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The transformation of this world because of technological advances into a global village. (Marshall, 1992) in the past three decades, many governments for a free-market systems, and therefore, maximize their abilities and opportunities for international business, as well as investment. There is more, as a result of globalization on all governments in the world of work for the elimination of restrictions on business and trade in goods and services in all parts of the world. With these new opportunities after that hit the global economy is very difficult, and has benefited from the industry by building new companies in foreign markets with its partners. This led to international trade and business and all the new business structure, which can, therefore, can be summarized in the context of economic globalization, fully capable of.
And the universally recognized benefits of globalization today. Technology, being one of the main drivers behind globalization, and transformed the economic life in such a way that both consumers and marketers and new ways to identify economic opportunities and the value that you receive. Well understanding of economic trends in all parts of the world, and can be easily transferred from the funds and goods received by the countries, and commercial transactions and mergers and acquisitions have become commonplace now. All thanks to the positive effects of globalization that have contributed to increased employment and cash flows, trade, cultural and external unfolding, and environmental, as well as social awareness among the masses in the world. However, like and say that there are always two sides of the coin, there are some negative effects of globalization, too, which is great for both. With the advantages and disadvantages of the equal of globalization, it is difficult to conclude whether a blessing or a curse to the world. In this study, we are going to see the concept of globalization in the context of the advantages and disadvantages, and some of the ways to manage the global activities in new markets and analysis at a later time from the entrance of Toyota in the UK market.
Globalization is a term that is controversial to a large extent. Where there are more advantages to the estimation of globalization, the world witnessed some of the ill effects of globalization are very large. While the globalization of the invitation is believed that this trend is that poor economies have regained their hopes and religions developing financially, thereby raising living standards. However, on the other hand, which is inconsistent with the belief that globalization is the sole reason for multinational companies and prominent destruction of local cultures and beliefs of small local firms, and the common folk, in the rush to achieve international status. (Stiglitz, 2003) and this leads us to ask many questions such as what is the future of globalization with such ambiguities related. How is going to revive the culture now? Globalization is good or bad?
All in all, and the public to keep a check on our holy places and traditions, and be more tolerant of everything, as is the case today, and interaction in the person of the dominant, if not more. Will be misunderstood issues will arise, and things, and will serve as a test of the ability to take between now and then. In order to achieve the right balance between the benefits and prices associated with globalization. The same, then we can find a comprehensive answer to everything is the role of globalization and the actual purpose in the global economy.
2.1 Globalization of Business
Globalization of work is like all other things being such as the globalization of world economy and world politics and global culture. (Ali, 2000) and this means expansion of markets and business a wide range of the world. In this work to make the process and new ways to look at new markets and expanding its business to reach more customers and earn more profits. The need to transform this effort in the approach and work to make adjustments according to the local markets to penetrate. While on the other side they also enter the global business, product and communications that bring a new global culture.
2.2 Advantages and disadvantages
Instead of giving some clues here and there are some indications, and these concepts should be interpreted to do more justice to this subject. Take a look at the following advantages and disadvantages of global marketing. There must be differences between the companies operating in different countries. And thus take advantage of the operating companies but they have disadvantages in some cases. We will see in each of the next debate
2.2.1 Advantages of global marketing
â€¢ Reduce marketing costs: If you look at the lump some of the costs and then, yes, it is high, but the cost of the same thing applies even higher if a company has to market the product differently in each country for sale.
â€¢ In all parts of the world: in the scope of this type of marketing is so great that it becomes a unique experience.
â€¢ brand image: global marketing gives you access to a static image in each region could choose to market.
â€¢ Quick and efficient use of ideas: global entity, able to use the marketing idea and mold it in the strategy to be implemented on a global scale.
â€¢ uniformity in the practice of marketing: can the global entity to maintain a degree of consistency in the field of marketing through out the world.
Disadvantages of global marketing
â€¢ inconsistency in the needs of the consumer: the American consumer will be different from South Africa. Should international marketing be able to deal with it.
