Analyze The Impact Of Facebook For Student Media Essay

2970 words (12 pages) Essay

1st Jan 1970 Media Reference this

Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a university student. This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. You can view samples of our professional work here.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com.

After 2 years of launching, Facebook has accumulated millions of users. Through Facebook the users can edit their profile, sending message to friends, chat, play games and other features are also available. Due to this fact Alexa.com has ranked Facebook 2nd most widely used social site. This is also proclaimed by Mark Zuckerberg open letter, now Facebook has over 350million users worldwide. All of those data show that Facebook nowadays has become part of the student’s life. The student needs to interact with their friend or family.

Get Help With Your Essay

If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!

Find out more

Furthermore, Facebook has became an alternative for email. One of the differences between Facebook and email, Facebook can show you the update about your friends. You can also view your friend’s latest activities and give comments. Online games that provided in Facebook also make us access Facebook more often. All these possibilities can lead to Facebook addiction and can make student life become imbalance, then it will affect the academic performance. For example, the students become less concentrated in the class if the class has computer that connected to the internet.

1.2 Statement of The Problem

Logged into Facebook account during teaching or learning session.

This action can be observed in classroom equipped with the computer and internet access. During the class most of the students are not paying attention and rather prefer to surf on internet and login to their Facebook account. This behavior signals addiction and it will jeopardize their academic performance.

Social website like Facebook is very famous among the student and some of them are getting addicted.

As a student, our nature is to interact with other people. We need other people in our lives. Facebook satisfy this human need. At Facebook you can communicate your opinion, share pictures, videos and give comment on friends profile. Besides that, at Facebook you can also create an invitation to spread news about any events and invite them. This is a sign of addiction which could be happening, when you login to Facebook, it distracts your time when you are supposed study, the inability to control time spent on Facebook.

1.3 Objective

Our research on Facebook effects among the Hamdard university, which narrows our research focusing on the students in their academic activities.

Our main focuses are:

To inform the readers about the advantages and disadvantages of the Facebook.

To analyze the impact of the Facebook on students.

To suggest ways of minimizing the bad impact of Facebook to students.

1.4 Significance of Study

After conducting the research about the effect, we hope that we can contribute something to the student or the reader that have problem what we have explained in the problem statement. The main purpose it to relate our study to the problem and suggest solution about it. Our significance of studies are:

– Finding will analyze the impact of Facebook for student.

– Solution will help student to improve their academic performance.

1.5 Scope

To help us make the research possible with the given time and resources, we need to limit our scope. Furthermore, we decide that our subjects to gather the data are only limited to Hamdard University students.

1.6 Research Question

Based on our research objective, we are going to conduct research to answer several research questions that can help us answer the objective. The questions are:

What are the advantages and disadvantages of Facebook?

What are the impacts of Facebook to the student?

What are the solutions for the student to minimize the negative impact to Facebook?

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Overview

This chapter discusses the impact Facebook has on the campus. But, first let’s see how far Facebook has developed beyond campuses. There are a lot of facts that can show how far it has gone, eg, According to Fodeman and Monroe (article January 12th, 2009) says that four years ago it was rare to learn of a child under 7th grade with an account. Last fall, for the first time, 4th graders began reporting to us that they had Facebook accounts. Now, in the light of this statement we have found out that 60 – 70% of 7th graders have accounts and the number is higher for 8th graders. These children are too young to be using Facebook or other adult social networks for the reasons. Regarding the impact of Facebook, which is the main problem will be discussed later on in the report. In this chapter the impact of facebook will be divided into two parts, first the advantages of facebook and the second the disadvantages especially for the students of Hamdard university who are our main research target.

2.2 Advantages of Facebook

Social network sites such as such as Facebook allow individuals to present themselves, and establish or maintain connections with others. These sites can be oriented towards work-related contexts, romantic relationship initiation, connecting those with shared interests such as music or politics, or the college student population. Participants may use the sites to interact with people they already know offline or to meet new people. Facebook enables its users to find friends who can post comments on each other’s pages, and view each other’s profiles. Facebook members can also join virtual groups based on common interests, to see what interest do they share with others, and learn each others’ hobbies, interests, musical tastes, and romantic relationship status through the profiles (Ellison et al, 2007).

