stephens and Andy only shares this information with Andy alone.

What are attitudes can you identify in the main characters?

Andy

Strong minded

Andy is said to have a strong minded because he has his plan in mind and stick to it until the end. He knows that any action or plan he makes have a consequences and he is willing to take the risk. It also means here that Andy is a determined person. He is determined to escape from the prison and have had plan everything for it, waiting only for the execution.

Self control

Self control is when someone can control his emotions, attitudes and behavior .Andy has a high level of self control. Though he was convicted for crime he did not commit, he did not portray any attitudes or behavior that is rebellious. He only obeys to what he is commanded to do and show no sign to opposing it. One example , is when Andy first night at Shawshank, he did even make a sound, means, he does break into tears despite knowing the fact that he will be spending his life as prisoners.

Caring and empathetic

Andy is someone who is kind and concern for others well being. Andy cares for the people around him including Red and Brooks. When Red was rejected for parol, Andy gave him a harmonica as a present for him and to encourage him not to lose hope. This shows that he cares about Red and wants him to have a sense of hope to be freed. He also cares for Brooks when Brooks go crazy after knowing he will be released from Shawshank, he calm Brookds down when Brooks was so down. This shows Andy concern for

Optimistic

Andy is an optimistic person. He is hopeful and has faith in his future. Andy not only instills this hope to himself but to others around him as well, especially Red. He is confident that he will have a better future by escaping the prison and he is optimist that his plan will succeed.

Kind

Andy is warm and kind hearted person. He helps out the new inmates named Tommy to go through a exam. Andy is willing to spend his time teaching Tommy how to read.

Determined

Andy is a very determined person. We can see his determination throughout the entire movie. First he is determined to escape from the prison with the plan he already have on mind. Secondly, he is so determined, that he actually, digs out tiny piece of wall every night. Andy did not gave up when he tried to ask for donations and fund for the library even it was rejected many time, he persistently, wrote a letter to the authority until it was approved.

Red

Friendly

Red is seen as a friendly person, as he has a bunch of friends whom he always hangs out with and he also approaches Andy, Red and Andy slowly become friends. Red is also the one who knows most of the inmates there though he may not necessarily befriend with them. One example is when Red they labeled Red as a man “who can gets anything from anybody”. This indicates that he has many connections and friends inside Shawshank

Helpful

Red is a helpful person as he often helps Andy whenever Andy needs something such as when he needs rock hammer and poster of Rita Hayworth. Andy does sometimes seek opinion and advice from him. Red too often helps Andy in whatever Andy is doing, such as when they renovate the library and when Andy provide financial assistant to the guards, Red was his assistant. This shows that Red is a very helpful person.

Loyal

Red is a loyal friend and supporter of Andy. Red is always there for Andy to shares stories, talk about their past and future. Red has become Andy friend throughout Andy’s life in prison. Towards the end of the movie, one evident shows that Red is loyal is when he went to the place mentioned by Andy to collect what is left by Andy, he then visit Andy in Zihuatanejo . They then happily reunited.

Humour

Red can be considered as a person who has a sense of humor. When they gather among them, there will be laughter and giggling. This is an important trait as it will reduce boredom and tense among one another.

What emotions and mood can be portrayed in the movie? Were the emotions and mood easily to see or did you have to ‘guess’ from the evidence from the scene? Explain your answer.

There are few emotions and moods portrayed in this movie. Some of the emotions can be detected easily while some have requires an interpretation and deep understanding. There are emotions portrayed in this movie have high negative affect such as tense, and nervous. The first emotion that I would like to highlight first is tense. There were quiet a number of scene of beating violently. The first scene is when the new inmates broke into tears and plead to release him, the guards, drag him out of his cell and beats him till he dies. This scene is very emotional. There is also a scene where a man gets shot by the warden. This emotion was not so easy to perceived, as when the new inmates got beaten, the others can feel the sense of tense hearing him screaming for his life, though it does not show their expression directly, we know they acknowledge presence of tense by the look in their eyes.

Emotion such as worry and suspend can also be found in this movie. The scene when the warden did a spot check in every cell to check if there is any illegal item they keep, when it was Andy turns, though he does not show it obviously, there is a presence of worry in him, worry that his illegal item will be found by the warden, the climax of this part is when the warden asked him for the book he holds, Andy then passed the book to warden, this is when Andy looks worried, because he may have hid his rock hammer inside the book, which he actually did, shown towards the end part of the movie.

Upset is another example of high positive affect. Andy was very upset when Tommy was killed, because that is the only chance he could get escaped but the warden killed Tommy so Andy will have no chance to be released. Andy frustration can also be easily detected when he expressed it in his face.

Low negative affect emotions such as relaxed can also be found in this movie. The emotions relaxed is when Andy and his friend get to drink cold beer at the roof top given by the warden as a compensation for the advice Andy gave to him. This emotion of relaxed and calm can easily be seen by their action and behavior which is laid back, chilling and relaxed enjoying their free beer.

Low positive affect emotion is also visible such as depressed. This can also be easily seen when Andy got lock up in the isolated and dark cell for weeks. When he was in there he look depressed. This depression can easily be perceived.

What sort of personality type can you identify from the character in the movie?

