Role of the Media on Islamophobia Since Trump’s Election

5092 words (20 pages) Essay in Media

14/02/19 Media Reference this

Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. You can view samples of our professional work here.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays.

Dramatically increased Islamophobia in American Media coverage since Trump’s Presidency: Muslims in America are more vulnerable to bigotry and Islamophobia as a result of Donald Trump’s behaviour and actions

Abstract

This research paper implies the role of International media in the propagation and multiplication of hatred and hostility vibe against Muslims in the American society since the U.S. presidential election campaign. The objective of this research paper is to focus on the reasons, role of media and Trump’s influence behind the increasing hostility and aggression against Muslims in US, and how it is utilized to legitimize the segregation towards them. Muslims have been more vulnerable to violence, threats and hatred since start of American presidential campaign especially after Trump’s hateful speeches. During the first GOP debate in August 2015, Islamophobia made an appearance just a month later in September 2017, the first incident of Muslims hatred of anti-Muslim occurred. Since 9/11 fear based oppressor exercises by white radical or Christians is a common hone, even after they have slaughtered numbers comparable to those hurt by Muslims. Yet we do not hear any segregation towards Christianity or Christians by and large indeed in most cases they are displayed as solitary or lone wolf, mental case or medicate fiend but never as a terrorist, American news outlets are also more concerned about non-Muslim victims rather than Muslim victims of terror. Trump has a track record of advocating and encouraging Islamophobia during elections campaign and even after winning the elections. After just a year following the California and France terror attacks he called for a ban of Muslims entering US as it is obvious from his actions and words that he can’t distinguish between extremist’s groups of various radical elements and the rest of the world’s nearly 2 billion Muslims who played no role in these incidents who are merely a victim in all this. Meanwhile, he has been shockingly silent on the attacks on Muslims, showed no concern for Muslims victims whatsoever, which depicts a double standard regarding his concern over the issue of terrorism. 30 articles have been reviewed for this purpose, the analysis of these research papers recommended that threatening vibe towards Muslims is seen as usual and regular practice in the west not only by common public but also the current President of United States of America. By analysing all the articles, it will be sufficing to say that Trump’s entire political career was based on the hatred towards Muslims and Islamophobia.

Keywords: Muslims, Terror incidents, American Media coverage, Lone wolf, Islamophobia, Islam, 9/11, Election Campaign, President Trump, American President, Trump’s Administration

Introduction

For everyone in America and all over the world it was shocking when Donald Trump suggested a ban on Muslims entering the US, but this behavior towards Muslims has remained a common practice throughout American history. In 2016 Donald Trump’s claim that “Islam hates us”. What is alarming about this is that it comes from an orientalist misconception which have never been changed over the last 200 years. Reality is that Islam doesn’t hate America or the West. There are certainly Muslims radical organizations who despise the United States, but they do not hate US because of their religion (Saladin, 2016).

A critical point in the portrayal of negative media depiction of Muslims happened in the post- 9/11 period, Muslims were freely related with terror. There are several TV pictures, serials, talk shows, cartoons, and news coverage, where Muslims are depicted as uncivilized, anti-modern, anti-democratic, and psychological militants, fundamentalists, radicals, aggressors, primitive, and anti-western. Violent happenings or terror incidents are immediately and mostly linked with Islamic nations by the western media. The western world own major news networks, and TV stations, many of them are headquartered in other nations around the world. Larger part of them is either run by the Jews or is beneath capable campaign of Jews and Christians who significantly restrict any positive accomplishment on portion of the Muslims (Nurullah, 2010).

Donald Trump, the GOP presidential front-runner during his elections campaign promoted anti-Muslim stance in the wake of Paris attacks, November 2015 rather than calling for peace, harmony and international unity. Donald Trump’s anti-Muslim statements during his elections campaign and television interviews and appearances on international and national networks impacts millions of viewers across US and the globe (Abdelkader, 2016).

