The Independent Variable And Dependent Variable Marketing Essay

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1st Jan 1970 Marketing Reference this


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The previous chapter we have discussed on the literature review on the research topic and we have found the supporting details that are able to support the independent variable and dependent variable for this research topic.

As for this chapter, the main purpose is to identify the methods that are suitable for this research study. First and foremost, the in this research study it will be consists of research framework, followed by hypothesis development than operational definition after that will be data collection method followed by sources of data. After the section of sources of data, it will be sampling method, than sampling size followed by questionnaire development and scaling techniques. The second last thing in this chapter will be data analysis and measurement and software as for the last and for most will be the summary of data analysis method for hypotheses testing.

3.1 Research Framework

Research Framework is a research which is often identifying all the variables that will be able to help in developing the theoretical framework and it is to design the research procedure in a way that all of the data is able to be gathered and analysed (Sekaran 2003). This is important because it will be able to guide us and give us an overview on which direction is we going to pursue in this research study. A well research framework will definitely help the research to proceed on smoothly as well as the research will be able to conduct effectively and efficiently.

In this study there will have four independent variables. The first independent variable for this research is brand awareness. Brand awareness is chosen to be one of the independent variable because brand awareness plays a vital role in manipulating purchase behaviour as well as the purchase intentions of other customer in buying the products (Macdonald & Sharp, 2000). As for the second independent variable which is the culture value. Culture value is also chosen to be an independent variable because different individual have different tradition, beliefs, habits, preference, customs that are needed to be understand before they will be able to react on their purchase behaviour (Wainright, 1994). Besides that, culture values is the most basic criteria for consumers’ wants and needs while this two elements will affect the word of mouth on consumer purchase behaviour. Trust is an important factor that will affect consumer purchase behaviour because some of the researcher has said studying consumers’ behaviour often use trust as the surrounding concept that helps to mediates the relationship between a consumer’s attitude toward these brand features as well as consumer loyalty (Agustine & Singh, 2005; Wiener & Mowen, 1986). The last independent variable that is been chosen for this research study is the interest effect. The most important rule of WOM marketing is where every individuals needs to “be interesting” about a product and so that “nobody will be able to talk about boring companies, boring products, or boring advertisement and this will affect the consumer purchase decision (Sernovitz, 2006). Consumer Purchase behaviour is chosen as the dependent variable because the behaviour that every of the consumers are able to portrait out in searching for, purchasing, using, evaluating, and disposing of products and services that they expect will be able to satisfy the needs and wants from the word of mouth of other customers (Schiffman & Kanuk, 2007).

Independent Variables Dependent variable

Brand Awareness

Consumer Purchase Behavior.

Culture Value



Figure 3.1 Research Framework

Figure 3.1 shows the relationship between factors of the independent variable and the dependent variable. In this research we can observe that the dependent variable is the consumer purchase behaviour while the independent variable consists of four variables which are brand awareness, culture value, trust and interest.

3.2 Operational Definition

There are contain of several terms that will be discuss briefly in this section, among of that are brand awareness, culture values, trust and interest.0

Key Term



Brand Awareness

Brand awareness is defined as the first of a

whole entire brand knowledge system in the

consumer’s mind which will reflect the

ability of consumer’s knowing the product under

a brand name which will be easily

remember by the consumers.

(Keller, 1993

Culture Values

Culture value is described as the individual’s desirable or preferred way of acting or of knowing something that is able to sustain over time and that will governs actions or decisions.

(Bass, 2003)

Trust effect

Trust is defined more on attitude of a person.

Besides that, trust can also be describe

as the psychological experience of the

individuals who are able to honor it. Furthermore,

trust is said to be a bet about the future contingent

actions of others.

(Jones & George, 1998)

(Kee & Knox, 1970)

(Sztompka, 1999)

Interest effect

Consumer Purchase Behavior

Consumer purchase behavior is the study of the processes which involved every individuals or groups that has been select, purchase, use or dispose of products, services, ideas or experiences to satisfy needs and desires.

