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The historical and significant of Weber output (Der Freischutz )in the romantic Germany Opera.
The so called Camerata that first met in Florence in the 1580s arose in German Opera. On seventeenth century, Opera came in and dominated Germany. The development of Italy Opera, urged the singing and the performance arts by Italian skills, the delightful in neither show nor theatre brought acknowledge to the rest of Europe. Germany Opera are very much influenced by Italy Opera. Two major Opera composer of Germany, Beethoven and Weber learned from Italian composer and this is the continuous line on the opera development of Germany. ( Edward J.D 1976)
During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Italian rival became a factor that Germany opera was struggling with it. Handel and Gluck elect opera seria as a foreign tradition work. Some composer tried to challenge the domination of Italian, Mozart sophisticated music evolved the simple singspiel, Weber create a unique Opera – Der Freischutz which influence the romanticism. Wagner is the one to change the Germany Opera never to be the same, significantly great influence to the opera and the later composers. This few composers brought a strong operatic to European cultural. (Edward J.D 1976)
Throughout seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the historically show the importance of opera was there. The musical expression of the opera is the main source of all. There are various definitions for Opera, for my thought, Opera is an art form, sung on the staged in magnificent costume, accompaniment of instrumentals lead the expressive music goes by. It is also device by human expression is made artistic, the equality of piece of music is the same as every poem, the duration and level difficulties of music, must contain emotional climax.
Religious is a part of the scenery for opera, the characteristic of the type of opera we called “Romantic”. (Edward J.D 1976)
Exaggeration is the romantic interpretation of older music, for example two different composers output would create a different technique and expressing. To play Bach 48 prelude, used of harpsichord which gives no variety of color and dynamic contrast, yet the beautiful and even expressive we can still played in the music. With another comparison, Weber output by playing without dynamic and experience, the eventually result will be lifeless; as Weber is a typical romantic composer, his outputs depends on his very existence upon intensification or exaggeration. (John D.D 1980)
Germany Opera was being concerned when Vienna turn to be international operatic centre, at the mean time of Mozart striking but this is nothing to do with him. The long duration of development took Germany Opera to be well known due to unsatisfactory of libretto badly made. (John W 1976) The two major composers of Germany who wrote opera – Mozart and Hasse brought foreign repertory to the German Opera house. Both of them neglected the important of own country opera music. According to John Warrack, Mozart wrote opera in Italian but not German, hilarious part of Hasse, he never wrote German Opera at all. My thought that’s was a major reason of local produce composer had neglected the very significant point which they could developed the opera of the country.
Carl Maria Von Weber is a German composer and also the composer of Der Freischutz. He was a significant composer of the romantic school. Weber was influenced by Mozart in his early opera, but he had the sense of innovation and creating a new, distinctly German tradition. The German folk song melodies can be often attach in Weber’s music. Weber life was connected with his printed work, especially opera. Weber’s mastery of the orchestra was equaled in his time by Beethoven and Schubert. Weber composed for piano works, opera but he also wrote a quantity of religious music- Catholic Mass. Der Freischutzbecame one of the major influential development opera in Germany, not merely influence of the music but also later composer most likely to be German, for instance Wagner, Liszt, Mendelssohn and Chopin. He still remained a successful composer although he had arrested for debt and fraud and expelled from Wurttemberg.
Barely touched by the wand of the magician Weber, the realistic and natural scene for the most German of melodramas assumes a grace and freshness a mystery even worthy of Shakespearian fantasy.