â€¢ Consumer response to the conflict: I have a consumer in one country react differently than consumers in another country.
â€¢ the brand of each country and product: It is permissible for the product, such as Japanese that a touch of traditional, where an American may want to add a retro modern look to it. In this case, a global strategy is difficult on the machine.
â€¢ The laws of the country to be considered: the policies of the original company may be in accordance with the laws of their countries. May be laws abroad may be conflicting in these policies.
â€¢ disputes relating to infrastructure: infrastructure that can impede the process in one country and speed in another country. Can not be a global strategy aligned in such a scenario.
â€¢ Globalization in general has been a great boon for developing countries, but there are a few who say it is a curse. Let's take a look at all these aspects of globalization.
â€¢ There is still concentrated wealth in the hands of a few individuals and the common man in developing countries is still to see any major benefits of globalization.
â€¢ inequality in the distribution of wealth
â€¢ the income gap between developed and developing countries: wealth in developed countries continues to grow at twice the developing world.
â€¢ wage standards are different for developing countries: Deputy technology may get more value for his work in developed countries working in developing countries.
â€¢ reverse globalization: In the future, you may demand factors such as the war on the reverse of globalization (as seen in the years between the war in the world), and the process of globalization might just be impossible to reverse it.
2.3 Culture of Business and Globalization
Should always be economic growth at the site of a unique cluster with a fleet of pool of skilled and educated workers. And had access to the depth of the market, or rather access to the last mile is always a conflict or challenge corporate world with companies despite the fact that penetrated with huge investments. High cost structure of the global challenges in the economy and growth, but able to rethink the value chain, breaking the right to determine the activities at the expense of the right of the right person, and make the distance and time is irrelevant. Has adopted these challenges, the strategy of "flooded many", which is that they have the right set of talents from a culture of many disciplines and skills of the country, and are therefore able to customize presentations, and build a strategy many people have a specific strategy for a specific part.
This innovation is mixed deeply into the organizational culture, because it is multi-talented to take advantage of multiple domains and culture. This help them to integrate cultures and local knowledge and skill to work on thinking of moving too quickly, and grow at a phenomenal rate with the right mix of public and mergers and acquisitions, partnerships and alliances. The company is scheduled in the United States, to initiate and employ hundreds of people, and shells out $ 20 million in the first year of existence, compared to $ 2 million in China. By 2015, will be 1.5 million science and engineering graduates from India and China.
The world today, and technology flourish because of the Indian information technology experts. Are imported motorcycles Bajaj and Kawasaki today face to face with Harley Davidson, BMW and Honda. It is estimated that today there are about 3000 Challenger at the global level. These companies will be a force to be reckoned with because they simplifiers, adopters, Interpreters and drive to succeed and survive in the coming days.
They should be able to compete on the basis of the competitors time to a new model for the success of companies in this new trading environment where it competes with everyone and everyone from everywhere. (Parker, 2005) and could become a competition based on time if and only if they can provide greater value to many times on the model more flexible than the competitor, whether it is another competitor or global giant. These companies need to understand the value of the proposal that the client is looking for and make then make their products according to this value by looking at the client. This pricing on the basis of the value in the case of these companies are looking for and why you should do.These rivals at the same time and some of the strategies in place to surprise their rivals.
2.4 Project management of complex global projects
Global Project Management offers a unique set of challenges, regardless of physical locations and clear from the various regions and time. There is also likely to be cultural issues that go beyond simple language and time zone differences, as well as issues of efficiency, management and reporting.
Almost all major organizations now have a global presence and it is common to project management to be responsible for leading projects and teams from different countries and cultures. Must be addressed for the effective management of communication and geographically diverse projects and cultural barriers at the beginning of a project to build a successful multi-cultural team to Nations common system.