(Solomon & Bamossy, 2006)

Table 3.2: Definition of Key Terms

3.3 Hypothesis Development

Hypothesis is defined as a tentative explanation for an observation, phenomenon or a scientific problem that can be tested by further investigation. In another word hypothesis is a statement that explains or makes generalizations about a set of facts or principles, usually forming a basis for possible experiments to confirm its viability. That is why hypothesis is very important in doing a research study because this will show that the variables that has been chosen is suitable for the research and will be a message that will be expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence. Furthermore, hypothesis that has been formed in a research can be said as an unapproved theory because the variables that we have chosen have been tested.

Dependent variable is said to be the variable of primary interest to researcher (Sekaran 2003). Dependent Variable is said to be influence by independent variable either it can be in a positive way or a negative way. Consumer purchase behaviour is chosen to be the dependent variable because of the decision processes and the acts of people that involved in buying and using products will effect on how they see the product. As we can see that, there are many factors that will have a great influence on understanding consumer behaviour on the way they purchase a product. That is the reason why consumer purchase behaviour has been our dependent variable.

Independent variable is said to be the one that influences the dependent variable in either a positive or negative way. In this context, (Sekaran 2003) noted that when the independent variable is present together with dependent variable, it will affect the dependent variable. The hypothesis therefore, will explain whether there is any significant relationship between the independent variable and dependent variable

3.3.1 Brand Awareness

Brand awareness is one of the independent variable might affect the consumer purchase behaviour. Furthermore, brand awareness will give a prominent affect to customers because of the acknowledged that they have acquired from the products that they have use (Low & Fullerton, 1994). Brand awareness of the product will affect the consumer’s impression on the quality of the product and will however influence the consumer purchase decision on a particular brand (Anthony & Dean, 2006). Studies has shown that high brand awareness of the product and a good brand image will definitely help the consumer to improve in their purchase decision and in the end will consider buying the brand of the product (Kamins & Marks, 1991). Brand awareness will always be the question that will rise in the consumer mind. They always want to know how good will the product is and this will know how much it will influence the consumer purchase behaviour on the product. However in this research, we are determining how brand awareness will effect on consumer purchase decision. Thus, the hypothesis is to determine there is a relationship between brand awareness and consumer purchase behaviour.

Ho: There is no significant relationship between brand awareness and consumer purchase behaviour

H1: There is a significant relationship between brand awareness and consumer purchase behaviour.

3.3.2 Culture Value

Cultural values are important in shaping their own individual personality but in terms of making their purchase decision on their own product it will be all depends on their own individual culture which will decide for them to buy or not to buy the product (Sproles & Kendall, 1986). Cultural Values mandates the success or failure of specific products and services. However, a product that provides benefits consistently with members of a culture has a much better chance of attaining acceptance in the marketplace and this will able them to have a choice of make a purchase decision on the product (Solomon, 1993). As a researcher, we want to know whether different consumer have different cultural value in influencing the purchase behaviour of buying the product. That is why in the sense of cultural value; we want to investigate how different cultural value or background will influence on consumer purchase decision. Thus, the hypothesis is to determine there is a relationship between culture value and consumer purchase behaviour.

Ho: There is no significant relationship between culture value and consumer purchase behaviour.

H1: There is a significant relationship between culture value and consumer purchase behaviour.

