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The Slow Movement Form Music Essay

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According to Caplin, W. E, slow movement forms are constructed in conventional sonata form and they are often fused with the transition and subordinate-theme functions or reduce the size of the development section. Large ternary forms are used in the slow movement forms exclusively. Sonata without development form is mostly used in slow movements but is sometimes found in fast movements too. The sonata without development form is used by Mozart the most, but there are a few examples which appear in the works of Haydn and Beethoven too. The exposition part is the same as the regular sonata form. The recapitulation is also build up in the same way like the regular sonata. For example and also as references, musicians can refer to Beethoven's Piano Sonata in c minor, Op.10 no.1, second movement and Mozart's Piano Sonata in D major, K.311, second movement. These are a few of the examples of the slow movement without development.

3.2 Introduction of the Second Movement

After the first movement was over, the second movement begins in a much slower pace than the first movement. The second movement which is Adagio cantabile which means play slowly and in a singing style. The key signature is A flat major and the time signature is in ¾ time. According to Elterlein, E. V. (1920), this movement is a sad and soulful piece. It is well expressed in the sustained singing theme. It gets even deeper and sadder then it raises creating tension. After that it releases the tension at the end. At the end, the second movement felt peaceful again. There were a few modulations such as when the theme went to A flat minor when it became even sadder but then it modulates to E major and this gives a happy and pleasant feeling to us.

3.3 An Analysis of the Second Movement

The second movement is in ternary form which is the ABA form. From bar 1 until 36, it is the A section but in this A section, it has an internal form of it's own which is A A' B A before moving to the B section in bar 37. The B section is from bar 37 until bar 50. Then it returns back to the A section for the last time before ending the piece. This A section too has the same internal form as their previous A section which is A A' B A.

The second movement starts in adagio cantabile tempo and the time signature is in 2/4 time. It begins in A flat major from bars 1 until 16 and then it modulates to f minor from bars 17 until 41. The piece begins in piano (p) which means play softly from bars 1 until 23. There is a crescendo (cresc.) which means gradually getting louder from bars 24 until 26 and it goes back to piano (p) in bar 27. It goes to pianissimo (pp) in bar 28 then back to piano (p) in bar 29 and is played softly from bars 29 until 36. In bar 37, pianissimo (pp) which means very soft is played softly until bar 40. Then it modulates to E major from bars 41 until 50. There is a crescendo in bar 41 and in bar 42, sforzando (sf) is played on the first and third beat. In bar 43, only the first beat is played in sforzando and then in bar 44 is played in fortepiano (fp) and after that a decrescendo is played in order to prepare the pianissimo for the next bar. From bars 45 until 49 is played in pianissimo and there is a crescendo in bar 50 to prepare the next bar because from bar 51 until 65 is played in piano. The key then modulates back to A flat major in bar 51 and remains in the same key until the end of the second movement. For the coda part of the second movement which starts from bar 66, it is played in pianissimo and there is a small crescendo and decrescendo in bar 67. It appears again in bar 69. From bars 70 until 72, the second beat of the bar are played with force and the last bar ends which is bar 73 ends very softly.

3.3.1 Table which summaries the analysis of the second movement.

1) Tonality and Forms which are found in the second movement of this piano sonata.

Modulations

Bars 1- 16

The second movement begins in A flat major.

Bars 17 - 41

The key modulates to f minor.

Bars 41 - 50

The key modulates to E major.

Bars 51 - 73 (end)

The key modulates back to A flat major.

Ternary Form

ABA

A section

Bars 1 - 36

Internal form in the A section

(A section) Bars 1 - 8

(A' section) Bars 9 - 16

(B section) Bars 17 - 28

(A section) Bars 29 - 36

B section

Bars 37 - 50

A section

Bars 51 - 66

Coda

Bars 67 until bar 73 (end).

2) The dynamic markings which are written on the second movement of this piano sonata by the

composer.

Bars 1 - 23

It begins in p.

Bars 24 - 26

There is a crescendofrom bar 24 until 26.

Bars 27

It is played in pand then gradually getting louder.

Bar 28

It gradually gets softer and by the end of the bar, the dynamic will be in pp.

Bars 29 - 36

It is played in p.

Bars 37 - 40

It is played in pp.

Bar 41

There is a crescendo.

Bar 42

On the first beat and third beat of the bar, there is sf.

