Coverage of Child Rights Issues in Pakistani Print Media

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12th Oct 2017 Media Reference this

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Chapter 2

Literature Review

A literature review is an evaluative report of information found in the literature related to the selected area of study. It is a process of reading, analyzing, evaluating, and summarizing scholarly materials about a specific topic. The results of a literature review may be compiled in a report or they may serve as part of a research article, thesis, or grant proposal.(Hart,1998)

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A literature review is a body of text that aims to review the critical points of current knowledge including substantive findings as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. Literature reviews are secondary sources, and as such, do not report any new or original experimental work. Also, a literature review can be interpreted as a review of an abstract accomplishment (Dellinger, & Leech, 2007).

A well-structured literature review is characterized by a logical flow of ideas; current and relevant references with consistent, appropriate referencing style; proper use of terminology; and a comprehensive view of the previous research on the topic (ibid).

In this research “Coverage of child rights issues in Pakistani Print Media; a comparative study of English and Urdu newspapers” researcher uses thematic order for literature review. Thematic reviews of literature are organized around a topic or issue, rather than the progression of time. Researcher divides the literature review into two sections.

  1. Studies on child rights in Pakistan
  2. International studies on child rights
  3. Studies on Child rights in Pakistani media
  4. Studies on Child rights in International media
  5. Studies on Human rights
  6. Media studies on Human rights

2.1. Studies on Child Rights in Pakistan

OMCT (2003) reported in Pakistan Report on the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child by Pakistan that in particular, that children are at a high risk to be subject to various forms of abuse and cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment and punishment. OMCT is aware that many of the structural causes of the violations of children’s rights require economic and social change at a structural level, we nevertheless feel that some fundamental legislative and administrative changes in the country would enable a better implementation of children’s rights that could lead to a considerable improvement in the lot of children. Therefore, OMCT would like to make several conclusions and recommendations, both legislative and practical.

Sadruddin (2011) identified in study on the important issues of child rights in Pakistan that the important issues of children in Pakistan, during 2004-2008. This research article aims to inform practitioners and policy makers, in an effort to move child rights and children’s plight in especially difficult circumstances to the forefront of the public conscience. The value and importance of children has also been highlighted in the study. The efficacy of the implementation of child rights by Pakistani Government has also been revealed. The study revealed that the issues of children were over shadowed in Pakistan during the last few years. The Convention on the Rights of Child did not serve as a guaranteed savior. Education, security and social rights were not given proper attention during the last five years due to which, much effective results were not produced in improving child rights. Although the needs of children and their rights, particularly social and security rights were well understood, but were not well addressed, both on social and political platform. The study concluded that Pakistan was unsuccessful in addressing the issues of Children in Pakistan to its best as the issues of children were found in a vulnerable state.

Khan (2011) determined in his work implementing law against child labor: a research study of Pakistan that child Labor is always related to the violation of the basic rights of children. However, every work that children indulge in cannot be categorized as child labor. This article assesses the International norms regarding child labor after understanding the notion of child labor. This article aims to highlight the socio-economic issues responsible for the profusion of child labor in a society. This article thus analyzes the different approaches towards child labor eradication and the prominent hurdles in implementing international and national norms against child labor. A case study of assessing hurdles in laws implementation is done in Pakistan. Pakistan is an economically developing state, that is why the cases of children indulging in health hazard work is prominent.

2.2 International studies on Child rights

Jones (2011) described in what are children’s rights? Contemporary developments and debates how the idea of child rights has emerged, identifying the ways in which different pressures for change continue to develop the way rights are legislated for and understood. It has given brief examples of the kinds of policies that are emerging and has shown how changes in long-held attitudes and practices are a consequence of the child rights agenda. The chapter introduced areas key to child rights including the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC), the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), and the UK’s Human Rights Act 1996 (HRA). Examples that link child rights to their lived experiences were used to illustrate the ways in which the practical application of legislation affects children and those working with them.

Kim (2008) paper considers whether letting children combine work and school is a valid and effective approach in Cambodia. Policy makers’ suggestions that child labor should be allowed to some extent due to household poverty appear ungrounded as no significant relation between children’s work and household poverty is found while arranging school time table s flexibly in order to accommodate households’ perceived need for children’s labor may increase problem s of insufficient teaching hours if schools conduct their time tables un reliably. Considering these issue s, the paper suggests the need for a more diversified app roach to dealing with the impact of child labor on their school education.

