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What Is Consumer Brand Relationship Marketing Essay

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Marketing
Wordcount: 5445 words Published: 1st Jan 2015

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Relationship marketing means provide a products or services for consumer to choose (Liam Alvey, 1983). It is focuses on the relationship in between of individual customer and seller, both of them will have benefited in their relationships. And it is not only for onetime trading products/services, the main goal is for keep a long-terms business with customer (Robert A. Peterson, 1995).

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The basic properly of marketing is to create and manage consumer relationships. This is important for all businesses. The tradition relationship marketing is focus on the relations in between of manufacture, suppliers, buyers and sellers, but obviously in the past 10 years, it is evolved to be a consumer-brand relationship – consumer will be attracted by the brandings (on products, stores, celebrities, companies or countries) (Susan Fournier et al, 2012).

For the company to survival in today’s market, they notice the importance to build up consumer-brand relationship. For global business such as Saturn in general motors, the case study from David A. Aaker (1994) obviously informed the importance for building a strong brand. Because of environmental change and increasing competitors form the world, Saturn had changed their company policy and developed a strong brand. This is help to enhanced the competitive advantage and enhance company image to the public. Strong brand also can add value to customer (Ekena et al. 2000) to purchase more.

There are many theoretical and empirical that to explained brand marketing. It has different focusing point of brand marketing, such as brand extension, co-branding (Cegarra and Michel, 2001) or brand personality (Aaker, 1997; Ambroise and al., 2004). At the other hand, some publications mentioned need to conceptual and empirical elaboration to analysis the component of a brand.

The brands are one of intangible assets to the company which is most important and valuable. (Lassar et al., 1995; Papu et al., 2005; Sven Kuenzel et al,2008).

The main core of consumer brand relationship are trust and commitment – when customer in trust your brand and than make a commitment to purchase in your brand, basically the consumer- brand relationship are set up (Morgan and Hunt, 1994; Fournier, 1998; Gruen etal., 2000; Esch et al., 2006).

In order to apply brand and customer relationship effectively in marketing strategy, it is necessary to build up a clear and positive for consumer-brand relationship. It might also help company to re-finding their position in the market.

What is Consumer-Brand relationship? (1686)

Accordingly to Einar Breivik (2008) mentioned consumer-brand relationships are the quality of relationship in between consumers and brands. There are many factors to construct consumer brand relationship. Basically, brand trust (Hess, 1995), brand identification (Escalas and Bettman, 2003) or brand commitment (Fullerton, 2005) are the element to build up the consumer brand relationship.

In order to build up a successful consumer-brand relationship, at the beginning need to be built up the brand.

There are many researchers to definite brand in different ways, but it is still abstract.

Thomson et al. (2005) was pointed out the definition of brand is a renowned to product or service, and it is more easy for understand on brand nature. A brand might be a first image of the product or service to show out to public in the market. Branding is one of differentiation to the company, products or service in the market (Ravi Pppu et al., 2005)

Building brand successfully could bring several advantages to companies, such as enhanced the competitive position and reinforce the retailers’ power (Park and Srinivasan, 1994; Ravi Pappu et al.,2005). Also can against defending power of company and extend the market share (Asams, 1995; Ravi Pappu et al.,2005).

A major part of building brand is Building brand equity to a company (Keller, 1998).

Brand equity is same to “brand valuation” or “brand value”(Lisa Wood, 2000). It is a value to the famous brand name, at the same time, it also have added-value to the brand. Basically it is structure by four basic assets of company – perceived quality, brand awareness, brand associations and brand loyalty. (David A. Aaker, 1994)

Perceived quality

Perceived quality is one of important element of brand equity (Aaker, 1991). It is not real quality for product or services itself, that is about the consumer’s individual appraised to the product or services (Zeithaml, 1988; Pappu et.al, 2005). The level of perceived quality might be affect by consumers’ individual feeling. According to David A. Aaker (1996) have pointed out perceived quality can be related to with price premiums, price elasticities, usage of brand, and, remarkably, stock return. Actually, it can be treated as the brand image to the public. In high perceived quality of product or services, consumer is willing to purchase.

Perceived quality is the evaluation from customer about the product or service offerings. (Zeithaml 1988).