The media is connected to religion in the way that it depicts the expression of religion to its given disciples as well as to the individuals out there. It too upgrades the understandings of a specific religion through important insignia of it. Media is basically a platform which spread the message and sets standards. In this way, the media plays two roles in the depiction of religion: to emphatically depict it or delineate it contrarily to the masses. Subsequently, it depends on the editors who select the material to be broadcasted in the media. The beliefs and worldviews of those guardians unequivocally influence the choice of news and occasions. Acts of terrorism committed by people of other faiths are not connected to their devout character. Acc. to the media portrayal, fear mongering in advanced times has ended up the sole trade of Muslims. This wholesome attribution of Muslims as fear mongers has come about in Islamophobia, racial scorn, slaughter, and viciousness (Nacos & Reyna, 2003).

This paper analysis the reasons behind the sharp rise in wrongdoings against Islam and Muslims or those seen to be Muslim in America. The article, in any case, will propose that there are critical changes taking put in U.S. culture which will enlighten the reasons why the surge in wrongdoings coordinated at Muslims in America was harsh, but brief (Kaplan, 2006). Further this paper explores President Trump’s anti-Muslim views and actions, linking them to the increase in hate toward Muslims during his tenure. His anti-Muslims actions basically served the political purpose maintaining his political support base of white American class and, creating a divide among west and Muslims (Nuruzzaman, 2017).

The Washington Post’s reporting of the November 13, 2015, Paris attack distinguished from the paper’s coverage of the first Ankara assault. In terms of sheer unmistakable quality, coverage of the Paris assault overshadowed coverage of the Ankara assault. The feature conjured the word terror, while the rest of the article described—in distinctive detail—specific scenes of savagery (el-Nawawy, & Elmasry, 2017).

The commonality of orthodox representations correlating Muslims with terror in standard media uncovers broad conviction among the makers of media messages that the affiliation, or association, is typical, sensible, and/or satisfactory, which is at that point suggested to, and learned by, youth, instead believing that, the affiliation is unfair and stereotypical and hurts Muslims, making them defenceless to preference and segregation in the public sphere (Jackson, 2010).

Currently in US, Muslims are regularly depicted as pariahs in settings of national sharing, despite the fact that they are American-born citizens. Islamophobic conversations are based on the view that Islam don’t belong in the West and that Muslim refugees cannot be truly identified with the states in which they live (Shryock, 2013).

The other common narrative is that white Christian extremists who commit terrorist attacks are not terrorists. There are exceptions. The Oklahoma bombing by a white Christian is generally considered to be an act of terrorism, although the attack was initially blamed on Islamic terrorist groups. For the most part, though, “terrorist” was not a word applied to the white Christian responsible for the Quebec City attack. Nor is he alone in avoiding classification as a terrorist (Corbin, 2017).

Literature Review

President Trump’s “America First” narrative is basically the continuation of the Bush’s anti-Muslim stance. It is President Trump’s anti-Muslim rhetoric and actions that have made him look Islamophobic, but he is not only American leader with terrible anti-Muslim mind-sets. His anti-Muslim rhetoric serves his political purpose but at a high cost to the Muslims. Neither did he hide his anti-Muslim sentiments that has created a weird situation in the relationships between the Muslims and Trump’s America (Nuruzzaman).

Even if media do not impart public to relate Muslims with terror, they will, in any case, learn that it is typical to do so, that it is recognized in the standard media as sensible or worthy, rather than as damaging to Muslims, who confront segregation, bias, and hatefulness when the breadth of their substances is not considered newsworthy or engaging, lacking an education that basically reacts to the transcendent generalization. Topical, expository, and basic lessons in media proficiency must complement the formal educational programs approximately Islam to optimize the dynamic mindfulness and basic gathering of what is eventually depicted as typical to think regarding Muslims in the mass media. What specific assets are utilized is not as critical as what is communicated through their consideration: that standard messages are inadequate or biased, and that informed members of an equitable society must hook with numerous viewpoints when it comes to troublesome, disputable subjects to act independently and in an educated way inside society (Jackson).