Claire (2012) Investigated the relationship between representation and cognition in a study with 105 3-7 yr olds designed to test the implications of 2 major theories of children’s drawings. The classical or conceptual theory considers the young child’s drawing of the human figure as an index of his concept of a man, and predicts uniformity across representational tasks which vary media and instructions. In contrast, R. Arnheim defines the representational process as the invention of structurally equivalent forms in a given medium, and predicts that representation will vary as a function of the task and the medium. Results of 11 representational tasks support Arnheim’s theory that representation varies as a function of the medium, instructions, practice, the provision of parts, and the child’s developmental level.

Sadruddin (2012) evaluated in critical studies on the Asian countries assessment on children rights that the Implementation of Children rights in few Asian Countries, particularly, Pakistan. The study identified the important issues of children in Asian Countries besides highlighting the value and importance of children. The study conclude that although the issues of children were highlighted by most of the Asian countries but the practical Implementation of the Children Rights in Asia, particularly Pakistan, were over shadowed during the last few years. Very few laws were imposed in favor of children rights without practical imposition to resolve the issues of children in Asia.

2.3 Studies on child rights in Pakistani media

IFJ (2002) reported in Putting Children in the Right that Those looking for a check list to work from may find this section annoyingly imprecise. The overall duty of a journalist or other media professional doing this kind of work is to act in the best interests of the child and of children and to try to deal with ethical issues with clarity and honesty. This will not guarantee that they make no mistakes, but would dramatically improve the quality of media coverage of children’s issues. The Convention on the Rights of the Child is based on the spirit of peace, dignity, tolerance, freedom, equality and solidarity. Journalists should extend those qualities to children. The daily challenge to journalists and media organizations is particularly felt in coverage of children and their rights.

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Jabeen (2014) This research article child protection data: an analysis of news coverage of child protection issues in Pakistan, argues for the need of systematic data, not only for recognition of child protection issues, but also for formulation and implementation of policy and practice responses in Pakistan. Through a systematic review of the newspaper coverage of child protection issues over a period of 20 years, the actual and potential risks to children are highlighted, thus, providing a methodological justification to use newspapers coverage as a record of child protection problems. Further, with its focus on the language and content of the coverage, this article shows how representation of child protection issues in the print media reflect the existing reality on the one hand, and on the other may affect people’s perceptions of these issues.

2.4 Studies on child rights in International media

Cheity (2004) reported in his research work the coverage of child sexual abuse in popular magazines since the early 1990s. The article employs systematic analysis to identify and analyze articles in four popu-lar magazines. Articles are analyzed by subject, length, and publication. The results affirm established theories of newsworthiness related to the coverage of specific stories over time. However, inter-est in the subject waned in the past 10 years, with the brief and dramatic exception of coverage connected to the Catholic Church in 2002. The findings demonstrate systematic differences between the slants of the four magazines studied. The findings also suggest that child abuse professionals could improve the quality of cover-age by agreeing to interviews in connection with articles about childhood sexual abuse.

Goddard & Saunders (2000) explained in their research work the gander neglect and textual abuse of child rights in print media that in recent years the relationship between the media and child abuse has been subjected to closer inspection. Research at Monash University into the media portrayal of child abuse has led the researchers to examine the language used by the print media to represent both children who have been abused or neglected and the offences committed against them. This paper presents two findings from this research. The analysis firstly found that a child who has been abused or neglected may be objectified in print media language even when the child’s gender is previously identified. Secondly, the analysis found that the language used to describe the sexual abuse of children may serve to reduce the seriousness of offences. These phenomena, termed ‘gender neglect’ and ‘textual abuse’, are highlighted by examples from UK and Australian print media. The authors argue that ‘critical language awareness’ is important for children, just as it has been identified in research that examines the representation of women in print media.

Wilczynski, Sinclair, and young (1999) explained in their study Moral Tales: Representations of Child Abuse in the Quality and Tabloid Media that although child abuse is a favorite topic for media stories, there has been little research on how the media portrays such issues. The present research examined the media construction of child abuse in a comprehensive sample of all 1302 reports on the subject during 1995 in a representative quality and tabloid newspaper in NSW. Criminal justice agencies were the predominant sources used for the stories; child abusers were individualized and demonized by the press and used to promote ‘law and order’ agendas; and there was little coverage of the social causes of abuse and prevention issues. Although both the quality and tabloid press demonstrated these features, there were some marked differences between the coverage in the two sources, such as a much greater emphasis on individual cases in the tabloid press.