Bar 43

There is sfwritten in the bar.

Bar 44

Fpis played then a decrescendo starts.

Bars 45 - 49

It is played in pp.

Bar 50

There is a crescendo.

Bars 51 - 65

It is played in p.

Bars 66 - 73

It is played in pp.

Bar 70, 71, 72

On the second beat of the bar, there is rf.

Bar 73 (end)

It ends in pp.

3.4 An Analysis of the second movement scores edition

The Beethoven's piano sonata in c minor, op.13 "Pathetique" second movement piano score that will be used are the ABRSM edition and the G. Henle Verlag's Urtext edition. They will be compared to prove which edition is the best to be used by everyone who is interested in playing this second movement.

G. Henle Verlag's Urtext Edition

ABRSM Edition

The second movement consists of 3 ¼ pages. For example, see Appendix I.

The second movement consists of 3 ½ pages. For example, see Appendix II.

There are no pedal markings in the second movement. For example, see Example 2.0. This is in bar 1.

There are pedal markings provided by the editor on the second movement. For example, see Example 2.1. This is in bar 1.

The arrangement of notes is written as followed by the composer. For example, see Example 2.0. It begins from bar 1.

The arrangement is slightly altered by the editor. For example, see Example 2.1. It begins from bar 1.

The melody and chords arrangement are strictly followed by what was written by the composer. For example, see Example 2.0.

The melody and chords arrangement are slightly altered by the editor. For example, see Example 2.1.

There are fingering markings provided. For example, see Example 2.2. This is in bar 11.

There are fingering markings provided but sometimes it is different from the Urtext's version of the score. For example, see Example 2.3. This is in bar 11.

The articulations are written by the editor of this edition. For example, see Example 2.4. It is from bar 1 until bar 4.

The articulations are slightly altered by the editor. For example, see Example 2.5. It is from bar 1 until bar 4.

Example 2.0

Example 2.1

Example 2.2

Example 2.3

Example 2.4

Example 2.5

After comparing and analyzing both editions, there are pros and cons in using either of one of the version of this second movement from this piano sonata. The G.Henle Verlag's Urtext version of this second movement only consists of 3 and ¼ pages in total but the ABRSM version of this second movement has slightly more because it consists of 3 and a half pages. The Urtext version of the second movement from this piano sonata looks tidier than the ABRSM version after comparing and analyzing both versions.

The Urtext version does not include pedal markings but the ABRSM version of this second movement includes pedal markings. It is possible that the ABRSM's editor suggests that the piano player who uses this version should follow the pedal markings which are written by the editor or it is also up to the piano player to decide whether not to use the editors suggested pedal markings.

In the Urtext and ABRSM version, both versions included the fingering markings for the piano player. Both suggested their own fingerings. For example, in bar 11, the Urtext version of the second movement suggested that the pianist should use their fourth finger to play the note A but the ABRSM version suggested to play the note using the fifth finger. The Urtext version did not alter the fingering maybe because the editor did not want to change the fingering. On the other hand, the ABRSM version is slightly altered by the editor.

The arrangement of notes for the melody and chord in the Urtext version for the second movement is strictly following what was being written by the composer but the ABRSM version is slightly altered by the editor. For example, in bar 1, The Urtext version show the melody clearly in the right hand and the chords which are in broken chords are being played in the left hand but the ABRSM version is different. The melody and broken chords are on the top line meanwhile the lower line only shows the bass notes which are played.

The articulation of the second movement in the Urtext version is not altered by the editor but the ABRSM version is slightly altered by the editor. For example, the slurs on melody line from bar 1 until bar 2. The Urtext version only states the slur from bar 1 till bar 2 but the ABRSM version's slur is a bit different. The Slur in bar 1 until 2 is still the same as the Urtext version but in bar 2 a new slur appears and it ended in bar 4. In the Urtext version, there are slurs on the left hand too but the ABRSM version on the left hand does not have slur marking.

