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The 15 Cs framework was firstly developed by Fyall et al. In 2006 (Destination management: challenges and opportunities-2010 (press release)) to provide a suitable combination of key challenges facing the competitor of that destination marketing and management. But levels will be most important on different destinations. If there is a failure in one of challenges of destination marketing then it will affect the whole plan. The 15 Cs can be identified as: Complexity, Control, Culture, Competition, Commodification, Creativity, Communication, Channels, Cyberspace, Consolidation, Collaboration, Change, Crisis, Customers and Complacency.
First we will go on with the complexity factor, were the destination product is not in the argument state and what remains is a discussion about that destination future, it will be more complex due to countless stakeholders from both internal and external or tourist. The complexity of the tourist destination should be taken in consideration with the consumer and community of that place for marketing of it. So, every individual consumers of that destination will have a point of view concerning that the tourist place is cleanly enclose bundle of suppliers as form the case of suppliers expectancy (Buhalis 2000).
Control is very closely related to complexity the destination marketers have an inability to control the elements of destination product and also its destiny in market place (Scott, parfitt, and Laws-2000, p.202) the strategic approach should be strong to control the difficulties in coordination in marketing a destination as there are many ways of approaching as campaigns which can be conducted with the help of various tourists business with no public review on the available information. The developments are made to make tourism better in that destination. The power, resources, experience, mutual trust, and respect stand as a significant challenge for those destinations for tourism marketing in future (Ritchie & Ritchie, 2002)
The cultural factor is most important for both supply and demand in destination marketing. Due to change their will be cultural diversification between private and public sector on tourism destinations. As in change the two cultures will be working together for foreseeable future, the demand side is depends on means of destination what is required for development of tourism.
The change can be found everywhere but it is the only one of its kind to the marketing and management of destinations and positively responding to change is increasing day by day. Changes can be in anything prices, commodities, transport, etc.
The crises and fear of it is present everywhere across tourism industry on different destinations and as per their location they are impacted in positive or negative or direct or indirect manner it can be natural or manmade. An example we can take is terrorism happening all over world or tsunami.
Complacency has changed because customers have other choices of destinations with same features. It increases the competition among organisations in tourism industry.
Going on with the competition factor the competition among organisations is increasing and the destinations everywhere are in intense pressure to make their profit and growth from tourism in these difficult years. there is an increase in destination product and in tourist destination. As in European scenario there is a decrease in prices of airlines and other transport but it is beneficial for tourist who goes on that destination. The competition is at its intense level where the natural or manmade disaster occurred and then the population of tourist to that destination is decreased, because of this tourist started to choose secured destinations and for some time the competition in different regions is increased due to same supply of features and facilities.
In commodification factor a competition become more intense the market gets crowded and then they become more challengeable and competitive to manage and do marketing of that destination organisation. Due to increase in tourists many destination shares similar facilities and selling point. In response, destination are needed to do hard work to avoid the ease with which they can substituted.
One of the primary means from which substitution can be challenged is creativity approach the energetic and different ideas can be used for destination branding. But branding and marketing a destination is not an easy task. All destinations are of different shapes and sizes those are influenced by a distance of political environment so, it makes down the decision making for marketers of that destinations and it makes low creativity in market place. (Caldwell & Freire & konecnik (2004), Morgan et al. (2002, 2003) and white (2004)). If the brand is properly identified and marketed with good creativity it will be on good position in competitive market.
An advertisement in many regions of world is done through news paper but in some many different regions or parts of world the communication is important and is required on highly basis for highly educated and increasingly sophisticated clientele. The use of Web, blogs, online social networking like facebook and twitter is increased but the high percentage on marketing budget is spent on print based media like brochures and leaflets (Dore and Crouch 2003; Foley and Fahy 2004).
The channel and cyberspace are closely related with each other as they are most important factor for tourism marketing and for distributing of the ideas or creativity of marketers of that destination.
In consolidation factor we can take an example of Thomas cook there is a significant increase in recent years across the globe. This is strongly affected to tourism industry by the means of travel in form of airlines, hospitality in largely international and local groups, money exchange, etc.
One means of marketing where corporate or marketers come face to face for collaboration within or among destinations.
Customers can be from same region or from all over the globe with different religions and language like British, Indian, French, Chinese, etc. and they can be also of different age groups.
(Progress in tourism marketing by M Kozak and L Andreu 2006)
The case study involves the beautiful tourist destination Dubai it is a modern city at southern shore and other sides covered by desert it is also known as a one of seven states which comprise United Arab Emirates. In 1830 it was a fishing and pearling port and it was taken over by the maktoum branch of the bani yas tribe who still rules dubai, due to port it makes attractive to traders and developed a center for regional commerce and it also become a part of trucial states with Britain. In 1972 it quitted and joined to united Arab emirate. In 1990 the Dubai population was 80,000 and by 1992 it increases by 529,000 here many of them are attracted for Dubai safe and financially flourishing environment. Dubai is well known for its oil resource but it is finite and it is a main resource that gives an income to the country which will help to develop tourism industry. Dubai gives many facilities and has many attractions to attract tourist. Dubai is famous for its Arabic life, safe environment, good international hotels, night life, grass golf course in dessert, warm seas, etc. it is also famous for its shopping festivals and great malls to do tax free shopping. Some of the newest attractions that Dubai had made one of the finest 5 star luxurious hotels and the world first seven star Hotel Burj-al-Arab then palms Jumeirah Island, etc. as dubai become one of the fastest growing tourist destination.