Because perceived quality is a subjective evaluation from customer, customers are easy to influence by other factors except by the products or services’ real quality. The external factors such as price, brand name, warranties, and impartial quality information have been found to be related to perceived product quality and consumer’s product evaluations (Rao & Monroe 1989; Dodds, Monroe & Grewal 1991; Dodds 2002). For example, it is always have a dentist in the advertising for tooth paste products, and provide expert opinions. The promotional activities and advertising messages should be designed which are emphasize the product attributes and easy to catch consumers attention to enhance perceived quality of products and services. Moreover, retailers need to be care about the product attributes and external cues associated with perceived quality.

Brand loyalty

Brand loyalty is one of the main components of brand equity. The majority of early loyalty definition as repeat to purchase of a special or standard brand service (Magin et al., 2003; Frank et al. 1969, Tucker 1964)

The definition of Brand loyalty from Aaker (1991) as “the attachment that a customerhave to a brand”. Another definition from Oliver (1997) mentioned brand loyalty is “deeply held commitment to rebuy or repatronise a preferred product or service consistently in the future, despite situational influences and marketing efforts having potential to cause switching behavior”. Customer is tend to repeat purchase the product or service in a brand (Bhattachary et al., 1995; Kuenzel et al., 2008). In conclude to above definition, that the actual loyalty of customer to the brand as reflected in the purchase choices or behavioral purchase habit. The majory The development and maintenance of consumer brand loyalty is placed at the heart of companies marketing plans, especially in the face of highly competitive markets with increasing unpredictability and reducing product differentiation (Fournier and Yao, 1997)

The determinant of brand loyalty can be check with customer satisfactions; normally high customer satisfaction will have high brand loyalty. The brand loyalty is measured by an attitudinal perspective and consumer perceptions. Brand trust will influence the brand loyalty. The benefit of create the brand loyalty is easy to control the price tolerance, according to the research result from Dawes, J (2009) found out the loyal customer are less sensitive to price increase.

For example, there are highest brand loyalties for Apple in the IT market and I-phone market. As Apple already create a bright image to the public – Apple are the innovator in the market. Apple brands also bring out the image of high technology leadership; customer will have a purchase to gratify the vanity.

Brand awareness

Brand awareness is one of brand presence to consumers. It is an emotional feeling to individual customer. Aaker (1991) mentioned brand awareness is an important component of brand equity. in different various levels of brand awareness, degree from mere recognition of the brand to the position in the market, which refers to the brand recollection by a consumer Brand awareness was defined by Rossiter and Percy (1987) that the ability of consumers to identify or recognize the brand.

Brand awareness can helps the brand to stand out from the others in the competitive market. Brand awareness is important as customers will not consider purchasing on the brand if they are not aware the brand (Tan, Donald, 2010)

Brand identity is the outward expression of a brand, such as brand name, products trademark, communications, and company or products appears looking (Neumeier, Marty, 2004).

Basically brand identity is the image / information that the brand owner provided to its potential or target consumers. However, the development of product’s brand identity may evolve to a new trait from consumer perspective, it is not necessarily provided by brand owner percolates to targeted consumers. Therefore, it is need to have the brand associations for checking the consumer’s perception of the brand

The brand name should be conceptually close to target with the product or services. Also the brand name should be attracted the target consumer. In fact, consumer will easy to remember the sustainable brand names, helps to transcend trends and provide a positive connotation to consumer. Brand identity is basic to consumer recognition and symbolizes the brand’s differentiation from competitors in the market.

Brand identity mainly focus on reliable qualities, real characteristics of the actual value and brand promise that provided and sustained by organizational and/or production characteristics (Diller S et.al., 2006; Kunde J., 2002). The success example is Disney World. Disney is successfully to provide a bright image to the public: a fantastic place where full of joy, exciting and fantasy. The invested a lots to build up the image, such as the training to employee to provide a good service to customer. Keep communication with the customer, set up a social net with public (i.e. facebok), invited people provide comments to make a improvement. Also provide some new and funny facilities. Disney World provide a place is for all aged who wants to have experience on happy.

There are many marketing tools for brand awareness, such as advertising, public relations, packaging and word-of-mouth communication or referral. The goal at this stage should be to create or find out the brand identity.