So after comparing and analyzing both versions of the second movement, sometimes a pianist would prefer the ABRSM version of the second movement of this piano sonata because it might be possible that the pianist agrees with the suggestions that the editor had given on the piece or the pianist do not know which technique to use which can express out the best quality of the piece. There are pianists who would prefer the Urtext version because the piece is not altered by the editor and the pianist can see what the composer written. It might also be possible that the pianist would prefer this version because it is tidier than the ABRSM version and there will be no additional markings which will create distractions for them while they are playing the piece. There are pianists who would also prefer the arrangement of the melody and chords of the ABRSM version because it shows which hand should play the notes very clearly and probably with ease because there are some pianists with small hands. So they might have some difficulty playing them on the left hand. The Urtext version's arrangement can also be used by the pianist but the pianist who play this arrangement are usually the pianist who can stretch their fingers an octave or more than an octave apart with ease.

Recording on which edition is being used and mostly interpreted will be discussed in chapter four.

3.5 Introduction to the Rondo Form

According to Caplin, W. E. (1998), rondo forms are usually described by letters of the alphabets such as ABACA, ABACADA, and ABACABA and so on. There are two main categories in the rondo form which are the five part rondo (ABACA) and the sonata rondo (ABACABA). Most of the rondos in the classical period works are written in the sonata rondo form. It is usually the finale movement. The author also said that the sonata rondo form structure combines the five part rondo and also the sonata structure which features the exposition, development and recapitulation. The result after combining them are the exposition of the main theme (A), exposition of subordinate theme complex (B), first return of main theme (A), development (C), recapitulation of main theme (A), recapitulation of subordinate theme complex (B), coda (final return of the main theme) (A). This shows that this might be one of the most complex forms in the classical forms.

3.6 Introduction of the Third Movement

The third movement and final movement of this piano sonata is Rondo Allegro and it begins in the key of C minor. The time signature is in 4/4 time and this movement gives the entire piano sonata a finale. According to Elterlein, E. V. (1920), in this third movement, it sounds like the composer has found peace and his mind was purified compared to when we first saw in the first movement where it was like a storm.

3.7 An Analysis of the Third Movement

This piano sonata's third movement is a rondo. This piano sonata uses the sonata rondo form. The sonata rondo form which is use is in this third movement consists of the ABACABA and followed by a coda. The A section is from bar 1 until 17 which is in c minor. The B section is from bar 18 until 60 and then goes back to the A section in bar 61 until 77. Then the C section comes in from bar 78 until 119 and then goes back to the A section in bar 120 until 133. The B section is back in bar 134 until 170 before going back to the A section in bar 171 until 181. The coda part is from bar 182 until 210.

There are modulations in the third movement of this piano sonata, it begins in c minor from bar 1 until 17 but then it modulates to E flat major from bar 18 until 60. Then it modulates back to c minor from bar 61 until 77 before modulating to A flat major from bar 78 until 119. It modulates back to c minor again from bar 120 until 133 and remains in c minor from bar 134 until 197. It then modulates to D flat major from bar 198 until 201 before modulating to A flat major from bar 202 until 298. Then it finally went back to c minor from bar 209 until the end of the third movement.

The third movement which is Rondo begins in the Allegro tempo. Then in bar 134, it starts to play in dolce which means sweetly while still in the allegro tempo. From bar 167 until 170, it is played in calando which means dying away before playing softly. From bar 1 until 11, there is p and is played throughout the bars that are mentioned. In bar 12 until 15 is a crescendo (cresc.) which means it gradually gets louder and by the time it reaches bar 16 and 17, it is in forte (f). In bar 18, there is a sforzando and piano which means the note is suddenly forcefully loud then immediately played soft (sfp). Then it remains soft from bar 19 until 21 and a sudden fortepiano (fp) is played on the first beat of bar 22. Bar 25 is played sweetly and soft until bar 30. From bar 31 until 32, there is a crescendo (cresc.) and it gradually gets louder then immediately becomes soft in bar 33. It remains in piano from bar 33 until bar 57.

In bar 33, 34 and 49, there is sforzando (sf) on the third beat in each of the bars. In bar 56 and 57, there is a crescendo (cresc.) and it gradually gets louder to fortissimo in bar 58 and 59. Fortissimo (ff) means it is played very loud. In bar 60, there is sforzando (sf) and in bar 61 it is played in piano (p). It remains in piano (p) from bar 62 until 72. There is a crescendo (cresc.) and it gradually gets louder from bar 73 until 76 before it is played loud in forte (f). From bar 78 until100, every third beat of the bar is played softly in piano (p). From bar 101 until 110, there is a crescendo (cresc.) and it gradually gets louder and is played very loud in bars 111 until 118. Every third beat of the bar from bar 113 until 115, there is a sforzando (sf) being played. There is a sforzando (sf) in bar 119 and from bar 120 until 139, it is played softly in piano. On the 4th beat of bar 132 there is a sforzando (sf).