3.3.3 Trust

Trust is able to influences consumers purchase decision to go for a new product from the company rather than purchasing the old product from the company and this will build long term retention between the company and the consumers (Nedungadi, 1990). Customer loyalty and positive word of mouth is a key relationship with marketing literature and it affects the trust of consumer towards consumer purchase decision (Hennig, 2002). Word of mouth is of the way that will be able to sparkle or to deliver the consumer’s trust towards the products by offer them an outstanding services and commendable products (John & Sons, 2007). As we know that trust towards a product is very important for consumer because the trust of the product will be able to build a long term loyalty on the consumer purchase behaviour towards a brand. Furthermore, trust is one of the measurements that are hard to measure in terms of the reliability of the person because trust is an attitude or the characteristic of someone which in terms will see how it brings the trust in purchasing the companies’ product (Churchill 1979; Bayle 1995). That is why, we wanted to investigate how will the trust of the consumer will be able to influence consumer purchases behaviour on buying the product. Thus, the hypothesis is to determine there is a relationship between trust and consumer purchase behaviour.

Ho: There is no significant relationship between trust and consumer purchase behaviour.

H1: There is a significant relationship between trust and consumer purchase behaviour.

3.3.4 Interest

Rundh (2005) has identified that packages of product is able to attract consumer’s interest towards a brand and this will help to improve to the brand image and influences consumer’s perceptions towards the product. In addition to that, we are investigating how the interests of the consumer able to influence the word of mouth on the consumer purchase behaviour. Everyone has a different interest in obtaining something because different people have their own taste in deciding something that is suitable for them. That is why, as a researcher we wanted to find out how does every individual manipulate their interest of a product that will able to affect the consumer purchase behaviour. Thus, the hypothesis is to determine there is a relationship between interest and consumer purchase behaviour.

Ho: There is no significant relationship between interest and consumer purchase behaviour.

H1: There is a significant relationship between interest and consumer purchase behaviour.

3.4 Sources of Data

The primary data consider as the first-hand data or is said to be the data originated by the researcher for the specific purpose of addressing the research problem. As for secondary data, it is considered as the data that has been already exist or the data that has been collected for some purpose other than the problem at hand. In this research study, majority of the data are from the secondary data, which is, journals, articles, books, and newspaper and this will help to enhance the effectiveness in generating new knowledge in the issue of the topic.

3.4.1 Primary Data

Primary data is considered as the first-hand data or the original data. In this study, the questionnaire was design by using the first-hand data. Besides that, the details of the primary data collection using in the questionnaire will be discussed in this research. Primary data are harder to obtain comparing to the secondary data.

3.4.2 Secondary Data

Secondary data considers as the second-hand data, this is because the data is collecting from the sources that already existing since last time. Secondary data are data that collected by other researcher for their own purpose. In this research study, the example of the secondary data such as online sources, articles, books, journals, and newspaper will help the researcher to make their collection time for the data to be shorter and faster. Furthermore, by obtaining for secondary data, it might help the researcher to save the time for finding information, besides that, it can create the efficiency in term of the cost.

3.5 Data Collection Method

Data Collection method is a process of preparing and collecting data in a research study, for example, as part of a process improvement or similar project. The purpose of having a data collection is to obtain information to keep on record, to make decisions about important issues, or to pass information on to others. Data are primarily collected to provide information regarding a specific topic. It is very important to have a data collection method in a research study because this will help the study to proceed on a more systematically way. They are many ways we can collect our data for example we can use questionnaire, interviews, survey, online survey and etc. Therefore, to have a systematic way to collect data, we need to pick the right way to collect your data to ensure that the research is conducted systematically and efficiently.

3.5.1 Questionnaires

Questionnaire is being chosen as the data collection method because this method is able to gather straightforward information that will be able to relate to people’s behaviour when they are answering the questionnaires. Furthermore in this questionnaire, there are 2 major types of question which is open-ended and closed-ended questionnaire. A good questionnaire design enables the research to collect the desired and reliable result to the research purpose. In order to reduce the tendency of bias and does not require a lot of filling efforts. The reasons to use closed-ended questions are because it helps to enable the use of quantitative analysis to generate result from the findings, and it could get the data in more objective opinion and quick. Besides that, we have chosen to use an opened-ended questions is because we want to let the respondents to include more information, including feelings, attitudes and understanding of the subject in this research study. In addition to that having an opened-ended question will allows us to obtain extra information about what the respondents think about this research study. This will be one of the ways for us to get closer to the respondents. On the contrary, the questionnaire have the statement that explains the purpose of the survey and ensures them that the data is only being used for academic purposes so that it also increase the chance of respondents to fill in the questionnaire. The language used in the questionnaire is English, and the questionnaire might consist of 3 sections.