Brand identity

It is very important to create and maintain brand awareness. To create brand awareness to the public, companies have to spend more effort to outstanding their products’ or services’ identities. It will have spent a lot in advertising, set up a promotion event. For example Apple, it is represented to high technology products. Before launch the new products, Apple will arrange a promotion event to promote the new products to the customer.

In order to maintaining the brand awareness, will use a several channel to achieve the goal – reinforce the brand image to customer. Normally changing packaging, produce advertising of products, send a messages to audience.

Brand associations

Brand associations are the important component of brand equity (Aaker, 1991; Keller, 1993). Brand associations are contain “the meaning of the brand for consumers” (keller, 1993). The two most important types of brand associations are: brand personality and organizational associations. These two majorly types also can be influence the brands equity (Aaker, 1991, 1996b). Brand personality is a core component of brand equity, and it is defined to in terms of the various characteristics or traits that the brands can be presume to the perception of consumers (Aaker, 1991; Keller, 1993). Another definition from Aaker (1997), brand personality is the association of human characteristics with the brand. By Johar and Sirty (1991) mentioned the definition of brand personality and a user personality can be use in brand image building strategy.

One of important source of imagery is brand personality, a nature of image (Biel, 1993, 1997; Antonio Azevedo, 2005). Aaker (1996) mentioned the brand equity can be created by brand personality according to three models: self-expression model, relationship basis model and functional benefit representation model.

Brand personality is a factor of differentiation that is used as a heuristic sue which in low motivation situation, also can be prejudice in brand attribute information (chaiken and Masheswaran, 1994).

Different researches may use different methods to measure brand personality. Lannon (1993) use the personification techniques to measure brand personality. Zaltman and Higie (1993) have the Zaltman’s Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET) to meqsure brand personality. And the IMPSYS model that use by Heylen (1990).

The measurement scale: “the Brand Personality Scale” which is developed by Aaker (1997). It has specifically five brand personality dimension and 15 aspect to identify different level: sincerity (down-to-earth, honest, wholesome and cheerful); excitement (daring, spirited, imaginative and up-to-date); competence (reliable, intelligent and successful); sophistication (upper class and charming); and ruggedness (outdoorsy and tough) (Antionio Azevedo, 2005).

The idea of self-image is a congruence states, consumer purchase choices are convinced by a cognitive that matched in between consumer self-image and brand image (Antionio Azevedo, 2005). “Self-congruity” and “functional congruity” is suggested by Johar and Sirgy (1991), which are two alternative routes to persuasion. Self-congruity which is the values-expressive trait (product-use image) matches with the receiver (audience) self-concept. For example, the household products majority audience should be mothers. Base on the view of mothers, they will produce a advertisement that have housewife to promote the household products. Functional congruity which is mentioned the beliefs of product / services utilitarian trait (performance related) matching with the consumer referent trait. For example, the utilitarian trait for one famous brand of toothpaste is preventing cavities, provide freshening breath to user, whitening teeth, and good tasting. The audience will consider purchasing to judge the relative goodness of the perceived attributes.

Brand trust, commitment and satisfaction in Consumer-Brand Relationship

By empirical information, there are clear direction consumer-brand relationship that focus on the relationship in between customer (Belaid at. el.,2010), as brand trust, brand satisfaction, commitment and brand loyalty. It will provide a deeper insight to consumer behavior in brand marketing after studied the connection or relation in between prior different variables.

The main cores of consumer brand relationship are trust and commitment. How to build up the trust and commitment with customer?

Company need to be developed the brand trust to consumer.

The consideration of trust in the brand can be found out some important and interesting information. Firstly, the adaptation of an natural quality of interpersonal relationship is means to “trust”, that in between of the brand and the consumer implies in the relationship of the brand possesses some characteristics that go beyond its notice as a pure product. This is a new idea. Form the person point of view, the perspective of the brand has already been proposed by many authors such as Aker (1991), Chernatony and McDonald (1998) and Fournier (1998), and qualitative researchers working for advertising agencies and consulting firms

Brand trust

Accordingly to the theory of brand personality, trust is connection to the brand obviously. Brands will be built up by certain personal characteristics and, finally, people will in trust to a set of brands that is similar to people in trust to someone (Aaker, 1991; Fournier, 1998; Chernatony and McDonald, 1998). The basic concept of brand trust means the relationship between a consumer and a brand could be affected by satisfaction (or functional performance). This qualitative dimension of brand value has been examining by many researchers, for example Blackston, (1995), Gurviez (1996), Heilbrunn (1995). In the brand domain by Gurviez (1998, ) mented trust like the assumption of consumers to the brand as a personification entity, is committed to predictable and fulfill the expectations of consumers, and to maintain this direction over time.