A crescendo (cresc.) is played from bar 140 until 152 and then it is played softly from bar 153 until 178. From bar 179 until 184, a crescendo (cresc.) is played and on the first beat of bar 182, it is played in piano (p). On the first beat of bar 183 and 184, there is a sforzando (sf). From bars 185 until 188, those bars are played in fortissimo (ff) which is very loud. Then it is played softly from bars 189 until 192. In bars 193 until 197, it is played in forte (f) which is loud and every second and third beat of the bar has a sforzando (sf). Fortissimo (ff) is played from bar 198 until 200 and there is a sforzando (sf) in bar 201. Then it is played softly in bar 202 and 203. There is a decrescendo (decresc.) which means gradually gets softer in bar 204 and 205. It gets even softer to pianissimo (pp) in bar 206 and 207. The third movement ends in fortissimo (ff) because it is in fortissimo from bar 208 until the end of the piece which is in bar 210.

3.7.1 Tables of the analysis of the third movement

1) Sonata rondo form

Sections

Bar

A

Bars 1 - 17

B

Bars 18 - 60

A

Bars 61 - 77

C

Bars 78 - 119

A

Bars 120 - 133

B

Bars 134 - 170

A

Bars 171 - 181

Coda

Bars 182 - 210 (end)

2) Modulations which are in the third movement of this piano sonata.

Bars 1 - 17

It begins in the key of c minor.

Bars 18 - 60

It modulates to E flat major.

Bars 61 - 77

It modulates to c minor.

Bars 78 - 119

It modulates to A flat major.

Bars 120 - 133

It modulates to c minor.

Bars 134 - 170

It remains in c minor.

Bars 171 - 181

It remains in c minor.

Bars 182 - 197

It remains in c minor.

Bars 198 - 201

It modulates to D flat major.

Bars 202 - 208

It modulates to A flat major.

Bars 209 - 210 (end)

It modulates back to c minor.

3) The dynamic markings which are written on the third movement of this piano sonata by the

composer.

Bars 1 - 11

It is played in piano(p).

Bars 12 - 15

There is a crescendobeing played.

Bars 16 - 17

It is played in forte(f).

Bar 18

There is sforzando piano(sfp) being played.

Bars 19 - 21

It is played in piano(p).

Bar 22

There is fortepiano(fp) being played.

Bars 23 - 24

It is played in piano(p).

Bar 25

From bar 25, the piece begins to be played sweetly with the term "dolce".

Bars 26 - 30

It is played in piano(p).

Bars 31 - 32

There is a crescendobeing played.

Bars 33 - 57

It is played in piano(p).

Bar 33, 34 and 49

There is a sforzando(sf) on the third beat of each of the bar which is mentioned.

Bars 56 - 57

There is a crescendobeing played.

Bars 58 - 59

It is played in fortissimo(ff).

Bar 60

There is a sforzando(sf) being played.

Bar 61

It is played in piano(p).

Bars 62 - 72

It remains and played softly in piano(p).

Bars 73 - 76

There is a crescendobeing played.

Bars 77

It is played in forte(f).

Bars 78 - 100

It is played softly in piano(p) from the third beat of bar 78 onwards.

Bars 101 - 110

There is a crescendobeing played to prepare a fortissimo(ff) in the next bar.

Bars 111 - 118

A fortissimo(ff) is played.

Bars 113 - 115

There is sforzando(sf) on every third beat of the bar.

Bar 119

There is sforzando(sf) being played.

Bars 120 - 139

It is played in piano(p).

Bar 132

There is sforzando(sf) on the fourth beat of the bar.

Bars 140 - 152

There is a crescendobeing played.

Bars 153 - 178

It is played softly in piano(p).

Bars 179 - 184

There is a crescendobeing played.

Bar 182

It is played softly in piano(p) on the first beat of the bar.

Bars 183 - 184

There is sforzando(sf) on the first beat of the bar.

Bars 185 - 188

Fortissimo(ff) is played.

Bars 189 - 192

It is played softly in piano(p).

Bars 193 - 197

It is played loudly in forte(f) then a sforzando(sf) is played on the second and third beat of the bar.