Even with the strong opposition even from political parties and public opinion and with the disrespect for the American Constitution, why is it so that Trump still had so much support? It’s because he influences that fear that still prevails in people minds after 9/11 which is sufficient enough to believe that Muslims hates America and wants to harm them (Mutum, 2016).

Soon after Trump’s Presidency, he begins carrying out the campaign he promises, the first travel bans a prerequisite. “The Muslim ban is something that in some form has morphed into extreme vetting from certain areas of the world.” (Patel, & Levinson-Waldman 2017).

Conservative leader who openly share their hate for Muslims have escalates negative approaches. For the propagation of Islamophobia, the tremendous majority shares the media is partly guilty. The generalizations that are propagated in the media may not have pernicious expectation, but they are belittling to Muslims and may lead to incognito and unmistakable separation on interpersonal levels (Al-Hamdani, 2016).

The 2016 U.S. presidential caused another wave of Islamophobia, threatening American Muslims freedom. In 2015, there were almost 174 incidents of anti-Muslim violence and Muslims suffered due to such attacks as they were more likely to be the victim of the crimes and assaults as compare to non-Muslims (Abdelkader, 2016).

Role of a Muslim women in society is often projected through media which has become the main source of learning these days. Despite of social practice mostly Muslims women are viewed as subjugated, backward, oppressed and inclined toward terror (Watt, 2012).

Donald Trump’s speeches indicated the rise in hatred towards Muslims in USA.  Donald said that Muslims only care for Jihad indicating ISIS, and Muslims hates US.  Acc. To Trump, “why does President Obama defend Muslims in America? Oh, I can see that he is one of them, he is a Muslim, right?” From this it is obvious that Trump really hates Muslim and President Obama. By all this he was trying to construct the bad image of Muslim to gain supports form the American society. He builds his own image of a leader for all the Non-Muslims and supporters of Anti Muslims sentiments which especially effected the family of terrorism victims. (Puspitasari, 2016)

The affiliation of Islam with terror has come to be acknowledged as fragment of the discourse on security and terrorism; it will be sufficing to say that “Muslim” and “terrorist” have ended up nearly synonymous (Eid, & Karim, 2011). The narrative “our Lone wolf/ Your terrorists” by Phillips and many others, depicts the relation between civilizing Christians and regressing Islam.  (Humphrys, 2012).

If Trump didn’t create the terror narrative such a racial stereotype, white innocence and white supremacy his administration did exploit these theme. These two propagandas complement each other and their consequence effect Muslims a lot (Corbin, 2017).

It is obvious from the behavior of the voter that Trump follower’s attitudes on the views like sexism, authoritarianism and Islamophobia differs from that of Clinton, influence of Islamophobia is strong in Trump’s followers (Blair, 2016). Trump’s Muslims hate during the atmosphere of terror incidents make the environment even more intense which influence his presidential campaign (Beydoun, 2017).

Brooks, R. A, claims that Muslim inhabitants or citizens of the US symbolise to a genuine and developing terror threat to American society, especially in their assumed readiness or capacity to execute dangerous assaults in the US. It doesn’t seem that Muslim Americans are progressively influenced or proficient of involving terror assaults against their inhabitants (Brooks, 2011).

This study revealed that of media coverage of such terror incidents are based on the concept of depicting Islam as a culture and religion of violence and fear, while US is a great Christian country. Coverage of terrorism highlights contrast in religion, demonizing Muslims and civilising Christians. Fatalities of terror were characterized as innocent, imploring, Christian, and otherworldly in a few ways, being slaughtered, harmed or frightened by wicked Muslim terrorist. In the US Media coverage assist in creating a sense of triviality of domestic terrorism and highlights devout contrasts that contribute to a ‘‘holy war,’’ while upgrading a culture of fear of Muslims and Islam (Powell, 2011).

Long-term and short-term revelation to media labelling of Muslims as terrorists increases recognitions of Muslims as destructive, which in turn increments bolster for policies that hurt Muslims locally and globally (Saleem, Prot, Anderson, Lemieux, 2017).