Facebook comprises of a rich site for researchers interested in the affordances of social networks due to its heavy usage patterns and technological capabilities that bridge online and offline connections. Previous research suggests that Facebook users engage in “searching” for people with whom they have an offline connection more than they “browse” for complete strangers to meet (Lampe, Ellison, & Steinfield, 2006).

2.3 Disadvantages of Facebook

Facebook has became famous, it is because that it allows people who probably have never met in a real world can have a good communication with each other and built a new relationship and friendship, also from Facebook people can post anything they feel in short term and may get many attention from their friend that make that personal feel more comfortable because there many friend care about his personality. Facebook make our society very open, people have their right when they want be friend from their profile so there many user put many things in their profile that can make other people interest on their profile.(J. Cooper, 2008).

Many academic institutions around the country especially Hamdard university have felt the changes of students only from a social network their use especially Facebook. However, this new technology also brings negative implications, such as lowered GPAs etc.

Without realizing that everything they post to Facebook they actually is not privacy anymore even that become a serious criminal offence if they are not aware about what they post in internet. For example the administrator at Purdue University, Pablo Malavenda came across Facebook page and he found there is one group called “We Hate Pablo” and that posted his home address and instruction to eliminate him (J. Olson, M. Clough and K. Penning, 2009 p. 445).

Find out how UKEssays.com can help you!

Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs.

View our services

Scam can be done by sell a product through the internet and post the link in Facebook, when someone interested and buy the product the payment for that product is through credit card or pay pal. Finally, when the buyer already pays for that product, he or she does not get the product because that product actually not really exists.

CRITIQUES OF SOCIAL NETWORKING IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTES

The unpredictable damaging effect of Facebook and other social sites have been long debated within the boundaries of academic strongholds and outside, a new concept of “Cyber bullying” has emerge for many institutes, especially since 2000.

Several studies are made especially a recent article in the Illinois School Board Journal suggests that girls in particular are victimized to cyber bullying and are being harassed. The truth is that Cyber bullying exists in or out of the educational institute boundaries, its up to the institute teachers and parents of students to understand this problem and deal with it.

The more dangerous problem is that students today see the web as their

“private playground” and are unaware of the dangers posed by careless online postings.

Using Facebook takes time. Often, a LOT of time!

Greatest factor for individuals is to socialize and the passion to socialize is increasing. Their irresistible need to connect with their peers, joined with the development of 24/7 accessible technologies, can make the use of sites like Facebook irresistible. Socializing might be necessary but intensive use of these social sites may lead to unstoppable use. This will take away the allocated time from other activities i.e. studies,work,sports etc

THE EFFECTS OF SOCIAL NETWORKS ON AN INDIVIDUAL’S

PERFORMANCE

The social network approach holds that the behavior of an individual is effected by the relationships and the technology that he might posses rather than the norms he practices. The social feelings exchanged between two individuals characterizes their tie. Social networks have a positive and a negative effect on the individuals performance, these effects can be on studies,work,family etc.

Researchers have found that positive network does have a positive effect on work and academics, on the other hand, the effects of an negative network are negatively related to performance. It is imperative to talk about three social networks on students performance.

A. Friendship Networks

Friendship between two people can emerge only if and when their paths cross. They would be more likely to meet and share. This fairly does not means that it only determines that individuals will only meet but also influence other factors such as visibility and closeness. Increased visibility and exposure increase the likelihood of becoming friends.

Therefore, a student who is in to a friendship network has more opportunities to access resources that may be important to successful academic performance. Perhaps it is the most importantly resource for a student in coping with academic related stresses. A student who is central in a friendship network has a greater chance of helping others and also being helped; thus, he is likely to perform better in the instructional setting, and so people who are central in friendship network are likely to be popular in web-based forum, and may have a better chance in developing more friendship with others. This will lead to a larger social circle, increasing in social popularity which may also gather individuals who can help with academics activities thus having a constructive effect on our academic activities.

