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Factors for Organizational Behaviour

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Organisations
Wordcount: 3310 words Published: 8th Feb 2020

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PART 1.1

DEFINITIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHVAIOUR

 

1.‘Organizational behaviour is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structure have on behaviour within organizations, for applying such knowledge towards improving an organization’s effectiveness’ 

        (Robins, 2008)

2. ‘Organizational Behaviour bridges the gap between OB and HRM, with an emphasis on inter-cultural and cross-cultural perspectives of organizational development, talent management, and leadership. Through a critical analysis of existing literature and case studies, the contributors cover topics such as corporate governance, ethical business practices, employee morale and motivation, performance management, corporate politics and conflict resolution, workplace diversity, creativity, and change management – all within the framework of current global employment standards and best practices.’        

       (Perkins & Arvinen, 2013)

3. Organizational behaviour is concerned with the study of the behaviour and interaction of people in restricted or organized settings. It also involves the understanding of it and prediction of, the behaviour of people and of how their behaviour is influenced and shaped

        (Pettinger, 2013)

4. Organizational behaviour is a study and application of managerial skills and knowledge to people in the organization to investigate individual and group behaviour. Various concepts and models in the field of organizational behaviour attempt to identify, not only the human behaviour but also modify their attitude and promote skills so that they can act more effectively. This is done scientifically; therefore, organizational behaviour field is a scientific discipline. The knowledge and models are practically applied to workers, groups and organizational structure that provide tools for improved behaviour and dynamics of relationship. The field of organizational behaviour also provides various systems and models for international relationship that are applied to organizations.

          (V.G.Kondalkar, 2007)

5. Organizational Behaviour is one of the most complex and perhaps least understood academic elements of modern general management, but since it concerns the behaviour of people within organizations it is also one of the most central … its concern with individual and group patterns of behaviour makes it an essential element in dealing with the complex behavioural issues thrown up in the modern business world.

        (Mullins, 2005)

PART 1.2

 

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR IN MY POINT OF VIEW

Basically, the organization is formed by several people where their management takes place and to improve the efficiency of employee’s work, a subject of organizational behaviour is researched in the internal organization. This includes personality of employees, their working patterns, and more over their behaviours.

Organizational behaviour is totally concerned with the prediction and control of human behaviour in any kind of organization. It in general targets the individuals, the groups and the organization and on their interactional relationships. Organizational behaviour attempts to understand all the personnel’s as a part of the company as a basis of meeting personal criteria and needs of every single person involved in any of the organizations. It involves a lot of scientific methodology to build, evaluate and modify the changes to be made for a more successful organization.

On an individual note, we can say there are number of factors affecting the individual performance that can affect the organization’s success. Relating to that there are demographic and biographical characteristics

that may hinder the performance of personnel at work. The demographic and biographical characteristics include age, gender, race and the length of tenure the person works in any kind of organization. All this stuff helps in knowing a person sometimes also one can predict how the individual may behave in their work.

Exercise of Organizational Behaviour associates with the following elements:

     People

     Structure

     Technology &

     Working environment of the organization

One’s actions generally depict the amount of motivation to attain the desires organizational goal. Organizational goals may be sometime referred to as a ‘Hope’ for rewards that can be gained on its accomplishments. This kind of thinking and work environment always helps the employee grow more with a perfect goal in their mind that leads to great organizational success. Or rather I would say it as “Incentives” in monetary terms.

PART 2.1 – FIVE-FACTOR MODEL OF PERSONALITY

5

1

3

4

2

OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE

AGREEABLENESS

EXTRAVERSION

EMOTIONAL STABILITY

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS

 

     Dimensions relating to five-factor model of personality

 

A person’s behaviour towards the second party, his attitude, characteristics, and most importantly mindset plays a major role in his personality testing. According to recent studies, one can describe personality of any person on 5 parameters. These 5 major parts are found to be “Big Five” factors and its model is built up that may be named as Five Factor Model sometimes abbreviated as FFM.

The Five Factor Model was initially proposed by Costa & McCrae in the year 1992 and often describes the relation between an individual’s personality and various behaviours.