2.6 Media studies on Human rights

Sial (2009) explained in his research named Human rights Reporting in Pakistani Media that Media reports on human rights influence people, but there is a lack of investigative reporting on human rights issues in Pakistan. The journalists do not have the required expertise and training to investigate and report on rights issues. Only a few journalists are committed to human rights reporting whereas most of them are either indifferent to or skeptical of rights issues. The environment is comparatively better for human rights reporting in the English media where journalists are not forced to work in multiple areas and have an educated audience. The Urdu media relies much on sensationalization, a narrative devoid of investigation and personal bias. A balanced and impartial analysis of the issues is largely misssing.

Dunn (2012) explained in his research paper on emerging sociological theories on human rights: social structure, human agency, and inequality that sociological theories of human rights are relatively less developed, but such frameworks are crucial for the development of the unique contributions to the human rights topic that sociology can make. Foremost among these is conceptualizing the role of inter-relationships between social structure, human agency, and inequality as they impact human rights and efforts to promote them.

Nwanko (2011) reported in his research work Role of the media in promoting human rights: an analysis of the BBC documentary chocolate: The bitter Truth. This study has tried to look into what role the media play in the promotion of human rights. This was done by looking into the case of BBC One and the documentary, chocolate: the bitter truth‟, which it produced. The documentary dwelt on the use of child labour in cocoa farms in West Africa. The study was aimed at finding the reason why the BBC chose to promote human rights through the production of the documentary. It also tried to find out how the contents of the documentary are shaped to promote human rights. Human rights theories literature arc commonly incompatible to one or both of

Aeijaz (n.d.) expressed in his thesis Theoretical and Philosophical foundation of human rights that human rights theories interpreted as expression of philosophical optimism, even arrogance. The philosophical task is to explicate Minow’s “dilemma of difference” and acknowledge both the fact and fluidity of difference.

The objectives of undercurrent research are intending to investigate the comparative analysis of coverage of child rights in Urdu and English Pakistani newspapers. The study of Sial (2009) reported coverage of human rights in Pakistani news media. The findings of that study revealed that Urdu Newspapers sensationalizing the issue. Other studies of literature review are also supporting the arguments of the current research.

Chapter 2

Literature Review

A literature review is an evaluative report of information found in the literature related to the selected area of study. It is a process of reading, analyzing, evaluating, and summarizing scholarly materials about a specific topic. The results of a literature review may be compiled in a report or they may serve as part of a research article, thesis, or grant proposal.(Hart,1998)

A literature review is a body of text that aims to review the critical points of current knowledge including substantive findings as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. Literature reviews are secondary sources, and as such, do not report any new or original experimental work. Also, a literature review can be interpreted as a review of an abstract accomplishment (Dellinger, & Leech, 2007).

A well-structured literature review is characterized by a logical flow of ideas; current and relevant references with consistent, appropriate referencing style; proper use of terminology; and a comprehensive view of the previous research on the topic (ibid).

In this research “Coverage of child rights issues in Pakistani Print Media; a comparative study of English and Urdu newspapers” researcher uses thematic order for literature review. Thematic reviews of literature are organized around a topic or issue, rather than the progression of time. Researcher divides the literature review into two sections.

  1. Studies on child rights in Pakistan
  2. International studies on child rights
  3. Studies on Child rights in Pakistani media
  4. Studies on Child rights in International media
  5. Studies on Human rights
  6. Media studies on Human rights

2.1. Studies on Child Rights in Pakistan

OMCT (2003) reported in Pakistan Report on the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child by Pakistan that in particular, that children are at a high risk to be subject to various forms of abuse and cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment and punishment. OMCT is aware that many of the structural causes of the violations of children’s rights require economic and social change at a structural level, we nevertheless feel that some fundamental legislative and administrative changes in the country would enable a better implementation of children’s rights that could lead to a considerable improvement in the lot of children. Therefore, OMCT would like to make several conclusions and recommendations, both legislative and practical.