Andy personality type in the movie Shawshank Redemption can be classified into Introverted, Intuitive, thinking and judging (INTJ). Andy is an introverted person. Andy is a a private and quiet person. Andy is someone who is concerned of the inner world of his mind. He does a lot of thinking, exploring his own thought and emotions. Moreover, he is not really a outgoing person, he is often around his group of friends and especially with Red. Andy is an intuitive person. Andy focus is on the “big picture”. For example, Andy believes that will get out from the Shawshank prison even without having any reason or evidence for that belief. This shows that Andy rely on his intuitions. Andy is also a thinking type of person. We can see that he often analyze the situation before executing any of his plans. Andy is often cool, strong minded and analytical, this attitude is consistent with his thinking personality type. Judging. Andy preferred to have a control of things that is going on around him. Based on these personality types we can say that Andy is independent and brilliant. He is often innovative and creative. The dark side of this type of personality is INTJ person are a very private person and less likely to share ideas to other. This exactly reflects Andy Dufresne character.

Red personality type is total opposite from Andy which is extroverted, sensing, feeling and perceiving (ESFP). Red is an extroverted person. He is friendly and can easily make friends. He has a lot of friends in Shawshank. As evident from the movie, he is the one who first approach Andy. Red is someone who only cares or concern about what is going on at present. Therefore we can say that Red is sensing type of person. Sensing is a type of person who prefers routine and order. In the movie Shawshank Redemption we can see that Red is comfortable with the routine activities he did every day. Red is also a feeling type of person. Red is a person who makes decision based on what he thinks people care about. For example, in Red parole interview he often answers to the interviewer based on what he thinks the interviewers wants to hear. Red is a perceiving .He is flexible and spontaneous. Based on Red personality type we can conclude that Red is a person who is fun to be with, friendly, warm and love to make others happy.

Perceptual bias

Yes they were perceptual biases in this movie

Availability Bias

Availability Bias is a tendency for people to based judgment on information that is readily available to them. In the movie Shawshank Redemption, the availability bias scenario is when Red visit the authorities of the prison for a parole interview. When he was asked by one of them whether he already feel rehabilitated Red answered to them “Yes, I am honestly feeling a changed man, I am no danger to society, and that’s Gods honest truth and I am absolutely rehabilitated”. However his parole was rejected twice by the officer. This indicates that the authorities interview Red was making decision based on availability bias, they make decision based on what is readily available at that time which is in this case how Red answered their question. The authorities do not consider the fact that he has been doing good and well behaved in prison all this while.

Decision making process

In the movie Shawshank Redemption, they are some important decision were made but the decision was not made based on the decision making process primarily based on Intuition. Intuition is instinctive and unconscious knowing without reasoning. In the movie Shawshank Redemption, there are few scene showing how Andy make instant or unconscious decision based on his guts feeling, for example in the scene when Andy was trying to carve his name on the cell wall, and later large piece of wall breaks off and fell and at that tim Andy start formulating his plan to escape. When Andy gave an advice to the guards Captain named Hadley, later on Hadley noticed that Andy was good in numbers and that will benefit all the other guards. Andy might not know this would be a good opportunity for him to execute his plan without suspicions. It is based on Andy’s own gut feeling or intuition for seeking out opportunities, even though he does not know where his plan is going to lead. Andy does what he needs to do and are not afraid of taking risk in everything he does.

Motivational theories

Self-determination Theory

Self-determination Theory is a theory concerned with beneficial effect of intrinsic motivation and harmful effects of extrinsic motivation. Self-determination theories propose that people prefer to feel they have control over their action. In the movie Shawshank Redemption we can see that Andy is portraying a character of a self determined person, however Andy in this movie is motivated by both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. Intrinsic rewards is when a person enjoy in doing what he is doing and does not concern about praising or rewards. Evident from this movie that shows Andy is motivated by intrinsic effects is when he help the guards by giving them advise, we can see that he clearly sincere in doing it because it is his expertise though we know Andy have hidden intention behind. Evident based on extrinsic rewards is when he become the accountant for the warden and he help warden in swindling money by creating account with different names, he did this for extrinsic rewards that is his hidden intention to reveal the warden practice of corruption when he escape from the jail later, by obeying to warden order, he knew he will gain trust from the warden which will benefit in executing his plan.

x. Was teamwork applied in the movie? If no, why do you say that? If yes, do you think the team was effective?

Yes, we can see that they had applied teamwork in this movie. The teamwork can be seen clearly when they are trying to smuggle illegal item from outside. Moreover, in this movie, their teamwork very effective and efficient because they do not get caught when smuggling illegal item from outside into the prison. However, Ellis ‘Red’ Reddings who is the leader of smuggler have good relationship with the officer and have friends who is cooperate with him very well. We can conclude it as the successful team when the teams are assertive and a trust among them. This team also shows individual with technical expertise as well as most of them are conscientiousness and openness. When they are trying to smuggle the illegal item, they have members who fill the role and prefer to be part of their group. They are able to complete the task without get caught or knowing of the warden. Apparently, when Andy Dufresne asking about the photo of one of popular artist, Ellis ‘Red’ Reddings trying hard to smuggle the photo and pass through the one of their friends who do the books keeper every week. Clearly, they have developed a good team and effective. It gives exciting and satisfying also trust for the each member of the teamwork. On the other hand, there is one thing that Andy Dufresne wants to bring different in the prisoner. He tries to renovate bookstore into library which is first and foremost library in the prisoner. They cooperates each other and the team work efficiently and successfully build a new mini library as they believe they can succeed. However, they are facing many difficulties to build the library. All the teams contribute their physical and technical expertise to make it work. When all of them succeed to make a mini library with their effort, they have opportunity for personal development of itself and there are very satisfying and get rewarding experience. From Islamic perspective, depending upon their teamwork, clearly they are practicing good moral valu

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