Below mentioned are the 5 factors that are basically determined in every type of personality:

  1. Extraversion: It particularly defines a state of personality where outer matters affect the decisions of a person deeply. And as they are much interested and involved in outer world. They seem more talkative and presentable to others. This kind of people love interacting with people and be the centre of attraction in social gatherings or meetings.
  2. Conscientiousness: Here, as the name describes, conscientious people are the ones who always rely on their conscious mind and perform actions accordingly. They are normally well maintained, responsible, organized, dependable and persistent.  People not involved in this criterion are not goal oriented and get easily distracted and disorganized.
  3. Agreeableness: Agreeable people are the ones that are the most adjustable as they are always concerned of the team rather than being rigid and firm on their point of view. They carry themselves to all situations lightly and are very friendly with kind hearted nature. People not involved in this point are less friendly and are hard to understand and work in a team.
  4. Emotional stability: It is a kind of factor which tests a situation where a person’s ability to avoid stress and anger is measured. People falling under these criteria are generally calm, self-confident and more secure.
  5. Openness to experience: The word itself states that this dimension addresses variety of interests and imaginations. This kind of people are more creative and can be more imaginative, curious about new thins and are artistically sensitive.

PART 2.2 – INDIVIDUAL ANALYSIS BASED ON 5 FACTOR MODELS

There are different kind of personality in everyone. Based on their types, the 5-factor personality model has been created where we can discriminate people accordingly. Hence, I would like to present a case study stating both kind of people on a diverse note.

For example, there is person A and B. Both have contrasts of personality. Each has difference of personality and their behaviours. Below are the points provided to both according to their personalities:

Person A description:

  1. Extraversion: He is a person more of listening to self rather than getting affected by other. In some cases, it may happen that the decision taken by him is somewhere or the other influenced by someone, but it is not the case all the time. This in my point of view is a good sign in some manner.
  2. Conscientiousness: As shown in the graph person A prefers more of himself while taking any decisions. Outside people/ factors are not a point of concern for him. Here I personally think is a nice factor as this kind of decision making can be more reliable.
  3. Agreeableness: Person A is always listening to himself as shown in the graph so at times he does not pay attention to others point of views. That may affect someone else’s behaviour as it may sound rude to the person standing in front of him.
  4. Emotional stability: Person A has more stability than person B as he is less affected by others. Also, he is more introvert that leads to inner conscience.
  5. Openness to experience: Person A likes to explore more and meet new people, so he is rated more on this point.

Person B description:

  1. Extraversion: Person B is affected more by outer world and his decision are directly affected by other feelings.
  2. Conscientiousness: Here, this person learns more from others and has less tendency to listen to his inner conscience. This kind of behaviour is sometimes less reliable than person A.
  3. Agreeableness: He is more concerned about his surroundings so the tends to agree more on things that is beneficial to all and not only him.
  4. Emotional stability: Caring for everyone may sometime lead to less self-consciousness. In this case less emotional stability is not good for any kind of decision making process
  5. Openness to experience: Person B likes to get into his comfort zone more as ne doesn’t like to get new experiences and is of less interests to everyone else.

Hence in conclusion, these both personalities are totally in contrast to each other and I personally like Person A more than B as it is more of my kind of personality and this kind of people are more reliable than any other. Considering all feelings in mind may sometime cause bad results. Hence it may sound rude by sometimes it is important to listen to yourself more and take good decisions that may be helpful to others too.

PART 3.1 – MOTIVATION TECHNIQUES

Motivation is not only a process of rewarding employees, but it is also a part of employee needs that helps one grow more and directly improve the organizational working behaviour. Motivation in my point of view is a process that accounts a personnel’s intensity, path and persistence of working efforts towards attaining the organizational goal. The basic elements of motivation in this definition is intensity, path and persistence.

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Firstly, the focus is Intensity. Despite of high intensity, it may sometime happen that the person is not directed on the right path hence, due to this kind of condition, the organizational goal cannot be achieved. So, people consider the quality of effort which is called intensity in other words. Lastly, persistence is how long the employee sticks to their goals and work accordingly.