Bars 198 - 200

Fortissimo(ff) is played.

Bar 201

Sforzando(sf) is played.

Bars 202 - 203

It is played softly in piano(p).

Bars 204 - 205

A decrescendo(decresc.) which means gradually getting softer is played.

Bars 206 - 207

It is played very softly in pianissimo(pp).

Bars 208 - 210 (end)

Fortissimo(ff) is played until the end.

3.8 An Analysis of the third movement scores edition

The Beethoven's piano sonata in c minor, op.13 "Pathetique" third and final movement piano score that will be used are the ABRSM edition and the G. Henle Verlag's Urtext edition. They will be compared to prove which edition is the best to be used by everyone who is interested in playing this final movement of this piano sonata.

G.Henle's Urtext Edition

ABRSM Edition

This movement consists of 7 pages. For example, see Appendix I.

This movement consists of 7 pages. For example, see Appendix II.

Articulation markings are written by the composer. For example, see Example 3.0.

There is a slight alteration of the articulation by the editor. For example, see Example 3.1.

The dynamic range is not altered by the editor. For example, see Example 3.2. It is in bar 18.

There are changes in the dynamic range which is edited by the editor. For example, see Example 3.3. It is in bar 18.

The arrangement of melody and chords are not altered the editor. It can be view in Appendix I.

The arrangement of melody and chords are followed by the editor. There is no change done by the editor. It can be view in Appendix II.

There are no pedal markings on the score. For example, see Example 3.4. This is in bar 30.

There are pedal markings written by the editor on the score. For example, see Example 3.5. This is in bar 30.

There are fingering markings written. For example, see Example 3.6. They are in bar 49 and 50.

There are fingering markings written but they are a bit different than the Urtext version. For example, see Example 3.7. They are in bar 49 and 50.

Example 3.0

Example 3.1

Example 3.2

Example 3.3

Example 3.4

Example 3.5

Example 3.6

Example 3.7

After comparing and analyzing both editions, there are pros and cons in using either of one of the version of this third and final movement from this piano sonata. The G.Henle Verlag's Urtext version of this third movement only consists of seven pages in total and the ABRSM version of this third movement too consists of seven pages in total. The Urtext version of the third movement from this piano sonata looks tidier than the ABRSM version after comparing and analyzing both versions.

The articulation markings on the Urtext's version are most probably written by the composer but the ABRSM version had been edited by the editor. For example, there are no staccatissimos written on the Urtext version but the ABRSM version has a few of them written on the score of the third movement. The slurs in the ABRSM version of the piece are slightly longer and different than the Urtext version. The Urtext version of the third movement has slurs on the left hand part but the ABRSM does not have slurs on the left hand part.

The dynamic range on the Urtext version of this piano sonata was most probably written by the composer but the ABRSM version had been edited by the editor. For example, in bar 18, in the Urtext version, it is written that it should be played in sfp but in the ABRSM version, it is written by the editor that it should be played in fp.

The arrangement of the melody and chords for this movement are the same for both the Urtext and ABRSM version. No alterations had been made by the ABRSM editor and it is possible that the editor agrees with how the score should be arranged.

There are no pedal markings in the Urtext version for the third movement of this piano sonata but there are pedal markings which are applied by the editor in the ABRSM version for this movement. For example, in bar 30, pedal markings are applied by the editor because he thinks that part of the piece is best to apply pedal. The Urtext version did not write any pedal marking because it is possible that this version wants the pianist to apply their own pedaling which the pianist think bests suit the third movement.

The fingering which are written in the Urtext version were not altered by the editor but the fingering in the ABRSM version are slightly different than the Urtext version. It is different maybe because the editor writes the fingering which is best suited for him when the editor was playing the third movement.

After comparing and analyzing both versions, it can be seen that both versions can be used by the pianist but it depends on the pianists themselves on which version they would prefer to use. Some pianist might prefer the ABRSM version as it have suggestions written all over the third movement on what to apply while playing the piece. Some pianist might prefer to use the Urtext version as it is much tidier and it follows what the composer has written. The Urtext version might also be preferred by the pianist because it has no pedaling markings suggested and it looks much comfortable for the pianist to read the score because it might distract the pianist concentration if there are too many markings of suggestions by the editor.

Recordings on which edition that is being used and mostly being interpreted will be discussed in chapter four.


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