The occasions of 9/11 constrained the media’s hand to cover the Muslim and Arab minorities more regularly. This moreover caused the press to show news consumers with a more inclusive picture of these groups. One consequence was that the news media allowed Muslim-Americans more access after 9/11, and individuals of this minority made themselves accessible to the media (Nacos & Torres-Reyna, 2003).

The augment of Islamophobia in the West has raised concerns among analysts and policymakers. While the standard media and a few political leaders relate Islam with savagery, the reports by noticeable organizations focus upon a common loathe of Muslims. An initial look at the clear figures uncovered that Western citizens hold different approaches of Islamophobic outlooks and these views from a general feeling around Muslims to the discernment of Muslims as compassionate of terrorist organizations (Ciftci, 2012).

Being a victim of such forms of biasness on ordinary basis can prompt character issues. The effort of combining and absorbing two diverse societies can regularly feel like an amusement of tug of war for Muslim Americans Youth (Al-Hamdani).

Due to Trump’s hate towards Muslims general public of America believes trump is a solution to the “Muslim problem” in the west. But in reality since his election campaign and after the presidency situation stared to get worse as he has no understanding of basic human rights or the respect for the different religions and the people (Greene, 2016).

The terms such as “terrorist” and “guerilla” which were endorsed by American Media after 9/11 as public relies on Media for information so this framing influenced the public opinion (Eid, & Karim 2011). US need to realise that real enemy is not Islam nor the Muslims in US it’s their ignorance (Bennett, 2016). Islamophobia or hatred towards Muslims is not going to make America great again (Carlson, 2016).

Hypothesis

  • President Trump’s entire political career and his success in 2017 elections was based on Islamophobia.
  • Muslims in America are more vulnerable to bigotry and Islamophobia as a result of Donald Trump’s behaviour and actions.

Trump call for Shutting Down Mosques

In the wake of Paris terrorist attacks Donald Trump called for shutting down the Mosques. “Trump Doubles Down On Closing Mosques: ‘We’re Gonna Have No Choice’ (VIDEO).” Thus resulting in increased in directly attacks on mosques. This surged once again in December, 2015 which resultantly increased the number of attacks on mosques and Islamic schools dramatically as compare to the beginning of presidential campaign. In most cases the suspects were public supporters of presidential candidate Donald Trump. This political rhetoric created fertile ground for hatred and fear against Muslims in US. These attacks on mosques and Islamic institutes sends a strong message all over the world that Muslims are not welcome and not safe in the American society (Abdelkader).

Trump Supporters are more likely to be Islamophobic

In relapses to anticipate voting for Clinton or Trump, attitude measures were the strongest, noteworthy indicators of voting eagerly. The design would lead one to anticipate social dominance introduction to altogether foresee voting for Trump, but due to the overpowering quality of Islamophobia in anticipating votes for Trump, social dominance introduction did not come out as a critical indicator of voting for Trump vs. all others. People were more than 3 times more likely to vote for Trump for 2/4 each step they expanded on the Islamophobia scale and 2.6 times more likely to be undecided or voting for a third party candidate for each step that they diminished on the Islamophobia scale (Blair, 2016).

All Terrorists Are Muslims

This biased media depiction implies that Muslims are more inclined towards violence and hatred thus making them a threat to US and other western societies. Hence, it is important to part the general perceptions about Muslims from more specific approaches linking Muslims to aggression and terrorism (Ciftci). Association of Islam with terrorism seems to be accepted as part of the communication on security and terrorism, so much that the words “Muslim” and “terrorist” have become almost identical (Eid & Karim, 2011). This description of all Muslims as one psychological ‘species’, horribly chronological as it is, can at that point be utilized regularly interface Muslim outrage with all the ills of Islam, repeating the same xenophobia this time in pseudo-psychological discussion (Humphrys, 2012). Mass media links Islam and Muslims, with terrorism, depicting the religion and the group most normally as irrational, fundamentalist, and/or inclined to receptive aggression (Jackson). Why this was happening and what was the origin? Trump may not be the reason for making situation worse for Muslims in US but he didn’t help either (Bennett, 2016).