Der Freischutz was the creation of German life and wisdom, ancient but revives with new awareness and given new artistic growth. Der Freischutz translates as “the marksman” or “the free shooter”. This opera established a uniquely German form of opera under the influence of Romanticism. The opera contains three acts by Weber to a libretto by Friedrich kinds. The first sketch was on July 2nd 1817 and only complete until May 13th 1820. Instead of the original name Der Freischutz, the title Der Probeschuss ( The trial shot) was chosen, then Die Jagerbraut ( The Huntsman’s Betrothed) but eventually the first title was restored by Bruhl ( Director of Berlin Theatre) who had accepted the opera production. For Weber, unparalleled triumph started on Der Freischutz. He breaks the 18th century overture style that consist suggestion of the motives that would follow. This innovation creating began his music career in the romanticism period of producing brilliant outputs. Weber assumed as a great master while his contemporaries have fallen into oblivion. Der Freischutz is still numerous in Germany and essential to the repertoire as Faust or Carmen. In our day now, Der Freischutz is rarely to be presented in other countries. In France and England, the demand works of Mozart and Wagner are more appreciate than Weber. The reason why Weber only alive in Germany because the national quality of Der Freischutz. The affection towards Germany was one irrational, mainly focus on childhood, children was taught to play the simpler tune of it, and was regarded as the most appropriate opera for children first time visit. It is the opera “for the people” and for the German people. This reason cause the non musician German felt Der Freischutz are simply insufferable if they are not enjoy the work thoroughly. In Weber Career, the important factor brought his music to another stage of written work because he was the modern equivalent of a court jester. He sang, played guitar and pianoforte, in this society, young noblemen should write lifeless poem about ladies, Weber put this into his music, the shape of lyric, the structure and musical style mixture of French and Italian Cadence. Weber always called upon to played, most often he did was improvise the popular opera of the day. On my opinion, extemporize could bring inspiration raise on music. We would not expect what will be creating later and this might surprised and became an innovation of a style. Weber became conductor in Dresden since 1817 and this changes make an emphasize focusing on development of German opera. The repertory that he conducted was only French and Italian opera was performed because there is no German opera worth to be performing beside Mozart and Beethoven outputs. For the last ten year operatic in Prague and Dresden, Weber repertories style was mainly influence by French work. (John.W 1991)
The story is taken from German folklore and consists of supernatural elements. The opera begins with a shooting competition, Max; a forest ranger worried his poor for competition to marry his love Agathe, the daughter of the head ranger. Caspar tried tempting Max to sell his soul to Samiel, the “black hunter” to exchange for seven magic bullets which never fail to hit their mark. He now forfeit his soul and life to Samiel, to get free he has to find a victim to replace him. The bullets casting take place in the midnight in the Wolf’s Glen. The following day, Max was asked to show his marksman’s skills. He shoots a white dove which turns up to be Agathe, but because of the purity love of Agathe, the bullet wound Caspar instead of her which this action was diverted by Samiel. Casper life is to be claimed by Samiel. The miracle escape of Agathe and she was awarded to Max’s hand and bleesed by hermit after a year probation and being pardoned. Max live happily in the end of the story
The story has a several moral theme, the symbol of love, innocent and kindness represent Agetha. The symbol of evil, battle for Max represents Casper and Samiel. The story takes place of everyday, supernatural and myth. The plot is not merely a history nor excellent story. Underlying the mighty and mysterious forces is at work. The character of story was interacted.