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This concept to brand trust which is emphasize the fact that it has both a cognitive and an affective nature. Credibility is a cognitive component to trust. This is the perceived reliability of trust that related to the information on the brand, the brand performance and its ability to fulfill consumer needs. Integrity is an affective component to trust. Consumer will evaluative and judge of the brand base on the brand’s motivations to consumer individual. (Gurviez, 1998). That is to say, the consumer will check the brand as a personified entity and make a choice that is which fit into his best interests. In generality, brand credibility bring out form a rational and cognitive process which base on the evaluation of brand performance and celebrity. At the other hand, integrity is an affective and social trust results that base on consumer perception of brand orientation, and the consumer purpose.

In consider to the relations in between brand and consumer, trust is the most important position in the consumer-brand relationship. Strong brand name could reinforce brand trust. In fact, emotion and sense are the main factors to influence consumer to purchase or make a commitment. Consumer are believe that the brand does not intend to break promises, to lie, or to take Being attached to a brand, the consumer can believe that the brand does not intend to lie, to break promises or to take advantage of the consumer’s blind side (Belaid el.at., 2010)


Satisfaction is the goal that company need to achieve.

According to Ervelles and Young (1992) mentioned satisfaction a core element in the marketing concept. Satisfaction has different definitions by different abundant literature. The concept of satisfaction which is focus on an evaluation process (Fornell 1992; Hunt 1977; Oliver 1981), the reply to an evaluation process (Halstead, Hartman, and Schmidt 1994; Oliver 1997, 1981; Tse and Wilton 1988), all aounnd of an evaluation process (Fornell 1992), or psychological states (Howard and Sheth 1969; Duffer et Moulins, 1989). However, it has inconsistency definitions in satisfaction, the disagreement about the emotion or knowable nature of the satisfaction response, as well the period of time that it lasts.

Generally , satisfaction has been describe as the response by affectivity, cognition and conation, and it is base on the product-standards that after evaluation, the experience to the product consumption or product attributes; and happen before or after choice, after consumption (satisfaction in transaction) or after long-term experience (relational satisfaction). The emotional dimension of satisfaction should be relate with brand is possible. Belaid et.al (2010) mentioned brand is most like an inalterable affective bond. That means it is mature and sustainable in a relationship. Inversely, the emotional satisfaction could be defined as an experience which is deep and short-term emotion response or to a short-term transaction or feeling (such as contentment, surprise). Basically, the strong brand name could be reinforced the satisfaction to consumer.

Customer commitment and brand loyalty

Brand is independent of instrumental and functional element to consumer-brand relationship (Amine, 1996). Brand loyalty is formed by perceived risk, brand implication, perceived quality, satisfaction and it is possible to relect to bying behavior. Brand commitment is a component of brand loyalty. Loyalty and commitment are the partner which appears in consumer-brand relationship. Loyalty is structured by a physical behavior and attitude. The commitment is a primarily attitude. The brand commitment relationship which found out commitment was a main factor to predict brand loyalty. Loyalty can be measured by pattern of past purchases (Brown, 1952; Lawrence and Trapey, 1975; McConnell, 1968; Tucker, 1964). Loyalty also as a primary attitude for the given brand (Day, 1969; Jacoby and chestnut, 1978; Mellens and al., 1996; Reichheld, 1996; Simon, 2000). Generally commitment has been conceptualized to be a connection of needs and wants in the relationship. Commitment is defined as the consumer is happy to maintain a lasting relationship with the brand (Morgan and Hunt, 1994; Dholakia, 1997). Accordingly to Gurviez and Korchia (2002) defined commitment as follows: “commitment from the consumer standpoint is defined as the implicit or explicit intention to maintain a durable relationship.” Base to the relationship-marketing fields, researchers highlight the nature of commitment: they defined the commitment from affective commitment (Allen and Meyer, 1984). By Amine (1998) was point out if consumer keep on purchasing behavior consistently, the benefits should be reducing the switching cost for changing to another brand. It is already to inform the advantage and rational nature of commitment. The consumer’s belief will be affected by vantage of the brand (McQueen and al., 1993), the cognition of the differences between brands, and especially in a high-perceived risk in the purchase (Amine, 1998; Lacoeuilhe, 2000) For example, the dimension are the major motivations in commitment. There is other form of commitment that we called “affective commitment”. It is based on the gratification to maintain relationship with partners and emotional development