According to me these days, all the organizations strive to motivate their employees constantly due to fast pace of working or either the speed of achieving their organizational goals. There are different kind of processes and techniques through which managers try to motivate the employees or keep the work going on. The below mentioned are some points through which we can determine the motivation level:

  1. Allowing every single person to put their opinions in the organization
  2. Listening their concerns and then acting if needed
  3. Always try to approach them as a valuable part of the organization
  4. Greet all people well and try to be enthusiastic which indirectly passes good energy vibes
  5. Praising them when required and on completing task efficiently
  6. Respecting their emotions and requirements
  7. Offering suggestions in a positive manner to avoid any kind of tensions
  8. Acting equally and fairly to all the employees
  9. Be patient all the time
  10. Build a feeling of trust and understanding with all of them
  11. Avoid rude behaviours and attitude problems with your employee
  12. Be careful on promising and giving statements related to employees
  13. Always act cheerful that can motivate the employees in the best manner
  14. Issuing monetary and non-monetary motivation techniques on paper if possible
  15. Mention all the monetary methods of rewards in their contract to enhance their role playing for the day they start their job

Hence as stated above, these are all the points that are important according to me to motivate the employees in the organization

 PART 3.2 – MOTIVATION TECHNIQUES TO MOTIVATION THEORIES

In all enterprises whether private or government, motivation plays a very important role in building employees power to work on and achieve their personal goals along with organizational goals and to a certain extent the goals of their country. In context to this, I would like to depict some of the theories of motivation that directly and indirectly relates to the outcomes of an employee’s job satisfaction. The theories of motivation may be defined according to their introductions and purpose but at once, the critical analysis show that they are all inter linked which leads to serving satisfaction to each employee working in the organization. Below are some of the motivation techniques that are related to motivational theories:

  1. Provide Incentives: Monetary and non-monetary incentives both are a part of motivation technique as personally, as an employee, I would prefer more of incentive part as a reward for my work done. This kind of things matter a lot to any personnel working in the organization. The management can create individual incentives to each employee or either to make a good group, the organization may build the group incentive structure. Financial incentives can include cash prizes, gift cards or restaurant gift certificates. Nonfinancial incentives can include extra vacation days, compressed work weeks or choice office space or parking spots. Also, incentives can be used to get a certain kind of behaviour from personnel’s.

This kind of motivational technique is a part of Maslow’s’ Hierarchy of needs. This theory explains the importance of job satisfaction to employees.

                 A.H. Maslow (1943)

  1.  Equity: Equality is a part of mental satisfaction in a person’s mind. It is based on the amount of input to the job equals its outcome. So more the work done more will be the rewards received. In a manner, some personnel who thinks he gets more of the output than the input is the most motivated employee of the organization as he has already achieved the satisfaction level in his inner self. Mainly, there are 5 identities to be taken care of and those are: identity of task, variety of skills involved in a task, autonomy, feedback and rewards. If the employees receive an unequal outcome in their income compared to others, they become easily less motivated and less enthusiastic.

This kind of motivational technique is a part of Equity theory by Ruth Kanfer (2014).

  1. Personality management: Individual behaviour affect the working type of an individual. There are some parts of behaviour that are to be noted of and can be changed for future productivity. Hence in organizations there are personality development sessions conducted which helps the personnel develop more and get through successfully to the organizational goal. In fact, it is a minutest part of development as behaving individually or organizing every individual of the organization is hard. But in this manner, the organization people can at least get the proper training

 

This kind of motivational technique is a part of Argyris’s Theory of motivation.

References

  • Mullins, L. (2005). Management and organizational behaviour.
  • Perkins, S., & Arvinen, R. (2013). Organizational behaviour. Kogan Page.
  • Pettinger, R. (2013). Organizational Behaviour, Performance management in practice.
  • Robins. (2008). Organizational behaviour in New Zealand.
  • V.G.Kondalkar. (2007). Organizational behaviour. New age international Ltd.
  • http://www.businessmanagementideas.com/essays/essay-on-organisational-behaviour/6100
  • https://www.managementstudyguide.com/personality-traits.htm
  • Reuben, M. B. (2017). Theories of Motivation and Their Application in Organizations: A Risk Analysis. International Journal of Innovation and Economic Development, 3(3), 44-51.
  • https://smallbusiness.chron.com/7-techniques-increasing-motivation-55420.html

 

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