Trump’s racist election campaign

The racist factor during Trump’s election campaign help his throughout his entire political career. It is really ironic that in the most developed country like US a person like Trump can win with majority, most of the researchers believes that Trump won the elections due to his racism and Islamophobic stance and it was due to his attitude that caused the uprising and protest in throughout US even when his votes were being counted (O’Farrell, 2017). What makes this even more threatening is that Trump is very bold, open and vocal about his feeling about anything (Carlson, 2016).

No White People Are Terrorists

In today’s mass societies individuals are indeed more reliant on the news since they have “nowhere else to turn for information about general affairs and for guidelines on how to perceive and decipher that information” (Neuman, Russell, Just & Crigler 1996).

A Muslim accountable for aggression that expresses adoration for previous mass shooters and writes “[t]hose that allow their God to be mocked have no God” would instantly be branded a terrorist. A white Christian accountable for aggression that expresses adoration for the Charleston attacker and who compose that exceptional sentence, however, is not (Corbin). The Washington Post portrays assault against Western European targets (2015-2016), and assault against Muslim majority communities, differently. In covering assaults on France and Belgium, The Post utilized “terrorism frames” to formulate coverage while constantly humanizing victims and drawing associations between European societies and the Western world more usually. Assaults against Turkey and Nigeria were covered less significantly and were mainly portrayed as domestic clash (el-Nawawy & Elmasry).  Accordingly, journalists, editors and producers in the news media make decisions persistently about who, how and what to display in the news; such choices are affected by their organizations’ standard working methods (Nacos & Torres-Reyna, 2003).  Major networks in US rarely aired helpful content for Muslims neither externally nor internally.  Important issues that consider on the news about Muslims involve residential security, worldwide clashes, and terrorism (Al-Hamdani, Y, 2016).

The Islamophobic Trump’s Administration

Trump’s hate and bigotry which laid foundation to his political career has now reached White House. His team includes some Islamophobics like Steve Bannon, Michael Flynn, and Sebastian Gorka. Trump support and inclination towards Muslims has encouraged hateful elements to act freely against Muslims (Patel & Levinson-Waldman, 2017).

Subjugation of Muslim Women

In the evolution of chronological Islamophobia to gendered Islamophobia, Juliane Hammer outlined the complications of Islamophobia focussed towards Muslim women in America. She makes the case that gender, as a social develop, is depicted as Muslim men being brutal terrorists and Muslim women being dominated by Muslim men; thus the need for Muslim women to be liberate from their religion and civilization (Ernst, 2013). Instead of the fact that social tradition shifts broadly, numerous non-Muslims have tended to view the role of women as permanent and homogenous, and western societies deliver a set of presumptions and depictions about the Islamic custom of covering for ladies which build it as a representation of backwardness, spiritual fundamentalism, male domination, and terrorism (Watt, 2012).

Discrimination among White Terrorists & Muslim Terrorists

Reporting of terrorist incidents shows a design of media coverage of terrorism in which fear of global terrorism is central, mainly as Muslims=Arabs=Islam functioning mutually in structured terrorist cells in opposition to ‘‘Christian America,’’ whereas household terrorism is radiate as a slight danger that occurs in confined occurrences by disturbed people (Powell). As Glenn Greenwald wrote in Salon (2011): What it says is what we’ve seen over an over: that Terrorism has no purposeful meaning and, in any case in American political conversations, has come partially to mean: aggression committed by Muslims whom the West loathes, no matter the reason or the objective. Undoubtedly, in many media circles, argument of the Oslo assault rapidly morphed from this is Terrorism (when it was accepted Muslims did it) to no, this isn’t Terrorism, just extremism (once it got to be likely that Muslims didn’t). 