B. Advice Networks

Advice networks are such networks through which students can share resources eg. Information, assictance,guidance which are related to their work. The advice network is more practical than friendship network. Advice network works in a way, when an individual is given a task he may turn towards to these networks and obtain available exchange of resources, guidance and information. When the job is done the person can now provide the resources obtained to others in order to guide them. A person who is a part of advice networks is likely to perform better in class because he possesses task-related information, experience and guidance. Thus advice networks are positively related to the performance of an individual in a academic setting.

C. Adversarial Networks

Adversarial relations refer to those relations that may involve negative exchanges. Those kinds of relations cause emotional distress, anger, or unresponsiveness. They have been found to have a drastic effect on the students performance and satisfaction, thus it is negatively related to performance. Such networks are responsible for diminishing concentration in students, lack of attention and an outcast. Deep analysis shows that individuals who are a part of such networks will have a hard time keeping up with performance, as referred in the beginning the friendship network is to make friends who will be a use in time of need and will demonstrate a positive relationship, but what if due to adversarial network you might indulge in a relationship that might take you to a spiral down life. Studies have shown that many single individuals use social networks to get involved in a relationship that at times lead to a disastrous result in the end. The person involved in such relation suffering a setback will experience emotional turmoil, anger, hatred. Another example of adversarial network is that many users don’t care what are they getting involved in online, they also get caught in criminal activities that will put their life to a halt. Being a part of an Adversarial network will lead to misfortune that will force the individual to pay a great price.

Does social networking hurt student grades?

The explosion is stunting students’ language skills , this article was posted by Kate Conrath, she herself was a facebook user, she started using Facebook in college , made progress while using it upto the level of completing college and moving on, she learned many progressive things such as writing personal statement, term papers, refined her oral language, working with master interviews etc., clearly she was a part of a friends network or advice network which have been discussed above.

She got a job as a teacher, she found out that students using facebook had a different approach that she used to have when she was using facebok at her time.

Today, many students are using Facebook, Twitter and other social networking sites, sometimes hundreds of times a day. Their growth in vocabulary becomes stunted because of the social networking explosion, they practically use the words like “ill c u l8er” or “I ll cum to ye hum 2day”, students using social sites extensively and usually chatting will use these words in their conversation and will have a adverse effect on their real vocabulary when they’ll interact with others.

Perusing social networking sites has the same effects as watching too much television; it’s a major distraction with no possible benefit. Preoccupation with these sites has completely taken over as the major chunk in student’s life ‘ free time’. Just like adults put away their responsibilities (grading papers; perhaps?), students avoiding homework and not completing their tasks which will lead them to a spiral downwards.

CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

This section discusses the methodology of the research. The main purpose of the research is to give solutions to help student reduce their addiction in social network, Facebook. To get some information why they become addict with Facebook, we will chose a smple size of 50-100 students around the campus. Data for the research will be collected through questionnaire and observation.

3.2 Target area of research

We will be targeting students of our department with a sample size of 50-100 students ranging from BBA Freshman to MBA finalist.

3.3 Research Instruments

This research utilized both quantitative and qualitative research methodology. The instruments used to collect the data were questionnaire and observation. A set of questionnaire will contain 14 questions including space for comment / opinion / suggestion on the topic.

The qualitative data for the research come from observation, and find for another data from internet. For example from internet, we find from Wikipedia, and various other sites that can help us to get some information for this research.

3.4 Data Analysis

To process the data, the questionnaire and observation data both will be separated into two groups, which will be “addicted” and “non-addicted” group. The data will process and enter to the computer using Microsoft office Word software and process the data into the graphs and charts, and then the explanation and description about the result will be included in the document.

Abstract

Facebook has over 350million users worldwide data show that Face book nowadays has become part of the student’s life. it has became an alternative for email,games,file sharing etc.Facebook addiction and can make student life become imbalance, then it will affect the academic performance.

Analysis of the research will reveal how much and many students are addicted to facebook and how many are suffering depleting grades and are unable to fulfill their academic goals. The research method which will be used in this research will be both quantitative and qualitative, we will taret the students of Hamdard University with a sample size of 50-100 students undergraduate and masters. This data will be analyzed and will be broken down in to two parts i.e. addicted and non addicted people, in the end we will provide a solution how these addictions can be overcome and academic goals can be achieve.

