Social change as per Grant (2014) description is a concept that’s more elusive in today’s modern society. Furthermore, it has aspects that are inevitable, yet its dependant on the various individuals forms of actions. As such, change has been embraced in today’s society, yet some certain aspects within us tend to resist such change. Political campaigns, movements within the social domains, and strategies within the business context have been structured in respect to the various changes taking place (Yeates, 2002). This paper in respect to various change theories, and case studies of social change strategies aims to identify the different strategies of social change and their impacts towards the society. Insights in respect to strategies formulated within the historical context of social change will be highlighted upon, in respect to the various communities and firms within the social domain.
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Case studies in respect to Kuhn, T. S. (2012) ‘The structure of scientific revolutions’ Willis, Harman, (1988), ‘Global Mind Change’ and Wallace, A. F., & Fogelson, R. D. (1961) ‘Culture and personality’ will be used in regards to comparing the various strategic social changes in respect to shifts in paradigms and culture throughout the historical era. As such, concepts of cultural evolution and change in paradigms will be focused on this paper in respect to the social change aspect. As such, a broad view will be taken in respect to review of various literature journals, in respect to understanding the cause of such changes and what the results of such changes entail.
Strategies for Social Change
Shift in Paradigms
In respect to Kuhn’s study ‘The Structure of Scientific Revolutions’ social change perspectives from recent history have been established in essence to the much talked about paradigm concept. Such a concept according to Edelman (2001) entails different conceptual assumptions, whose character allows scholars to easily detach data, define problem solutions, and emphasize on the use of theories. As Kuhn (2012) further indicates, paradigms within the era of scientific revolutions tend to inclusively encompassing, given the attributes of life is only available for humans on planet earth. However, Grant (2014) notes that, the concept of paradigm under social change has its own distinctive character. Given its facts are illuminated through a set of instructions only it can define. As such, Edelman (2001) described it as self-validating, this in respect to its change resistance nature.
Observations as made by Kuhn (2014) in his study indicate that paradigms will portray their dominance given its nature of defining solutions to problems and explaining the various phenomena’s as they occur. However, there’s a lot of doubt that piles up in regards to the ability of a paradigm when contradicting phenomena’s arise. As such, Edelman (2001) and Gore (2000) on the same school of thought indicate that crisis normally arises in essence to inability aspect paradigms find themselves in when there are multiple anomalies. Views as offered by Kuhn (2012) have implied that there’s no rational or linear progress in regards to science history. As such, visions tend to take a radical shift, given the scenario whereby anti-empirical and anti-rational factors take centre stage.
The nature to which the case chosen dealt with science and the paradigm nature at that time, over-application of such a concept has been warned against. Given, as Gore (2000) notes, it’s a concept applied mostly under transition processes within the social domains. However, as further noted, it turns out to be of importance in cases regarding the various dimensions of change. As such, its reflection is highlighted on how paradigm as a concept is made use of globally. As mentioned within the cases study, Capra, a philosopher come physicist described paradigm as an aspect that entails; practices, concepts, various perceptions and values which communities tend to share in respect to having a common goal. Given such an explanation, it’s clearly evident of how communities tend to value the paradigm factor, given its sharing aspect within them. Whereby an individual’s view can be globally accepted, but a community will tend to share its view trough the platform s provided by the paradigm concept.
Paradigm and the Concept of Social Change
Such a concept of paradigm as Kuhn (2012) discussed tends to portray the lengths as to which social change can hang on the balance in respect to personal views. However, Harman (1988) in his book ‘Global Mind Change’ notes that, the various changes that have taken place in the society have all been subject to change of minds by individuals, contrary to the perceived notions of wars and state laws. Given the intensity of change in mind amongst individuals, Bandura (2001) notes that its results tend to occur in an instant. The nature of human beings will perceive innovations within the cultural context as not meaningful, given Bandura (2001) statement of such minority individuals being creative. But as Harman (1988) indicates in his book, various ways in which life can be conceived tend to occur, and its results tend to spread quickly to the surrounding populations.
The discussion of Kuhn (2012) in respect to a butterfly’s metamorphosis, and the emergence of an imaginal disc can be characterized with the theory of normative-reeducative. Whereby as Edelman (2001) indicates, its whole conception is on how change is viewed, given it onset is from the bottom going up, and not the normal scenario of top all the way to the bottom. As such, change in minds is usually on a focus towards the creation of a social system.
From such a perspective, the imaginal discs as discussed by Kuhn (2012) clearly define the anomalies within the shift of paradigms. Various changes within a system are rarely taken into consideration; as such the model as developed by Kuhn (2012) fails to take note of such existent anomalies. In addition, the paradigm systems tend to be overwhelmed; hence new phase forms tend to appear from them. This aspect clearly indicates how new form of paradigm tend to develop from the old ones, the same case scenario with the explanation of imaginal discs as offered by Kuhn (2012).
Renewal of Cultures
‘Culture and personality’ case study aspects as discussed by Wallace and Fogelson (1961), indicate that there are various descriptions of social change strategies that have been mentioned in within such contexts. From their observations, the processes of social change are initiated a diversion from the perspectives relating to cultural harmony, with individual stress coming up as one such form of change. Giddens (2013) in respect to the case of culture and personality indicate that there are a number of individuals who find it hard when it comes to meeting expectations within the cultural domain. From the case study, Wallace and Fogelson (1961) are of the idea that both the society and individuals perceive the lack of meeting cultural expectations as a problem that is developed individually. However, with the increased growth of such perceptions of deviation, the social fabrics according to Giddens (2013) have been weakened. As such, the issue of not meeting the various cultural expectations is being acknowledged by the society as no longer being an individual issue. Given such a state, the society has found it hard in terms of ensuring they go back to their equilibrium state. From the case, Wallace and Fogelson (1961) indicate that societies need to undergo the revitalization process given there are various variables involved.