It is important to recognize that minor differences apparently sufficient to affect the outcome of the project. For example, if countries are near each other and not culturally very different (such as the UK-based with teams in Spain) or if it is based on the difference away from each other but have the same language and culture (such as the United Nations projects US-based with Teams from Australia), it can be assumed that the differences will not affect the difference in the way that is appropriate for this project.
These assumptions are incorrect, experience has shown that almost always from any one of the following differences will affect the project, and these differences should not be administered properly.
1 spot the difference
2 Language difference
3 Time Difference
4 cultural difference
2.5 Establish Business in New Markets
Has full details on the background of legal intermediary, as well as knowledge of legal history. Review your case and the other party, and the answer is no justification for what your position is correct. Whatever you think your client about your case. There are certain techniques that mediation helps to ensure you are ready to negotiate effectively to your customer. While it should follow the above-mentioned technologies necessarily, you can deal with them as guidelines for consideration.
2.5.2 Start meeting
The initial meeting should be held with all stakeholders together in person, whenever possible. Moreover, side by side in the project it would be much easier to deal with issues if you have met the parties concerned and communicated face to face.
2.5.3 Proper communication
While the e-mail, telephone or other appropriate tools to communicate from day to day, should also be scheduled weekly conference calls, and commitment, to enable more open discussion about the progress and issues.
2.5.4 Business expectations
Must determine the form and frequency of reports at the beginning of the project. It is likely that there will be a need for the various reports on the local level and global
2.5.5 Address cultural issues
This is a two-way process (or more) to make sure that all the teams understand the expectations and attitudes of each other. If necessary, you must conduct the investigation in different cultures to estimate the positions of the various areas such as cost, quality and time. Can be found at different locations also in the context of culture, but the difference in skills.
2.5.6 Recognition of constraints
Although he does not listen to the local teams to work in the area at the same time director of the global project, such as lack of respect for the personal obligations of the members of the team is very likely to have negative results in the stimulation. Instead, there should be a common runtime for the day when all members are available and any reports of the decision, such as conference calls or for updates on the regular reports, within this time frame.
2.6 Global development team
2.6.1 Motivating teams
It is vital for the global project manager to understand what motivates a variety of teams. Can connect to the discussions in the early and honest with your team members to create this key. It should also determine to what level this responsibility lies at the local level.
2.6.2 Monitoring of progress
There are certain stages in the project when it is not possible to assess the progress made. For example, when there are two types of packages based on work and progress made in the first group depend on the completion of a second. Building trust and loyalty between the international teams and local communities, and ensure reporting completely honest and gives an accurate picture of progress.
2.6.3 Regular feedback
Should provide the project manager always detailed proposals for all the world for the work done that clearly define expectations. Failure to do so can lead to misunderstandings and unsatisfactory work that will be exacerbated due to the fact that not all team members based in the same location.
2.7 Control the flow of work
2.7.1 Distribution of tasks
Where possible, with the use of teams of expertise most appropriate for each task. Communication with all teams to explain the logic to assign tasks using the cost-benefit analysis, where appropriate, to prevent ill-feeling between the teams.
2.7.2 Manage dependencies
Must be based on skills available and should be allowed, on the working groups and management in the same location. When this is not possible, dependencies, deadlines, and require the relevant features of the plans are very detailed and carefully documented objectives and results
2.7.3 Manage global stakeholders
Identification of stakeholders and relatively clear, but the analysis to the expectations of stakeholders in the large and complex projects, the world is not. And must be managed different agendas and competition between different groups, and these relations to reduce the impact on the success of the project as a whole in the world.
2.8 Control change
Should only change any request for consent requirements at the global level, after consultation with all stakeholders. We must assess the impact on schedule and budget and authorized by all stakeholders at the local level and global level before agreeing to any change.
2.8.1 Determining of objectives
Must be in spite of the risks inherent in each project, and mitigation should be in place, we must understand the requirements of the global project and deadlines for all categories of work and, more importantly, it would be acceptable to all the teams in all locations. And then to reduce the likelihood of any danger from becoming a reality.