The definition basic element in his story by key and exposition by instrumental color was convinced to Weber for this is sound as a framework and with his certify understanding of melody and of theatrical condition, his purposes was certainly right. By choosing the primary colors which to portraying his characters, he may also drain them from the delicacy, unpredicted and of the contradiction real human nature, but he was authorized to define them which a cheerful German nation found the thought of it own qualities. Max’s is a young and simple hunter, for all his weakness and his apt to pensiveness and fantasies, an open air figure, with loyalties; Agathe a mixture of Hausfrau, patient, contemplative, domestic, devout, faithful and a little insensitive; Aennchen the active, innocent, foolish but delightful and generous, all this to be decribe by the word Keck; Samiel and his agent Caspar the embodiment the dark and unfavorable in the origin German wood spirits; Huntsmen and Bridesmaids, Killian and Cuno, villagers, the familiar natural life upon which the noblemen Ottokar imposes a human order and discipline that must in turn defer to spiritual order in the person of the Hermit, the Man of God. With Der Freischutz Weber succeeded the endeavor by bring the romantisicm into the theatre where failed by Tieck, Brentano, Schlegel, Arnim and Wener. (John D.D 1980) The development and conflict of the character surrounding his persons as actor-out of an ethical principle is not an interest of his. There full arrangement of leitmotiv, cooperation and developing the connection between idea and person was essentially a method to be represents
Nature, pure heroine, lively character, well-meaning but misguided hero, hopeless villain, kindly prince, holy hermit were the characters themselves stay very close to long created Singspiel type. (John D.D 1980). The nature influence has no real origins in Singspiel, which by far the partially deal only with formal situation, but Rousseau-inspired sentiment of opera-comic and reaches Weber most presently by two major operas of the year 1816. Faust- The first real Romantic opera by Spohr’s is a relatively undigested mixture of French influences; Weber admired even more on Hoffmann’s Undine, input many idea of Romanticism into a pattern for opera- particularly, as was concerned as Der Freischutz was the affect of the spirit world on that of human. Undine was the first opera of its generation to set a text of real literate merit; Der Freischutz created inspiration and motivated for Hoffmann’s famous attack on the closer combination of literary and musical quality. Weber idea of unity and his literary gifts was essentially a musician and libretto thought from the point of composer view as the combination elements should form. Ten years after without libretto, Weber attach the more enthusiastically on the subject that seemed ideal.
Der Freischutz intended to bring out the natural outcome of the romantic rather than to revive the origin of music drama. For Weber music is used to present, reflect and express the mysterious action and magical in this opera. (John D.D 1980) Weber admitted the melodic of opera was arisen from folksong he studied. Der Freischutz wasn’t the first opera to use folksong, but never before had folksong been so perfectly epitomized reflect German feeling. The Huntsmen’s chorus taken from German popular song books but its original derived from 18th century French street song “Malbrouk s’en va t’en guerre”. It’s a resemblance of simple melodic. (Ex.1). It is not quotation or association which is the point, but the triumphant combination of dialect material into a work of art.
The Bridesmaids Chorus was derives from Volkstanz, Der Windmuller. (Ex.2). Tune from the village march is found on an actual primary still extant in country inns and fairs in Weber’s day
Weber create bright atmosphere and presence powerful French influence can be overlooked especially as this was an acceptable musical associate in the face of the Italian enemy. According to John Warrack, by realizing occurrence a few Méhul extent of in the music exhibit Max’s melodic style. French style in his repertory work was carefully concentrated during his ten years operatic silence while conducting in Prague and Dresden.
Through Méhul to Dalayrac, appears the combination of music idea, perhaps even a single motion, with absolutely dramatic component in the opera. From French opera Weber also developed the Reminiscene Motive which, though by no means unfamiliar in German opera, had not reached the full dignity of Leitmotiv.
Two structure devices were used in the opera key association and repetition melodic themes. Although singspiel structure was conventional used to separate speaking dialogue, the music is still underlying the whole meaning of the legend. Weber attached a diminished seventh chord, (Ex.3)a peculiar one when every time the evil spirit occurs. The shock of romantic horror destroyed the fresh and order global of the normal tonality. Weber emphasis its indefinable or ambiguous quality: the supernatural does not belong to a world of order and logical. The nicety of key association implied in these two themes. The C minor are consistently with such skilful modification as to be virtually a leitmotiv’ and there is of course the opera’s only true Leitmotiv, Samiel diminished seventh tonal pattern, with minor third interval leads to minor keys, in general connected with the power of supernatural evil.
The external circle represents the positive and benevolent major key used in the opera. The inside circle is the used of minor key and be arranged each opposite was the relative major, Samiel diminished seventh was suggested to be a minor third relativity. (John D.D 1980) Maltese cross show the diminished seventh chord a – c – e flat – f flat. Weber did not use the key from b flat to c sharp when noted for the evil minor key. (Key in bracket): The segment show serious challenge to evil which most offer the major key. (Ex. 4)
. The battle take place mainly opposition between C minor and E flat major, A minor (the key of Max’s forebodings) and C major, F sharp minor (the framing key of the Wolf’s Glen scene when the magic bullet are cast) and A major (the key in which Agathe and her companion Annchen sing of happy marriage at the beginning of Act Two.