Code formulation is one such variable as mentioned in the case, whereby individuals affected by the lack of meeting cultural expectations would formulate image ideas of a common goal culture. Such a goal culture as Wallace and Fogelson (1961) discuss entails contrasts attractive in nature in comparison to the latter situations. Communication is also another variable as mentioned by Alexander (2004) in respect to the ‘Culture and Personality’ case. In such a variable, formulators are involved in the process, whereby visions are effectively communicated to other individuals. Individuals who are mostly impacted upon by stress are the ones targeted mostly within such a context. Adaptation is also another variable of strategy as mentioned within the case, whereby proposed visions tend to get the exposure required, as it experiences the necessary changes and growth. As per Walaace and Fogelson (1961) discussion, the latter vision as proposed portrays tendencies of being incomplete, given its practical details, they tend to undergo various accommodating changes to ensure they look more appealing. Furthermore, the original vision will also undergo various accommodating changes, to ensure there’s perfect re-explanation in regards to the failed predictions of cultural expectations. Lastly, in respect to cultural transformations, Wallace and Fogelson (1961) in respect to their case indicate that if the cultural movements acquire the much needed support, then a shift to implementation from the aspect of communication is usually enabled. Giddens (2013) under the same context indicates that any delay in respect to establishment of the goal culture, the transfer culture option can easily be embraced to ensure the vision as intended within a culture is achieved. As such, if success is achieved in its implementation, then individual stress as experienced is reduced dramatically in regards to either goal culture or transfer culture.
Observations made by Wallace in respect to the case of ‘Culture and personality’ indicate that the revitalization form as discussed in its thrust can take the form of innovation or reactionary state. Giddens (2013) identifies the aspects of reactionary entail a belied of problems can only be solved through hard and historical ways. As such, the changes that took place can easily be undone in regards to getting rid of the problem at hand. Furthermore, Giddens (2013) under the innovation mode indicates that it attempts to get hold of lagging in respect to culture. As such, the changes that would have taken place will be seen as unchangeable throughout the whole process.
From the description as given from Wallace and Fogelson case, it’s clear that a shift to innovation, from the traditional innovative mode is seen as a parlance. As such, social change strategies take up movements and motions in respect to predictable laws. However, Bandura (2001) notes that such process of social change can be described as lurch and learn processes. Whereby, communities will lurch given new directions, where they would extract satisfaction better through aspects of work, unlike through activities regarding leisure.
From the discussion of various social change strategies regarding shift in paradigms and renewals of culture, it’s clearly evident that there are varying results which come out from their use within the society. From the case studies of Kuhn (2012) and Harman (1988), change in mind and personal views play a critical role in regards to the various social changes that take place within a society. As such, results of such changes tend to occur instantly, given the nature of human beings in regards to innovation within the cultural context. Various ways in which life can be conceived tend to occur as from the analysis; given as well its results tend to spread quickly to the surrounding populations, clearly implying how such a paradigm shift strategy can have its effect on the society. Furthermore, the normative-reeducative approach was identified. Given the whole conception is on how change is viewed. A process of bottom going up was identified as being ideal in the use of such a social change strategy, unlike the normal scenario of top all the way to the bottom. As such, change in minds is identified as a focus towards the creation of a social system.
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In respect to the renewal of cultures, the case of Wallace and Fogelson (1961), ‘culture and personality’ identified various social change strategies and their results. Variables such as code formulation, communication, adaptation and cultural transformation had a role to play in regards to social change. Aspects of idea formulation, effective communication of visions, exposure of visions to the public, and acquisition of the much needed support in regards to shift of implementation methods were all discussed, with most of their results being positive. As such, under the renewal of culture strategy, revitalization was identified as being that takes the reactionary mode was identified as the better strategy for social change. This is due to the fact that the satisfaction derived from such a mode is more appealing as compared to innovation under the concept of cultural renewal.
Bandura, A 2001, ‘Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective’. Annual review of psychology, 52(1), 1-26.
Edelman, M 2001, ‘Social movements: changing paradigms and forms of politics’. Annual Review of Anthropology, 285-317.
Giddens, A 2013, ‘The third way: The renewal of social democracy’. John Wiley & Sons.
Gore, C 2000, ‘The rise and fall of the Washington Consensus as a paradigm for developing countries’. World development, 28(5), 789-804.
Grant, J. A 2014, ‘Strategies for Social Change. Contemporary Sociology’: A Journal of Reviews, 43(6), 855-857.
Harman, W. W 1988, ‘Global mind change’.
Kuhn, T. S 2012, ‘The structure of scientific revolutions’. University of Chicago press.
Wallace, A. F., & Fogelson, R. D 1961, ‘Culture and personality’. Biennial Review of Anthropology, 42-78.
Yeates, N 2002, ‘Globalization and Social Policy From Global Neoliberal Hegemony to Global Political Pluralism’. Global Social Policy, 2(1), 69-91.
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