(Tourist destination management-issues, analysis and policies by eric laws-1995)
Sharpley, R 2008, ‘Planning for Tourism: The Case of Dubai’, Tourism and Hospitality: Planning & Development, 5, 1, pp. 13-30, E-Journals, EBSCOhost, viewed 2 January 2011.
Dubai culture is strongly rooted in Islamic traditions of Arabia. Islam is bigger than just a religion because it is a way of life which goes on in everyday events that what to wear and what to eat and drink. So, the culture is closely related with its religion. Islamic fundamentalism is on the leading place in media and it makes other peoples of world to adopt it, then also Dubai welcomes foreigners and they can be free with their own religion. The alcohol is served in hotels and dress codes are normal as per the people’s tradition. Dubai culture gives warmth and friendliness welcome to its tourist. Due to negative view of Islam it affect many Muslims living abroad but in Dubai all religion people leave together and work together like Muslim’s, Hindu’s, Christian’s, etc. and there are also different languages like English, Urdu, and Hindi approx this Arabic is main language but it is spoken as on official business purposes and English can be heard everywhere. Due to the rapid development in recent years the life is changed because of increased different cultures and material goods so the Dubai rulers are keen to promote their tradition and cultural activities and also sporting events.
(The lonely planet guide-Dubai by Terry Carter & Lara Dunston- 2006)
(Dubai: – the complete residents guide by Explorer publishing & Distribution- 2006)
As Dubai is oil based state in UAE 1950 it was just like a village on seashore but by 1994 it gets developed to a city, it is developed by its own resources like oil. The hotel named Burj al Arab becomes a dream logo of Dubai even if guest does not stay in that hotel for a night the hotel can pay for itself. But Dubai has diversified its economy to tourism because of the reduction in economic dependence due to diminishing in amount of oil.
Sharpley, R 2008, ‘Planning for Tourism: The Case of Dubai’, Tourism & Hospitality: Planning & Development, 5, 1, pp. 13-30, Hospitality & Tourism Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 2 January 2011.
(Tourism destination management-issues, analysis and policies by Eric Laws-1995)
For development there will be consolidation between real estate firms and banks. In recent time Dubai Aluminium Company limited has been sponsoring ladies masters’ golf tournament from past three years at emirates golf club. Another consolidation is done to develop property market in Dubai the two organizations as Emaar properties PJSC and Dubai holding commercial operation group (DHCOG) are merged with each other. This is for residential property and land, some of the major property works will be for Dubai Metro (public transportation) and Burj Dubai (The world tallest skyscraper).
Dubai 2008, ‘Dubai banks, property firms seen consolidating’, TradeArabia (Manama, Bahrain), 24 December, NewsBank, EBSCOhost, viewed 2 January 2011.
‘Excellent forum for consolidating partnerships’, 2009, Gulf News (Dubai, United Arab Emirates), 11 December, NewsBank, EBSCOhost, viewed 2 January 2011.
Sinnock, B 2009, ‘Consolidation to Shape Dubai Residential Market’s Future’, National Mortgage News, 33, 43, p. 11, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 2 January 2011.
UAE tourism authorities are working out for the development of the tourism with the help of collaborations with other countries like Singapore.
Clarence Michael In, D 2006, ‘S’pore explores tourism cooperation with UAE; Officials looking at developing joint marketing’, Business Times, The (Singapore), 27 February, NewsBank, EBSCOhost, viewed 2 January 2011.
the world first hotel developed by Armani hotels and resorts is under the collaboration with Dubai developer Emaar properties and as opened it in the tallest building the burj khalifa.
Dubai 2010, ‘Armani hotel opens in Burj Khalifa’, TradeArabia (Manama, Bahrain), 27 April, NewsBank, EBSCOhost, viewed 2 January 2011.
Dubai tourism and commerce marketing company (DTCM) has collaborated with five major companies like Virgin Holidays Ltd., Gold Medal, Lastminute.com, Hayes and Jarvis, and Emirates Tours for attracting families and children’s. They also go for creativity to attract children’s by Dubai aquarium and underwater zoo, SEGA republic, free entry to Aquaventure, Lost chambers and Dolphin Bay.
‘Dubai is affordable for families’ 2009, Travel Weekly (UK), p. 8, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 3 January 2011.
Dubai in a different way is focusing on the creativity by commodifying land and water into artificial islands creating an attraction to the tourist, gulf emirate of Dubai is planning to construct Third Island in a shape of palm.
‘Dubai to build third Palm Island’, 2004, Agence France-Presse, 5 October, NewsBank – Archives, EBSCOhost, viewed 2 January 2011.
In the growing competitive world Gulf States are also competing for the growing international tourism and travel market their major competitors are South East Asia and Singapore and Europe also plays a major role in the competition.
(World geography of travel and tourism: a regional approach by Alen Lew, C. Michael Hall, Dallen J, Timothy-2008)
Dubai has started to work a lot for the promotion of tourism now it gets teamed up with Microsoft digital solution to create its own site and also online ads on MSN
‘Dubai Tourism runs digital ads on MSN to break stereotypes’ 2007, New Media Age, pp. 7-07, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 3 January 2011.
In the fast moving world Dubai as also get into cyberspace by creating its own official tourism site as www.dubaitourism.ae
with SCOTT, P 2007, ‘Site seeing’, Sunday Mail (Adelaide, Australia), 8 July, NewsBank, EBSCOhost, viewed 3 January 2011.
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