Opinions relating in favor of and in opposition to the existence of God have been controversial from many years as anticipated by philosophers, theologians, scientists, and others. The discussion with reference to the existence of God is very traditional and most argued debates in human history. The existence of God is a matter of debate in philosophy, the philosophy of religion, and popular culture. This report presents the different sides and opinions of philosophers that at different time periods argued about the existence of God and its need as well as the analysis of different views to present the controversial topic in detail.
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Definition of God
In contemporary Western culture, the perception of ‘God’ normally relates to a monotheistic, superlative, eventual, and personal being. This view is mostly originated from Christian and Hebrew traditions. Traditional view portrayed God as having perfection in almost everything. Many religions and different societies believe that God is a body that cannot be defined. They alleged that this act can deny the magnificent nature of God. Some traditional philosophical approaches defined God as “the prime mover” or “the uncaused cause”, “the ultimate creator”, or “a being that than which nothing greater can be conceived”. (Steve Rudd, 2012)
Arguments for the existence of God
Aquinas’ Five Ways argued that the God exists and it’s necessary to prove this controversy. The summarized points from that literature are discussed below:
The argument relating unmoved mover emphasized that, we experience motion in the universe from where we assume that there exists an initial mover. Aquinas predicted that the motion is created because of an unmoved object; therefore there must be an unmoved mover.
Aquinas’ another view discussed that from first cause foundation it is impracticable for an organism to create itself. Therefore, it predicts that there must be a first cause that is itself uncaused.
The argument from necessary being declares that all organisms are conditional which means that they also have choice of non existence. Aquinas therefore sets his point that if everything chooses not to exist, then we may not have anything in the universe. But as things exist now, there must exist a being regarded as God with necessary existence.
Aquinas argued from degree of goodness that there are always things that are good or bed from others. He believed that there must be a maximum goodness which causes all goodness.
The teleological argument asserts the view that unintelligent things are ordered to be in position. Aquinas concentrates on the view that unintelligent objects can only be ordered by an intelligent being, which proves that there must be an intelligent being God to move objects to specific purpose.
(Theodore Gracyk, 2004)
The ontological argument was presented by philosophers including St. Anselm and René Descartes. The argument puts forward that the existence of God is obvious and self-evident. The formulation of logic they proposed is presented below:
God is the greatest conceivable being.
It is greater to exist than not to exist.
Therefore, God exists.
(Oppy and Graham, 1996 revised in 2011)
Different philosophers argued that the existence of God in not necessary because there is no proof that if something is predictive or superlative it also exists. The debate was controversial and is also in modern time builds up the arguments to conclude that either God exist or not and if its existence is necessary.
Arguments from historical events or personages
Christianity and Judaism believe that God interfered and shows his existence in almost every specific event and situations in history. Those events and the interference proved that there is empirical evidence that God exists. For example the event of Exodus and the giving of the Ten Commandments in front of all the tribes of Israel.
The Resurrection of Jesus argues that there is adequate historical confirmation for resurrection of Jesus to support his asserts to be the son of God which proved the God’s existence. This argument stem from the Christological argument.
Islam argued that the revelation of its holy book, the Qur’an, justifies its heavenly authorship, and thus the existence of God.
The bible that is Holy book of Christians argued that there is one mighty and strong being in the universe, which declares the existence of God.
(Dr. Andrew Corbett, 2009)
Most schools of Hinduism believe that there is existence of God but some of them don’t believe that. Law of karma provide basis of the existence of God. They believe that the actions of karma are not performed by humans and one own self so there must be an existence of God to control and monitor all karmatic actions. They also believe that fruits of karma are transferred and dispensed through a body that is known as God and thus proved the existence. (Siyam, 2012)
Arguments from testimony
Arguments from testimony are based on experience of witnesses, possibly exemplifying the intentions of a specific revealed religion. It is the fundamental of rationality that one should accept testimony except there are powerful motives for not doing so.