After 2 years of launching, Facebook has accumulated millions of users. Through Facebook the users can edit their profile, sending message to friends, chat, play games and other features are also available. Due to this fact Alexa.com has ranked Facebook 2nd most widely used social site. This is also proclaimed by Mark Zuckerberg open letter, now Facebook has over 350million users worldwide. All of those data show that Facebook nowadays has become part of the student’s life. The student needs to interact with their friend or family.

Furthermore, Facebook has became an alternative for email. One of the differences between Facebook and email, Facebook can show you the update about your friends. You can also view your friend’s latest activities and give comments. Online games that provided in Facebook also make us access Facebook more often. All these possibilities can lead to Facebook addiction and can make student life become imbalance, then it will affect the academic performance. For example, the students become less concentrated in the class if the class has computer that connected to the internet.

1.2 Statement of The Problem

Logged into Facebook account during teaching or learning session.

This action can be observed in classroom equipped with the computer and internet access. During the class most of the students are not paying attention and rather prefer to surf on internet and login to their Facebook account. This behavior signals addiction and it will jeopardize their academic performance.

Social website like Facebook is very famous among the student and some of them are getting addicted.

As a student, our nature is to interact with other people. We need other people in our lives. Facebook satisfy this human need. At Facebook you can communicate your opinion, share pictures, videos and give comment on friends profile. Besides that, at Facebook you can also create an invitation to spread news about any events and invite them. This is a sign of addiction which could be happening, when you login to Facebook, it distracts your time when you are supposed study, the inability to control time spent on Facebook.

1.3 Objective

Our research on Facebook effects among the Hamdard university, which narrows our research focusing on the students in their academic activities.

Our main focuses are:

To inform the readers about the advantages and disadvantages of the Facebook.

To analyze the impact of the Facebook on students.

To suggest ways of minimizing the bad impact of Facebook to students.

1.4 Significance of Study

After conducting the research about the effect, we hope that we can contribute something to the student or the reader that have problem what we have explained in the problem statement. The main purpose it to relate our study to the problem and suggest solution about it. Our significance of studies are:

– Finding will analyze the impact of Facebook for student.

– Solution will help student to improve their academic performance.

1.5 Scope

To help us make the research possible with the given time and resources, we need to limit our scope. Furthermore, we decide that our subjects to gather the data are only limited to Hamdard University students.

1.6 Research Question

Based on our research objective, we are going to conduct research to answer several research questions that can help us answer the objective. The questions are:

What are the advantages and disadvantages of Facebook?

What are the impacts of Facebook to the student?

What are the solutions for the student to minimize the negative impact to Facebook?

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Overview

This chapter discusses the impact Facebook has on the campus. But, first let’s see how far Facebook has developed beyond campuses. There are a lot of facts that can show how far it has gone, eg, According to Fodeman and Monroe (article January 12th, 2009) says that four years ago it was rare to learn of a child under 7th grade with an account. Last fall, for the first time, 4th graders began reporting to us that they had Facebook accounts. Now, in the light of this statement we have found out that 60 – 70% of 7th graders have accounts and the number is higher for 8th graders. These children are too young to be using Facebook or other adult social networks for the reasons. Regarding the impact of Facebook, which is the main problem will be discussed later on in the report. In this chapter the impact of facebook will be divided into two parts, first the advantages of facebook and the second the disadvantages especially for the students of Hamdard university who are our main research target.

2.2 Advantages of Facebook

Social network sites such as such as Facebook allow individuals to present themselves, and establish or maintain connections with others. These sites can be oriented towards work-related contexts, romantic relationship initiation, connecting those with shared interests such as music or politics, or the college student population. Participants may use the sites to interact with people they already know offline or to meet new people. Facebook enables its users to find friends who can post comments on each other’s pages, and view each other’s profiles. Facebook members can also join virtual groups based on common interests, to see what interest do they share with others, and learn each others’ hobbies, interests, musical tastes, and romantic relationship status through the profiles (Ellison et al, 2007).