Sadruddin (2011) identified in study on the important issues of child rights in Pakistan that the important issues of children in Pakistan, during 2004-2008. This research article aims to inform practitioners and policy makers, in an effort to move child rights and children’s plight in especially difficult circumstances to the forefront of the public conscience. The value and importance of children has also been highlighted in the study. The efficacy of the implementation of child rights by Pakistani Government has also been revealed. The study revealed that the issues of children were over shadowed in Pakistan during the last few years. The Convention on the Rights of Child did not serve as a guaranteed savior. Education, security and social rights were not given proper attention during the last five years due to which, much effective results were not produced in improving child rights. Although the needs of children and their rights, particularly social and security rights were well understood, but were not well addressed, both on social and political platform. The study concluded that Pakistan was unsuccessful in addressing the issues of Children in Pakistan to its best as the issues of children were found in a vulnerable state.

Khan (2011) determined in his work implementing law against child labor: a research study of Pakistan that child Labor is always related to the violation of the basic rights of children. However, every work that children indulge in cannot be categorized as child labor. This article assesses the International norms regarding child labor after understanding the notion of child labor. This article aims to highlight the socio-economic issues responsible for the profusion of child labor in a society. This article thus analyzes the different approaches towards child labor eradication and the prominent hurdles in implementing international and national norms against child labor. A case study of assessing hurdles in laws implementation is done in Pakistan. Pakistan is an economically developing state, that is why the cases of children indulging in health hazard work is prominent.

2.2 International studies on Child rights

Jones (2011) described in what are children’s rights? Contemporary developments and debates how the idea of child rights has emerged, identifying the ways in which different pressures for change continue to develop the way rights are legislated for and understood. It has given brief examples of the kinds of policies that are emerging and has shown how changes in long-held attitudes and practices are a consequence of the child rights agenda. The chapter introduced areas key to child rights including the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC), the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), and the UK’s Human Rights Act 1996 (HRA). Examples that link child rights to their lived experiences were used to illustrate the ways in which the practical application of legislation affects children and those working with them.

Kim (2008) paper considers whether letting children combine work and school is a valid and effective approach in Cambodia. Policy makers’ suggestions that child labor should be allowed to some extent due to household poverty appear ungrounded as no significant relation between children’s work and household poverty is found while arranging school time table s flexibly in order to accommodate households’ perceived need for children’s labor may increase problem s of insufficient teaching hours if schools conduct their time tables un reliably. Considering these issue s, the paper suggests the need for a more diversified app roach to dealing with the impact of child labor on their school education.

Claire (2012) Investigated the relationship between representation and cognition in a study with 105 3-7 yr olds designed to test the implications of 2 major theories of children’s drawings. The classical or conceptual theory considers the young child’s drawing of the human figure as an index of his concept of a man, and predicts uniformity across representational tasks which vary media and instructions. In contrast, R. Arnheim defines the representational process as the invention of structurally equivalent forms in a given medium, and predicts that representation will vary as a function of the task and the medium. Results of 11 representational tasks support Arnheim’s theory that representation varies as a function of the medium, instructions, practice, the provision of parts, and the child’s developmental level.

Sadruddin (2012) evaluated in critical studies on the Asian countries assessment on children rights that the Implementation of Children rights in few Asian Countries, particularly, Pakistan. The study identified the important issues of children in Asian Countries besides highlighting the value and importance of children. The study conclude that although the issues of children were highlighted by most of the Asian countries but the practical Implementation of the Children Rights in Asia, particularly Pakistan, were over shadowed during the last few years. Very few laws were imposed in favor of children rights without practical imposition to resolve the issues of children in Asia.

2.3 Studies on child rights in Pakistani media

IFJ (2002) reported in Putting Children in the Right that Those looking for a check list to work from may find this section annoyingly imprecise. The overall duty of a journalist or other media professional doing this kind of work is to act in the best interests of the child and of children and to try to deal with ethical issues with clarity and honesty. This will not guarantee that they make no mistakes, but would dramatically improve the quality of media coverage of children’s issues. The Convention on the Rights of the Child is based on the spirit of peace, dignity, tolerance, freedom, equality and solidarity. Journalists should extend those qualities to children. The daily challenge to journalists and media organizations is particularly felt in coverage of children and their rights.

Jabeen (2014) This research article child protection data: an analysis of news coverage of child protection issues in Pakistan, argues for the need of systematic data, not only for recognition of child protection issues, but also for formulation and implementation of policy and practice responses in Pakistan. Through a systematic review of the newspaper coverage of child protection issues over a period of 20 years, the actual and potential risks to children are highlighted, thus, providing a methodological justification to use newspapers coverage as a record of child protection problems. Further, with its focus on the language and content of the coverage, this article shows how representation of child protection issues in the print media reflect the existing reality on the one hand, and on the other may affect people’s perceptions of these issues.