Form the consumer’s point of view, affective commitment means to their devotion and identification with the brand without any material factor. In these brand commitment, affective commitment is the emotional factor to let consumer in willingness of keep the same purchasing behavior. Accordingly to this clarification of loyalty and brand commitment concepts, it is clear to consumer-brand relationship.

A strong commitment to the brancd can provide a “true brand loyalty” which consumer will keep on re-buying behavior. Commitment to a brand also improve the response to consumer’s awareness and behavioral. Brand commitment can be make a combination of an emotional and cognitive, it will enhances brand-purchasing consistency. Many literatures have pointed out in a higher level or degree of commitment will get more positive loyalty behavior (Amine, 1998; Terrasse, 2003).

In order to get a strong and structural relationship in between of consumer and brand,

It is necessary make a coordination of loyalty, satisfaction and trust.

There are many of the marketing literature was provide the linking in between of satisfaction and loyalty. Even though the interaction between satisfaction and loyalty are recognized (Olivia and al., 1992, Duffer and Moulins, 1989), many researchers have pointed out repetitive buying behavior is influence by a high consumer satisfaction (Mc Dougall and Levesque, 2000, Gotlieb and al., 1994; Lassar and al., 2000; Ostrowski and al., 1993; Duffer and Moulins, 1989).

The interaction of trust and loyalty has also highly attention among researchers. The prediction of brand loyalty was from by credibility and the integrity with the components of brand trust (Sere De Lanauzh., 2006).

The relationship in between satisfaction and trust are the upper of the relational chain. By several authors mentioned satisfaction will produced trust (Ganesan, 1994; Selnes, 1998). But there are few studies to improve that trust provided satisfaction. The development of trust is related to consumer purchasing experiences and the interactions with the brand, and the amassment of satisfaction will become to the consumer’s trust. At the other hand, if the consumer feel the their needs are fulfilled by the brand as they respect, and consider by commercial promises and benefit they have, the overall evaluation of the brand performance will become positive. It will be say that a satisfactory brand normally also a trust worthy brand.

Customer-Brand Relationship in food industry

The food industry is closed to the general public. There are many different kind of food in the market. Because of progress in living standard to the people, and people are more concerned about the health, this is the trend of the industry need to follow.

The role of product creation, advertising, and reputation become the primary information about food to consumer. In Hong Kong, people are concert on health life and they believe that a health food are the most important. Most of brands of processed food which are the same product are filled in the market. Consumer will choose the food that base on the brand if they trust. Trust is a feeling base on two general factors as brand reliability and brand intentions (Ballester and Aleman, 2001). And Rempel et al. (1985) is pointed out trust is provide by the past experience and prior interaction.

In order to out standing in the mass market, it is must to build up the positive brand identity of the brand to the public (especially in process food industry).

Prestige that is the image of products to other people, is it valued if brand are well-know in the public (bergami and Bagozzi, 2000). This is a most import in the food industry market. There are many same products in the market and consumer is not easy to evaluate which brand a the best, mostly consumer will in trust to the most well-known bran and to buy. Form the research by Smidts st al. (2001) have find out prestige is strongly associated with identification and reinforce brand identity.

Basically food is fulfilled the needs of people (hungry). However in mostly is will have more side benefit is provide to consumer. For example in Kinder Surprise is a milk chocolate egg shell which containing a toy inside. The outside surface of the egg is milk chocolate, and the inside is made of white chocolate. And it is provide it is a health snacks to children.

Corporate communication refers the organisations are sharing or provide the formal information to the customer (Kuenzel, 2008). Organizations will transfer the message to all consumers, which can be enhance the organization or brand credibility and ethic.