Facebook comprises of a rich site for researchers interested in the affordances of social networks due to its heavy usage patterns and technological capabilities that bridge online and offline connections. Previous research suggests that Facebook users engage in “searching” for people with whom they have an offline connection more than they “browse” for complete strangers to meet (Lampe, Ellison, & Steinfield, 2006).

2.3 Disadvantages of Facebook

Facebook has became famous, it is because that it allows people who probably have never met in a real world can have a good communication with each other and built a new relationship and friendship, also from Facebook people can post anything they feel in short term and may get many attention from their friend that make that personal feel more comfortable because there many friend care about his personality. Facebook make our society very open, people have their right when they want be friend from their profile so there many user put many things in their profile that can make other people interest on their profile.(J. Cooper, 2008).

Many academic institutions around the country especially Hamdard university have felt the changes of students only from a social network their use especially Facebook. However, this new technology also brings negative implications, such as lowered GPAs etc.

Without realizing that everything they post to Facebook they actually is not privacy anymore even that become a serious criminal offence if they are not aware about what they post in internet. For example the administrator at Purdue University, Pablo Malavenda came across Facebook page and he found there is one group called “We Hate Pablo” and that posted his home address and instruction to eliminate him (J. Olson, M. Clough and K. Penning, 2009 p. 445).

Scam can be done by sell a product through the internet and post the link in Facebook, when someone interested and buy the product the payment for that product is through credit card or pay pal. Finally, when the buyer already pays for that product, he or she does not get the product because that product actually not really exists.

CRITIQUES OF SOCIAL NETWORKING IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTES

The unpredictable damaging effect of Facebook and other social sites have been long debated within the boundaries of academic strongholds and outside, a new concept of “Cyber bullying” has emerge for many institutes, especially since 2000.

Several studies are made especially a recent article in the Illinois School Board Journal suggests that girls in particular are victimized to cyber bullying and are being harassed. The truth is that Cyber bullying exists in or out of the educational institute boundaries, its up to the institute teachers and parents of students to understand this problem and deal with it.

The more dangerous problem is that students today see the web as their

“private playground” and are unaware of the dangers posed by careless online postings.

Using Facebook takes time. Often, a LOT of time!

Greatest factor for individuals is to socialize and the passion to socialize is increasing. Their irresistible need to connect with their peers, joined with the development of 24/7 accessible technologies, can make the use of sites like Facebook irresistible. Socializing might be necessary but intensive use of these social sites may lead to unstoppable use. This will take away the allocated time from other activities i.e. studies,work,sports etc

THE EFFECTS OF SOCIAL NETWORKS ON AN INDIVIDUAL’S

PERFORMANCE

The social network approach holds that the behavior of an individual is effected by the relationships and the technology that he might posses rather than the norms he practices. The social feelings exchanged between two individuals characterizes their tie. Social networks have a positive and a negative effect on the individuals performance, these effects can be on studies,work,family etc.

Researchers have found that positive network does have a positive effect on work and academics, on the other hand, the effects of an negative network are negatively related to performance. It is imperative to talk about three social networks on students performance.

A. Friendship Networks

Friendship between two people can emerge only if and when their paths cross. They would be more likely to meet and share. This fairly does not means that it only determines that individuals will only meet but also influence other factors such as visibility and closeness. Increased visibility and exposure increase the likelihood of becoming friends.

Therefore, a student who is in to a friendship network has more opportunities to access resources that may be important to successful academic performance. Perhaps it is the most importantly resource for a student in coping with academic related stresses. A student who is central in a friendship network has a greater chance of helping others and also being helped; thus, he is likely to perform better in the instructional setting, and so people who are central in friendship network are likely to be popular in web-based forum, and may have a better chance in developing more friendship with others. This will lead to a larger social circle, increasing in social popularity which may also gather individuals who can help with academics activities thus having a constructive effect on our academic activities.

B. Advice Networks

Advice networks are such networks through which students can share resources eg. Information, assictance,guidance which are related to their work. The advice network is more practical than friendship network. Advice network works in a way, when an individual is given a task he may turn towards to these networks and obtain available exchange of resources, guidance and information. When the job is done the person can now provide the resources obtained to others in order to guide them. A person who is a part of advice networks is likely to perform better in class because he possesses task-related information, experience and guidance. Thus advice networks are positively related to the performance of an individual in a academic setting.