2.4 Studies on child rights in International media

Cheity (2004) reported in his research work the coverage of child sexual abuse in popular magazines since the early 1990s. The article employs systematic analysis to identify and analyze articles in four popu-lar magazines. Articles are analyzed by subject, length, and publication. The results affirm established theories of newsworthiness related to the coverage of specific stories over time. However, inter-est in the subject waned in the past 10 years, with the brief and dramatic exception of coverage connected to the Catholic Church in 2002. The findings demonstrate systematic differences between the slants of the four magazines studied. The findings also suggest that child abuse professionals could improve the quality of cover-age by agreeing to interviews in connection with articles about childhood sexual abuse.

Goddard & Saunders (2000) explained in their research work the gander neglect and textual abuse of child rights in print media that in recent years the relationship between the media and child abuse has been subjected to closer inspection. Research at Monash University into the media portrayal of child abuse has led the researchers to examine the language used by the print media to represent both children who have been abused or neglected and the offences committed against them. This paper presents two findings from this research. The analysis firstly found that a child who has been abused or neglected may be objectified in print media language even when the child’s gender is previously identified. Secondly, the analysis found that the language used to describe the sexual abuse of children may serve to reduce the seriousness of offences. These phenomena, termed ‘gender neglect’ and ‘textual abuse’, are highlighted by examples from UK and Australian print media. The authors argue that ‘critical language awareness’ is important for children, just as it has been identified in research that examines the representation of women in print media.

Wilczynski, Sinclair, and young (1999) explained in their study Moral Tales: Representations of Child Abuse in the Quality and Tabloid Media that although child abuse is a favorite topic for media stories, there has been little research on how the media portrays such issues. The present research examined the media construction of child abuse in a comprehensive sample of all 1302 reports on the subject during 1995 in a representative quality and tabloid newspaper in NSW. Criminal justice agencies were the predominant sources used for the stories; child abusers were individualized and demonized by the press and used to promote ‘law and order’ agendas; and there was little coverage of the social causes of abuse and prevention issues. Although both the quality and tabloid press demonstrated these features, there were some marked differences between the coverage in the two sources, such as a much greater emphasis on individual cases in the tabloid press.

2.6 Media studies on Human rights

Sial (2009) explained in his research named Human rights Reporting in Pakistani Media that Media reports on human rights influence people, but there is a lack of investigative reporting on human rights issues in Pakistan. The journalists do not have the required expertise and training to investigate and report on rights issues. Only a few journalists are committed to human rights reporting whereas most of them are either indifferent to or skeptical of rights issues. The environment is comparatively better for human rights reporting in the English media where journalists are not forced to work in multiple areas and have an educated audience. The Urdu media relies much on sensationalization, a narrative devoid of investigation and personal bias. A balanced and impartial analysis of the issues is largely misssing.

Dunn (2012) explained in his research paper on emerging sociological theories on human rights: social structure, human agency, and inequality that sociological theories of human rights are relatively less developed, but such frameworks are crucial for the development of the unique contributions to the human rights topic that sociology can make. Foremost among these is conceptualizing the role of inter-relationships between social structure, human agency, and inequality as they impact human rights and efforts to promote them.

Nwanko (2011) reported in his research work Role of the media in promoting human rights: an analysis of the BBC documentary chocolate: The bitter Truth. This study has tried to look into what role the media play in the promotion of human rights. This was done by looking into the case of BBC One and the documentary, chocolate: the bitter truth‟, which it produced. The documentary dwelt on the use of child labour in cocoa farms in West Africa. The study was aimed at finding the reason why the BBC chose to promote human rights through the production of the documentary. It also tried to find out how the contents of the documentary are shaped to promote human rights. Human rights theories literature arc commonly incompatible to one or both of

Aeijaz (n.d.) expressed in his thesis Theoretical and Philosophical foundation of human rights that human rights theories interpreted as expression of philosophical optimism, even arrogance. The philosophical task is to explicate Minow’s “dilemma of difference” and acknowledge both the fact and fluidity of difference.

The objectives of undercurrent research are intending to investigate the comparative analysis of coverage of child rights in Urdu and English Pakistani newspapers. The study of Sial (2009) reported coverage of human rights in Pakistani news media. The findings of that study revealed that Urdu Newspapers sensationalizing the issue. Other studies of literature review are also supporting the arguments of the current research.

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