The most useful and main scene in Der Freischutz is wolf’s glen scene and the overtune among the many musical number of qualities. The opera buffa and Singspiel occur as conventional the most tedious ensemble of plot and confusion at the end of second act of Wolf’s Glen scene. Between eighteenth and nineteenth century romantic music drama, there is nothing could demonstrate the difference till Weber create a scene of supernatural horror, allocate at the rocky valley, surround with incantations and magic with supernatural phantom and sensational stage effects. All its materials have by now been interpreted; and indeed it is their close combination with the human character involved that raises the scene above the conventionally picturesque, the disturbed emotion has become the projection to the music, their most dismaying night dread. Weber’s genius mastery on instrumental sound empowers him to avoid the natural kind of simulated. The scheme melodrama of Wolf’s Glen, Weber had himself stage at Prague to be French despite this is a Czech melodrama, an unfamiliar characteristic in German opera; and there is generally the tendency, under the encouragement of the Dresden taste for description, towards impressive situation rather than development. Moreover, despite Weber’s unfavorably known aversion, in no way he was presented indifferent by what he called the “sweet poison from beyond the Alps”, most openly shown in the major solo and above all Agethe’s scene und Aria.
The key analysis showed to hear and see the impressive scene and thrill. The strictly ordered of key structure exhibit the pictorial music on each supernatural. The experience and dynamic elements appear to decide the progress of the music. The domain key of the opera is F sharp minor. The main episode occurs in C minor: act of Samiel, the preparations, Max’s descent, the act of the last three bullets. Agathe appearance is the main point, resist to the episode of the scene and exhibit by Weber in C major. The entire of the scene is form in an arch-like way. Weber approaching the opera as an whole structured of music drama. (Ex.5)
At the battle section, the strength of darkness fully developed into position. Astutely, Weber kept the appearance of Agathe redemptive until the menace has been decisively established; Act two goes up in Agathe’s house show a new world of feeling , nevertheless influence of evil shown at the engagement of Aennchen, hurting Agathe forehead when Cuno portrayed on the wall was fallen. A clear conflict shown in between two relations of Agathe’s earliest restraint and flowing 6/8 melody for Aennchen chattered happily away.
The midpoint of the opera is when Agathe step forward for her aria, a significant knowledge of her nature. Regardless of the Italian influences, the mastery connection of episode was maintain together is thoroughly Weber own; as a skillful economy he meant.
The opening of recitative presented a more about Agathe, from the clarinet played of gentle pensive opening, Agathe special instrument, magical stoke as she open the door into balcony, a modulation from E major, a seventh on G to a 6/4 F sharp key, Weber expressing the beauties of the starlit night.( Ex. 6)
In the German nation, Weber’s characters been rooted in local life and the folksong was the inspiration for his tunes and offered a powerful stimulus in the next stage of establishing their musical independence. (Edward J.D 1976) His incentive of his virtuosity include technical innovation, on Chopin and Liszt, brought variety narrative and dramatic element for the new musical, Berlioz and Mahler were much admired Weber mastery on orchestra instruments of producing new effects. Hardly a single major composer in the tradition failed to pay tribute to Weber. During his time, vividly awareness in which it was utter joy to be alive,
Vividly aware of his times as a new dawn in which it was bliss to be alive, Weber was conscious for achieving a new individuality German music in the future. Indeed, he successes and brought the Romanticism to theatre (John W 1976)
The successed of Der Freischutz created a developed in German opera house, and come across in the whole Europe with all size and length, this was one agitation incident of the operatic history. The successes not only merely impetus a progress in opera house but also for composer to achieve the ambitious with serious way to approach the Romantic opera or simply tension about missing a convention.
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