The Politics of Islamophobia

These political views of Trump were shared by precedence Presidents and pioneers as well (Beydoun, 2017). Western citizens see Muslims as obsessive, aggressive and supportive of terrorism because they believe them to be hostile to their physical well-being and social values. This feeling is used by media and right-wing leaders to nourish the xenophobia of a new variety (Ciftci, 2012). The media also reported that pioneers like President Bush and New York’s Mayor Rudi Giuliani advice Americans not to express their rage toward cultural and devout minorities. It appears that these reports did not obliterate the public’s questions regarding Muslim- and Arab-Americans’ patriotism (Nacos, & Torres-Reyna, 2003).

Ban on Muslims

On March 6, 2017, Trump issued an executive order that hits Muslims. This ban has a variety of negative outcomes and more far reaching consequences. It reinforces the idea of Islamophobia in the country, thus the US administration is responsible for promoting hate against Muslims not only in the US but the whole world. The first executive order, January 2017 faced protests by disheartened Americans across the US. Trump administration’s unjust ban on Muslims community helped Muslims American in gaining sympathetic support among America’s mainstream. (Jamal, 2017).

Conclusion

Lack of interest and knowledge regarding Muslims, their culture, norms and values leads to a manipulative Islamophobia. Muslims must be sentient that in the view of Non –Muslims they represent themselves collectively not individually. Media should play a vital role in negating such anti-Muslim propagandas. Balanced news reporting of Muslims, in the US as well as internationally, can decrease the perception that Muslims are supporting terrorism or extremist activities. The Muslim community is diverse in US in many aspects of race, class or creed so associating an individual, as a Muslim on the basis of their appearance is not usually accurate. When society assumes that all Muslims practices same religious practices and convictions, they are making the judgment that fundamentally all the Muslim community is same there no distinction between the individuals of that bunches and all of them are inalienably homogeneous.

Why precisely is this fear and hate occurring in spite of the fact that and where is it coming from? Trump isn’t the reason Americans are undermining Muslims and mosques in specific all through the US, but he isn’t making a difference either. After each incident that happens including a terror assault, hate crimes emerge. An article by Corky Siemaszko from NBC found that after the Paris assaults, 38 anti-Muslim assaults happened in the blink of an eye from there on. 18 of those assaults happened straightforwardly after the December 2nd butcher in San Bernardino as well. Politically incorrect statements like this are fueling the fire of the fear and hatred the American people are feeling.

The generalizations that are circulated in the media may not have hurtful expectation, but they are maligning Muslims picture in the western society and may lead to clandestine and obvious separation on interpersonal levels. Representations in US media of Islam and Muslims barely scratch the surface when it comes to the differing qualities of the community, around the world: in Middle East, in UN, and in other Western and Eastern nations. Thematic, logical, and critical lessons in media education must complement the formal educational programs almost Islam to optimize the dynamic mindfulness and basic gathering of what is eventually depicted as ordinary to think almost Muslims in the mass media.

It will suffice to say that Donald Trump due to his hatred towards Muslims has made the situation in the USA for Muslims worst after terrorism attacks in California and San Bernardino. He manipulates and takes advantage from these attack which are committed by Muslim to provoke anti Muslims elements and gain their favour like he did during his elections campaign by announcing a ban on Muslim from entering US. Due to which the anti-Muslims elements side with and cast vote for him, his Islamophobic actions contribute to his political career and success making the life of Muslims in US worse and worse day by day.

References

Al-Hamdani, Y. (2016). Islamophobia and the young Muslim American experience (Doctoral dissertation, Middle Tennessee State University).

Abdelkader, E. (2016). When Islamophobia turns violent: the 2016 US presidential elections.

Brooks, R. A. (2011). Muslim “homegrown” terrorism in the United States: how serious is the threat?. International Security, 36(2), 7-47.

Blair, K. L. (2016). A ‘basket of deplorables’? A new study finds that Trump supporters are more likely to be Islamophobic, racist, transphobic and homophobic. USApp–American Politics and Policy Blog.

Beydoun, K. A. (2017). Muslim Bans and the (Re) Making of Political Islamophobia. U. Ill. L. Rev., 1733.

Bennett, S. (2016). Republican Party Jumps on Board for Islamophobia.