Is a way for the settlement of between two parties who are at war with each other. In mediation, you should always use some form of alternative dispute resolution to settle disputes amicably between the parties. Using the techniques of mediation and mediators appropriate to improve or resolve the dialogues between the parties on the basis of. Usually all parties under the pretext of view, an honest broker, and we must heed his advice and often the dialogue. The broker uses the techniques of mediation to settle conflicts and disputes resolution, commercial, and family issues such as legal, diplomatic and personal, and in the workplace
3 Case of Toyota in UK
Toyota in the United Kingdom also addresses the challenges of 21, which still leads the world in the field of development and the achievement of new transport and production solutions while respecting and protecting the global environment. Founded Toyota Motor Corporation in 1919, and interest in this principle of fabric loom on the horizon for the manufacture of advanced. Today, Toyota is a truly global business, building vehicles in factories on six continents around the world and directly employs more than a quarter of a million people. Its products are sold in markets all over the world 160. As part of a broader strategy of Europe, the company has created production centers here: (published, 1998) car plant in Burnaston, near Derby, Introduction Toyota is in the heart of global manufacturing, a company that has grown in 70 years to become the largest supplier in the world's third largest manufacturer of the engine in the car Deeside.
The second is in North Wales. Operated by Toyota Manufacturing UK (TMUK), they represent investments in the current surplus of £ 1700000000. Burnaston is the only center for the production of the new Toyota Avensis, which began in the spring of 2003. It also builds three versions and five-door Toyota Corolla. In 2002, came in an independent survey Burnaston in Europe, the carmaker's second most important in 2003, and the efficiency of Toyota announced that it will take an unprecedented step to begin a third daily shift there for the launch of production on the clock. Deeside is already working on a three shift pattern, producing both gasoline and diesel engines for the new Avensis and Corolla. It also makes engine parts to Toyota factories, Turkish and French exports to other countries all over the world, including South America. United Kingdom, and Europe's second-largest market for new cars, with more than 2.5 million registrations in 2002.Sales of Toyota and Lexus models, which together represent approximately five per cent of the total, equivalent to 133,500 sales. With 17 and six models of Toyota, Lexus and Toyota offers a wider range of any plant product in the United Kingdom. Britain's fourth-largest source of the car, and Toyota key and influential role in the manufacturing sector in the country. Toyota has worked continuously for the production and manufacture of personal transport solutions to be effective and that are looking to the future. The company has invested heavily in the development of compounds and technologies that address environmental concerns and the issue of diminishing resources. In its work in the UK, Toyota clearly its commitment to success in the future by reducing the environmental impact of vehicles with the construction of high quality to meet all the demands of today's motorists. Toyota is still working closely with the British government and its agencies on a wide range of issues affecting the automotive industry as a whole, especially in the campaign to find solutions to manufacture cleaner and more efficient, and transport. The United Kingdom is the main market, in terms of both sales and manufacturing a new Toyota Prius
Of world production of Toyota cars.
Manufacturing production outside of Japan since 1959 when it opened its first factory abroad in Brazil. Today he works 58 factories in 27 countries, including Japan, and the construction of more than six million cars a year and sold in markets 160 different national. Production car in the United Kingdom is an important element of the strategy of Toyota global manufacturing. It follows the principle of the company to build cars that meet the needs of local markets where they are sold.
Time in the Kingdom from 1989 Nations line on the basis of Toyota Motor Corporation Toyota Motor Co., Ltd. in the UK Manufacturing (TMUK), paving the way for the first European car manufacturing process. 1992 Production begins in Burnaston factory Kareena with the mail, and engine production begins in Deeside. 1997 ends with the production of e-Kareena, to replace the Avensis; TMUK wins Queen's Award for export. Start production in 1998 along with the Avensis Corolla Burnaston. Toyota Avensis first exports to Japan. Deeside production line Toyota RAV4
This has helped increase exports five-level Toyota continued strong sales performance in all parts of Europe stabilizing the position of the United Kingdom as a manufacturer: Toyota is now the largest exporter to the United Kingdom's fourth-largest of the cars built in full. Are exported only about 20 per cent of the estimated production TMUK to the domestic market, and the balance of this to Europe and the rest of the world (about 75 and five per cent respectively). Toyota has announced that is shipped all over the models Avensis 36000 per annum.