3.6 Sampling Method

Sampling Method is a procedure for selecting members from a population to conduct a research study. (Sekaran, 2003) noted that sampling is the process of selecting a sufficient number of elements from the population. Furthermore, sampling is a process of selecting unit from a population of who are willing to participate in this research so that by studying the sample we able to generalize our results back to the population. However in sampling method, there are two classification of technique which is non-probability sampling and probability sampling.

3.6.1 Non probability sampling techniques

Non-probability sampling techniques are defined as sampling techniques that do not use a chance to select procedures but instead it relies on the researcher’s personnel judgement or convenience. In non-probability sampling, there are a few elements inside this techniques which are convenience sampling, judgemental sampling, quota sampling and snowball sampling. This few elements in non-probability sampling techniques have a limitation to it because the researcher will not be possible to evaluate the precision of the sample results.

3.6.2 Probability Sampling Technique

As for probability sampling technique, this technique is another sampling method which each of the elements of the population has a fixed probabilistic chance of being selected for the research study. In another words, with probability sampling, every element of the population has a known probability of being included in the sample. Probability sampling techniques also have a few elements in it, there are simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratified sampling, cluster sampling. As we can say that the purpose of probability sampling is to obtain a sample that is representative of the population and from which generalizations to the population can be made.

For this research study, non-probability sampling is chosen because non-probability sampling is more accurate because you are targeting a specific group of people and therefore your answers will be similar to what the rest of the population will answer. Besides that, the reason why we didn’t choose probability sampling because the time duration for us to do probability sampling will take a long time and this will delay the research study. Besides that the cost that we need to incur is also not unfavourable for us to proceed with probability sampling.

The sampling technique that will be used in this research is by means of a convenience sampling which is under non-probability sampling; it is just to investigate the impact of word of mouth towards consumer purchase behaviour. In addition to it, non-probability sample can be said as a sample that has not been selected by using a random sampling method which means in another word non-probability sampling can be said as some people are more likely to be chosen than others in this research study (Bryman & Bell, 2007). The reason why convenience sampling is being chosen for this research is because this method has the advantages of being both fast and inexpensive for the researcher to perform their researcher study (Sekaran, 2003). Furthermore, a convenience sample is a type of non-probability sample that is selected because it is easily available for the researcher to conduct the research study (Bryman and Bell, 2007). In addition to that, the sampling units will tend to be easier to access, easy to measure as well as easy to obtain information from the respondents.

3.7 Sample Unit

Basically, Population refers to group of individuals or items that share one or more characteristics from which data can be gathered and analysed, in other word, it refers to the group of people, events or things of interest that researcher wishes to investigate. In order to produce more reasonable and reliable results in this research project, the populations are consist of all the students in Multimedia University, the reason why used student as the respondent is because they are girls and guys in this university and the things that they bought are mostly influence by friends. Therefore, it will be easier for us to obtain the answer that we wanted to know.

3.7.1 Sample Size

In this research study, a sample size of 200 students will be selected as the respondents. In this context, appropriate sample size is an important issue just to ensure that the representativeness of the study and enough cases to run the multivariate analysis, such as multiple linear regressions in this study. For the questionnaire that has been distribute out to the respondent, the questionnaire form will be collected back once the respondent has filled the form.