Ciftci, S. (2012). Islamophobia and threat perceptions: Explaining anti-Muslim sentiment in the West. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 32(3), 293-309.

Carlson, G. A. (2016). I’m Not Racist, I Love Those People: How Trump’s Language Reveals His Bigotry.

Corbin, C. M. (2017). ‘Terrorists are Always Muslim But Never White’: At the Intersection of Critical Race Theory and Propaganda.

Eid, M., & Karim, K. H. (2011). Ten years after 9/11—What have we learned?. Global Media Journal—Canadian Edition, 4(2), 1-12.

el-Nawawy, M., &Elmasry, M. H. (2017). Valuing Victims: A Comparative Framing Analysis of The Washington Post’s Coverage of Violent Attacks Against Muslims and Non-Muslims. International Journal of Communication, 11, 20.

Greenwald, G. (2011). The Omnipotence of Al Qaeda and Meaninglessness of ‘Terrorism.’. Salon, July, 23.

Greene, R. L. (2016). Islamophobia “Trumps” Reason.

Humphrys, E. (2012). Your ‘Terrorists’, Our ‘Lone Wolves’: Utøya in the shadow of 9/11. Journal of International Relations Research, 72.

Jackson, L. (2010). Images of Islam in US media and their educational implications.

Jamal, A. A. (2017). Trump (ing) on Muslim Women: The Gendered Side of Islamophobia. Journal of Middle East Women’s Studies, 13(3), 472-475.

Kaplan, J. (2006). Islamophobia in America?: September 11 and Islamophobic Hate Crime 1. Terrorism and Political Violence, 18(1), 1-33.

Nacos, B. L., & Torres-Reyna, O. (2003). Framing Muslim-Americans before and after 9/11. Framing terrorism: The news media, the government, and the public, 133-158.

Nurullah, A. S. (2010). Portrayal of Muslims in the media:“24” and the ‘Othering’process. International Journal of Human Sciences, 7(1), 1020-1046.

Nuruzzaman, M. (2017). President Trump’s Islamophobia and the Muslims: A Case Study in Crisis Communication. International Journal of Crisis Communication, 1(1), 16-20.

Neuman,Russell W.,Marion R. Just and Ann N. Crigler. 1996. Common Knowledge: News and the Construction of Political Meaning. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Mutum, D. M. (2016). Leading Trump: Why the United States Shouldn’t Accept the Hand that has been Dealt.

O’Farrell, D. (2017). Trump’s first 5 months-this isn’t normal… Irish Marxist Review, 6(18), 55-64.

Powell, K. A. (2011). Framing Islam: An analysis of US media coverage of terrorism since 9/11. Communication Studies, 62(1), 90-112.

Puspitasari, D. G. ISLAMOPHOBIA PORTRAYED IN DONALD TRUMP’S PRESIDENTIAL SPEECHES. SENABASTRA| 8, 57.

Patel, F., & Levinson-Waldman, R. (2017). The Islamophobic Administration. Brennan Center for Justice. 

Saleem, M., Prot, S., Anderson, C. A., & Lemieux, A. F. (2017). Exposure to Muslims in media and support for public policies harming Muslims. Communication Research, 44(6), 841-869.

Saladin, C. S. (2016). What do Donald Trump and John Quincy Adams have in Common? Islamophobia.

Shryock, A. J. (2013). Attack of the Islamophobes. In Islamophobia in America (pp. 145-174). Palgrave Macmillan US.

Watt, D. (2012). The urgency of visual media literacy in our post-9/11 world: Reading images of Muslim women in the print news media. Journal of Media Literacy Education, 4(1), 4.

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

Related Services

View all

DMCA / Removal Request

If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have the essay published on the UK Essays website then please:

McAfee SECURE sites help keep you safe from identity theft, credit card fraud, spyware, spam, viruses and online scams Prices from
£28

Undergraduate 2:2 • 250 words • 7 day delivery

Order now

Delivered on-time or your money back

Rated 4.6 out of 5 by
Reviews.co.uk Logo (139 Reviews)

We can help with your essay