The global status of the construction of more than six million vehicles in 2002, occupied by Toyota Motor Corp., the manufacturer of the cars in the world's third largest. Toyota operates 58 factories in 27 countries around the world. Levels of industrialization and building the equivalent of one car every six seconds - all day, every day. Marketing of Toyota vehicles in more than 160 countries around the world. â€¢ Toyota's market value of more than £ 50000000000, more than the value of General Motors, Ford and DaimlerChrysler combined. Toyota Production System has its roots in the early days of Toyota Motor Corporation and the inspiration of the company's founder Sakichi Toyoda.Invented and looming on the horizon, which stopped automatically if any of the topics that cut.
Toyota (GB) PLC is a marketing and sales in the national company of Toyota and Lexus in the United Kingdom, and is also responsible for sales, marketing and after-sales service and customer relations. Since 2001, and is based on the company's headquarters in the new tower Heath, near Epsom in Surrey, and employs about 400 people. There are vehicles and logistics centers in the Derby and Grimsby and managed through the facility on the import of Portbury, near Bristol.
Toyota has achieved a record performance of 11 consecutive years of growth in sales in the United Kingdom and occupies ranked today as the country's fastest growing volume brand.
4 Porter's five forces model
Porter's five forces model, and the nature of competition in the industry in large part determines the contents of the strategy, particularly at the level of business strategy. (Ahlstrom, 2009) also on the basis that the economy is essential to this industry, and the possibility of profit is determined by the industry is very competitive interactions. That can be drawn where these interactions are intense, tend away from the profits of competing activities. Where light and competitors seem manageable, and the possibility of profit tends to be high. After a full understanding of the elements of competition in this industry is easy to overlook and often difficult to understand.
Porter has identified five fundamental forces that collectively describe the state
4.1 Competition in the industry
1. The intensity of rivalry among competitors
2. Threat of new entrants to the market
3. The amount of bargaining power possessed by a company / industry
4. The amount of bargaining power possessed by a company / industry
5. To the extent that alternative products are a threat to the industry / company
These forces to help determine the presence or absence of potential high returns.
And the weaker is the Porter five forces, the greater the opportunity for companies in
Industry to experience higher profitability. More generally, understanding how these forces affect the competition in the industry allowed to determine the most strategic location. Actors in the industry, including the forces of pressure, respectively,
Competing for the same companies, and the entry of new companies for the manufacture of a possible
Markets and suppliers (sellers), and customers, the makers of alternative products.
It is clear that the starting point for an analysis of five forces of competition is to identify all the competitors, and potential new entrants, the main suppliers
The demographics of the clients, policy makers and the nature of alternative products. Competitors do not reveal his identity only, but the distinction between different data will also be industry specific. Each competitor this data
And including a stake in the market, production line, the similarities and differences / market segments served, and the relations represented by the quality of product prices / growth trends Undo /
Differences financial strength, and any other information that will help describe the
4.2 Consequences for Toyota
The threat of entrants (Very high)
Power suppliers (Very Low)
Threat of substitutes (Very high)
Power of buyers (low)
Threat Riverly (high)
Companies in the current environment in need of strategies at the global level since the begging of their work and launch new business you should look for the growth of the highest international level. And so can they also control the rapid decline because of the support form the various parties at the time of stagnation in a particular region of the world. They need to develop clever strategies for global brand and expectations. Such as Toyota and was able to successfully raise awareness at the global level and global image. Business needs now to find out how to go with this global economy and competitive markets and a wide range.