3.8 Questionnaire Development & Scaling Techniques

Scaling is the process of measuring or ordering entities with respect to quantitative attributes or traits. The used of scaling is estimating individuals’ levels of satisfaction, extraversion, or the perceived quality of products. Normally, in research study, techniques of scaling used are to obtain the behavior responses from the respondent towards objects, events or persons that we going to examine

Likert scale is an ordered, one-dimensional scale from which respondents choose one option that best aligns with their observation, besides that, it help to examine how strongly the respondents agree or disagree with the particular statements on the scale from 1 to 5. In addition to this, we also scan say that Likert scales are also referred to as summative scales, the responses for individual variables were summed up based on the dimension to which they belong to. However, in this study, the scale that has been used is from 1 to 5 as below:

Likert Scale






Strongly Agree




Strongly Disagree

Table 3.3: Likert Scale diagram

3.9 Data Analysis & Measurements & Software

In this research study, we will be distributing 200 questionnaires to the respondents who are studying in Multimedia University. The age of target respondents are ranging from 18-25 where they are university from different faculties. The faculties that we will be distributing are Engineering, IT, Business and Law, Foundation, and Diploma. In this context, the knowledge on SPSS is very important because of the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS 20.0 for Windows Evaluation Version) will be used to find the outcomes. After that, descriptive analysis, reliability test, Pearson correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis will be conducted to analyze the data. After all, the data collected are then processed by using the Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) software. The function of SPSS is to assist researcher to analyse the result of the questionnaire and then to be interpreted in the finding section. Several analysis methods will be applied are descriptive statistics, reliability analysis, t-test, Pearson correlation analysis and multiple regression.

3.9.1 Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive statistics are used to describe the basic features of the data in a research study. A descriptive statistics is a statistics that describes the phenomenon of interest and it used to present quantitative descriptions in a manageable form beside that, it can help us to simply large amounts of data in a reasonable way.

3.9.2 Reliability Analysis (Cronbach’s Alpha)

Cronbach’s alpha is a measure of internal consistency and stability. It is used to measures the consistency of the questionnaires for each variable. Cronbach’s alpha is a reliability coefficient that indicates how well the items in a set are positively correlated to one another. That is why in a Cronbach’s Alpha the maximum alpha value that is recommended is 0.90 (Streiner, 2003). Therefore, it will cause fewer problems in the study research.

3.9.3 Pearson Correlation Analysis

The Pearson correlation analysis helps to evaluate the correlation between two variables reflects the degree to which the variables are related in this study whether it has significance, negatively correlated or positively correlated relationship.

Range of Coefficient

Description of Strength

0.81 to 1.00

Very Strong

0.61 to 0.80


0.41 to 0.60


0.21 to 0.40


0.00 to 0.20


Rules of Thumb about the Strength of Correlation Coefficient

(Source: Hair, Bush, Ortinau. Marketing Research with a Changing Information Environment. 2003. Pp 568-569)

3.9.4 Multiple Regression Analysis

The Multiple regression is a method for explanation of phenomena and prediction of future events It is a powerful and flexible procedure for analysing associative relationships between 2 variables which is independent variables and dependent variables. It is also to determine whether the independent variables explain a significant variation in the dependent variable: whether a relationship exists and forms the mathematical equation relationship relating the independent and dependent variables.

3.10 Summary of Data Analysis Method for Hypothesis Testing

Table 3.4 shows the summary of Test that has been used to investigate each of the hypotheses. Each hypothesis’s data analysis method are summarised accordingly in the table below.


Data Analysis Method

H1: There is a significant relationship between brand awareness and consumer purchase behavior.


Multiple Linear Regression

H2: There is a significant relationship between culture value and consumer purchase behavior

Multiple Linear Regression

H3: There is a significant relationship between trust and consumer purchase behavior

Multiple Linear Regression

H4: There is a significant relationship between interest and consumer purchase behavior.

Multiple Linear Regression

Table 3.4: Summary of Data Analysis Method

3.11 Conclusion

In the conclusion, this chapter consists of several segments such as research design, theoretical framework and hypothesis development, variable specifications, questionnaire design, sampling design and techniques, data collection technique and data analysis and measurement. This will help us to precede the next process in the further chapter for this study research

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