Arguments against the existence of God
Each of the following arguments aims at showing either that a particular subset of gods does not exist through contradictions in arguments or that there is insufficient reason to believe in them. Some arguments are discussed below that present the opposite and contradictory views relating existence of God.
Empirical arguments depend on empirical data in order to prove their conclusions.
The major arguments can be derived from the traditional and religious scriptures like the Jewish Tanakh, the Christian Bible, the Muslim Qur’an, Hindu Vedas. The understanding of scripture provide basis to the knowledge of God’s existence.
The theist arguments relating existence of God and its fundamentals are called theodicies.
The argument from nonbelievers contests the existence of an omnipotent God who wants humans to believe in him by arguing that such a god would do a better job of gathering believers.
(Lawrence Croker, 2011)
Deductive arguments attempt to prove their conclusions by deductive reasoning from true premises.
The Ultimate Boeing 747 gambit is a counter-argument to the argument from design. The argument rests on the view that there is a designer that creates complex structures and design. So the God, we are talking about, should be as complicated as all things He has created in the universe. This situation also requires a designer. And its designer would also require a designer, ad infinitum. Therefore the views create infinite contradiction that there is a need of another designer to create a complex being.
The omnipotence paradox recommends that the perception of an omnipotent being is rationally conflicting, for instance, for this purpose, questions like is “GOD have all the authority? ” or can a mountain be created by God, so big that it cannot be moved by Himself.
The Omniscience paradox demonstrates a different angle of the omnipotence paradox. Omnipotent and omniscience disagree with with concept of existence of God.
The problem of hell is the idea that everlasting damnation for actions committed in a finite existence contradicts God’s omnibenevolence or omnipresence.
A contradictory argument against the Cosmological argument i.e. chicken or egg is based on supposition that things cannot subsist without creators therefore should also apply to God creation and existence. This also lays foundation that existence of universe as a second cause.
Theological noncognitivism also contradict the god-concept by showing that scientific test cannot verify it.
This argument says that if God is morally perfect, omniscient and omnipotent, than instead of imperfect human beings, He would have created other morally perfect beings.
(John Shook, 2011)
Inductive arguments predict existence of God based on inductive reasoning.
The atheist-existentialist argument that it is impossible to present existence of a perfect sentient being. It also argued that if existence comes before spirit, it follows from the connotation of the expression sentient that a sentient being cannot be inclusive or perfect.
“No reason” argument attempts to reveal that an omniscient or omnipotent probably have no reason to do it in this way, especially the creation of universe, as it may likely to have no wants, needs, or desires etc. as these concepts are strictly relevant to human beings. so omnipotent god cannot exist until the universe exists.
Since the universe exists, there is a contradiction, and therefore, an The other argument known as “historical induction” concludes that since most theistic religions all the way through narration and their gods ultimately come to be considered as fictitious or mistaken, all theistic religions, including contemporary ones, are therefore most likely untrue and incorrect by induction.
(John Shook, 2011)
Similar to the subjective arguments for the existence of God are contradictory with the supernatural that chiefly based on the testimony or experience of witnesses, or the suggestions of a revealed religion in common.
The spectator argument provides trustworthiness to personal witnesses, contemporary and from the past, who disbelieve or strongly doubt the existence of God.
The disappointment argument claims that if, when asked for, there is no visible help from God, there is any reason to believe that there is a God.
(John Shook, 2011)
Conclusions on the existence of God can be categorized along abundant axes, producing a variety of vies about the existence and non existence of God. Theism and atheism are positions of belief (or lack of it), while Gnosticism and agnosticism are positions of knowledge (or the lack of it) is concerns belief regarding God’s conceptual coherence. Apatheism concerns belief on the subject of the practical importance of whether God exists or not.
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The above discussion presents both views of the different philosophers and testimonies relating God existence. The views presented above are justified and contradicted based on different arguments and discussions based on several philosophical authors and religions therefore clearing the views of both sides that either God exist or not exist. The topic is still controversial and several philosophers are still arguing and practice their specific opinions relating this fact.
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