Word-of-mouth means someone shares the experience (satisfied or dissatisfied) to another by oral communication, but in today market it will expend the communication method that can be share the information by blog or social network. This is most common in the market. For example of “Open-rice” which was the website for people to share the experience after have a meal from restaurant.

Example – Hung Fook Tong

Hung Fook tong are the famous herbal tea provider in Hong Kong.

The business of herbal tea is a part of Hong Kong (or China) culture which is related health life. Herbal tea is a cultural heritage in Hong Kong.

Chinese herb tea is quite popular in Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macau. There are many shops for selling different kinds of herb tea in different brand name. Some shops have been open for 150 years in Guangzhou and 50-60 years in Hong Kong. It is easy to find out the ship. It is easy to find out that is a high competitive industry.

Hung Fook Tong Holdings are started business in Hong Kong in 1980, have a history of her tea business in Hong Kong but not the most oldest.

In order to enhance the competitive advantage in the market, Hung Fook Tong will invest to develop a brand identity.

Normally herb tea are not for take out, people need to finish in a moment. In order to expand the selling network, in 1990s and 2000s develop the new packaging of herb tea. Hung Fook Tong created a new packaging for herb tea. The herb tea will be in bottled, canned or boxed which is similar to other normal beverages. the packing in 2000, herb tea was in the grass bottle. Later on they have a new plastic bottle instead of the heavy glass bottle packing. The innovative design of packaging a greatly improves the portability of herbal tea, is brings breakthrough in the traditional herb tea industry. The new plastic bottled packaging of herbal tea is successfully enlarged the selling network over Hong Kong and Asia market. It can be sold in all major supermarkets and convenience stores, such as Park’n Shop, Wellcome, 7-11 and Circle-K. It is better to provide customers a health drink in more convenient way.

Mostly the consumer who will drink herb tea are in middle age or older. It has a crisis by a low market share.

To survive in the market, Hung Fook Tong made a decision to extend the market share in herb tea.

Now a days Hung Fook Tong became the biggest herbal tea group in Hong Kong, and has over 700 employee and staff members, self-invested factories in Hong Kong and Shenzhen. Also have a wide sales networking in Hong Kong, China and oversea market (as America, Canada, Australia, Netherlands and Singapore, etc).

To create the brand image

During 1993 to 1994, Hung Fook Tong have around 70 outlets in Hong Kong, and 80% were franchise shop and 20% were self-owned houses. After the financial crisis (1997 in Hong Kong), the sales of Hung Fook Tong was fall in business, many of the franchised shop are start to sell other product of Hung Fook Tong, such as pasta and other products (food – breads) and hopes can bring out increased turnover. However it is damage to to brand image of Hung Fook Tong, it will confuse the image to consumer – is the shop for Hung Fook Tong are herb tea shop or other else?

In 1999, Hung Fook Tong is started to recovery of the right from the franchise stores and re-consolidation of the business. Nowadays, Hung Fook Tong is successfully to build up an image to public – herbal beverages provider as good as homemade drinks.

Hung Fook Tong has a volunteer team which will held a lot of charity activities and keep closely communication to the public. Hung Fook Tong enhanced the corporate image by the series of charity activities. In a goods brand name which are also affect consumer loyalty.


In the cause of develop/ improve company image to the public.

In order to develop an effective and strong consumer-brand relationship in the airline industry, it is important for the company to touch the emotional side of the consumers by offering them the service that exceeds their expectations. In addition to providing exceptional travelling experience, they need to be given complete information about the flight schedules and fares and should be informed about any delays and cancellations of the flights so that they can take action accordingly. All leading brands ensure that they reach the heart of their consumers by offering them the value proposition that is compatible with their needs. It is also vital to offer consistent value offerings so that the consumers are willing to remain loyal to the brand and their relationship with the brand gets much deeper and stronger with the passage of time.

The slogan of Hung Fook Tong are ‘Herbs Life: Popular & Convenience’ and ‘True and Natural. Hung Fook Tong clearly stated their target is for mass market. It is help to build up the brand identity.

Hung Fook Tong is the one only attains the state-level non-material cultural heritage cool tea secret recipe enterprise on products in Hong Kong and Macua. This helps to build up a image and different form competitor.

Hung Fook Tong is a well-known branding of Hong Kong for herb


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