C. Adversarial Networks

Adversarial relations refer to those relations that may involve negative exchanges. Those kinds of relations cause emotional distress, anger, or unresponsiveness. They have been found to have a drastic effect on the students performance and satisfaction, thus it is negatively related to performance. Such networks are responsible for diminishing concentration in students, lack of attention and an outcast. Deep analysis shows that individuals who are a part of such networks will have a hard time keeping up with performance, as referred in the beginning the friendship network is to make friends who will be a use in time of need and will demonstrate a positive relationship, but what if due to adversarial network you might indulge in a relationship that might take you to a spiral down life. Studies have shown that many single individuals use social networks to get involved in a relationship that at times lead to a disastrous result in the end. The person involved in such relation suffering a setback will experience emotional turmoil, anger, hatred. Another example of adversarial network is that many users don’t care what are they getting involved in online, they also get caught in criminal activities that will put their life to a halt. Being a part of an Adversarial network will lead to misfortune that will force the individual to pay a great price.

Does social networking hurt student grades?

The explosion is stunting students’ language skills , this article was posted by Kate Conrath, she herself was a facebook user, she started using Facebook in college , made progress while using it upto the level of completing college and moving on, she learned many progressive things such as writing personal statement, term papers, refined her oral language, working with master interviews etc., clearly she was a part of a friends network or advice network which have been discussed above.

She got a job as a teacher, she found out that students using facebook had a different approach that she used to have when she was using facebok at her time.

Today, many students are using Facebook, Twitter and other social networking sites, sometimes hundreds of times a day. Their growth in vocabulary becomes stunted because of the social networking explosion, they practically use the words like “ill c u l8er” or “I ll cum to ye hum 2day”, students using social sites extensively and usually chatting will use these words in their conversation and will have a adverse effect on their real vocabulary when they’ll interact with others.

Perusing social networking sites has the same effects as watching too much television; it’s a major distraction with no possible benefit. Preoccupation with these sites has completely taken over as the major chunk in student’s life ‘ free time’. Just like adults put away their responsibilities (grading papers; perhaps?), students avoiding homework and not completing their tasks which will lead them to a spiral downwards.

CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

This section discusses the methodology of the research. The main purpose of the research is to give solutions to help student reduce their addiction in social network, Facebook. To get some information why they become addict with Facebook, we will chose a smple size of 50-100 students around the campus. Data for the research will be collected through questionnaire and observation.

3.2 Target area of research

We will be targeting students of our department with a sample size of 50-100 students ranging from BBA Freshman to MBA finalist.

3.3 Research Instruments

This research utilized both quantitative and qualitative research methodology. The instruments used to collect the data were questionnaire and observation. A set of questionnaire will contain 14 questions including space for comment / opinion / suggestion on the topic.

The qualitative data for the research come from observation, and find for another data from internet. For example from internet, we find from Wikipedia, and various other sites that can help us to get some information for this research.

3.4 Data Analysis

To process the data, the questionnaire and observation data both will be separated into two groups, which will be “addicted” and “non-addicted” group. The data will process and enter to the computer using Microsoft office Word software and process the data into the graphs and charts, and then the explanation and description about the result will be included in the document.

Abstract

Facebook has over 350million users worldwide data show that Face book nowadays has become part of the student’s life. it has became an alternative for email,games,file sharing etc.Facebook addiction and can make student life become imbalance, then it will affect the academic performance.

Analysis of the research will reveal how much and many students are addicted to facebook and how many are suffering depleting grades and are unable to fulfill their academic goals. The research method which will be used in this research will be both quantitative and qualitative, we will taret the students of Hamdard University with a sample size of 50-100 students undergraduate and masters. This data will be analyzed and will be broken down in to two parts i.e. addicted and non addicted people, in the end we will provide a solution how these addictions can be overcome and academic goals can be achieve.

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

Related Services

View all

DMCA / Removal Request

If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on the UKDiss.com website then please: