ABC Pvt Ltd, manufacturers of washing powder in Sri Lanka, was formed in 1995. It became the leading washing powder manufacturers in the whole country by the year 2000, and had a huge market share. The organization decided to conduct a survey in order to find out the reasons for the drop in market share and sales. The management also wanted to assess the level of customer satisfaction.
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Every problem exists within a context of the characteristics of the ABC Pvt Ltd and of the market-consumer tastes and preferences, level of income and rate of growth in the market areas, the degree of competition and competitor action and reaction, and the type and extent of governmental regulation. These environmental factors may individually and collectively affect the outcome of the reasons for the drop in market share and sales. The researcher must assist the manager in identifying these relevant environmental factors. Before the survey ABC Pvt Ltd fined some of the environmental factors that could affect the reasons for the drop in market share and sales:
The types of consumers that comprise the potential market
The size and location of the market
The prospects for growth or contraction of the market over the planning period
The buying habits of consumers
The current competition for the product
The likelihood and timing of entry of new competitive products
The current and prospective competitive position with respect to price, quality, and reputation
The marketing and manufacturing capabilities of the company
The situation with respect to patents, trademarks, and royalties
The situation with respect to codes, trade agreements, taxes, and tariffs
For a business to be successful it is vital to know the market and customers profile. This can be done by an intensive research through various methods of data collection which will help to making decision about a new venture. Market research can help create a business plan, launch a new product or service, fine tune existing products and services, expand into new markets etc. It can be used to determine which portion of the population will purchase the product/service, based on variables like age, gender, location and income level.
Primary date and Secondary data
Data is one of the most important and vital aspect of any research studies. Researchers conducted in different fields of study can be different in methodology but every research is based on data which is analyzed and interpreted to get information. Data is the basic unit in statistical studies. Statistical information like census, population variables, health statistics, and road accidents records are all developed from data. Data is important in computer science. Numbers, images and figures in computer are all data.
According to Avasarikar (2007) “It is the data collected for a specific purpose or for particular objectives. It is customized according the requirements of the researcher. It exclusively focuses on current research problem.” Primary data is specific information that is collected directly by the person who analyze the data and information also doing research. Primary data are collected for the first time. This data has not been published before collection.
Purpose and advantages of Primary data
Basic and specific information
By using primary data marketers can get basic and specific information about the product.
Primary data is more accurate because it is directly collected from the population.
By using primary data researcher may get the latest and up-to-date information about the product and services and also its environment.
Primary data collected and processing by researcher. Therefore, the information might be unbiased.
Primary data collect method
Questionnaire is one of the important observing, analyzing and research instrument for use the market research. Generally, questionnaire is a series of question in a paper, which makes for the getting information from respondent that means collect the information from potential customers about the product and product related environment.
It one of the important medium for the market research. By this method, marketer/researcher directly conducts with the customers. And he takes the short interview about the product and quickly gets the information from the potential customers. Interview may be face to face or by telephone or may be postal interview. Face to face interview is the better than the other interview methods.
According to Avasarikar (2007) “Observation is one of the simplest methods for primary data research and would not cost much”. All they have to do is simply take note of the behavior of people towards their company’s products and services. They can also try to observe how their competitors behave, and how they provide their products and services.
“As per Kotler and et al (2008) “Secondary data is information that already exists somewhere, having been collected for another purpose.” Secondary data is the data that have been already collected by and readily available from other sources. Such data are cheaper and more quickly obtainable than the primary data and also may be available when primary data cannot be obtained at all.
Advantages of Secondary data
It is economical. It saves efforts and expenses.
It is time saving.
It helps to improve the understanding of the problem.
It provides a basis for comparison for the data that is collected by the researcher.
Internal secondary data
Internal secondary data is usually an inexpensive information source for the company conducting research, and is the place to start for existing operations. There are three main sources of internal data. These are
Sales and marketing reports
Accounting and financial records
There is a wealth of statistical and research data available today. Some sources are:
General business publications
Secondary data collect method
Mail/post office is used as a medium for the conduct of survey
Telephone is used as a medium of communication as there is only vocal interface between the interviewer and respondent.
Web based questionnaires
A new and inevitably growing methodology is the use of Internet based research. This would mean receiving an e-mail on which there would click on an address that would take you to a secure web-site to fill in a questionnaire. This type of research is often quicker and less detailed.
Primary and Secondary Data collection based on my research
I have planning to apply both data in my research (Primary and secondary data).Primary data I make questionnaire and distribute to the 30 peoples and getting their answers. To gather the secondary data I have planned to implement a review of the company reports, articles. Reviewing Company annual or semiannual report, Reviewing sales report, reviewing financial report.
1.2 The survey methodology’s
Survey is most commonly used method in social sciences, management, marketing and psychology to some extent. Surveys can be conducted in different methods. Survey also such an important aspect in the research and it plays a vital role in terms of collecting data’s.
Questionnaire is the most commonly used method in survey. Questionnaires are a list of questions open-ended or close -ended for which the respondent gives answers. Questionnaire can be conducted via telephone, mail, live in a public area, or in an institute, through electronic mail or through fax and other methods.
Interview is a face-to-face conversation with the respondent. In interview the main problem arises when the respondent deliberately hides information otherwise it is an in depth source of information. The interviewer can not only record the statements the interviewee speaks but he can observe the body language, expressions and other reactions to the questions too. This enables the interviewer to draw conclusions easily.
Observation can be done while letting the observing person know that he is being observed or without letting him know. Observations can also be made in natural settings as well as in artificially created environment.
Sampling frame is the actual set of units from which a sample has been drawn: in the case of a simple random sample, all units from the sampling frame have an equal chance to be drawn and to occur in the sample. In the ideal case, the sampling frame should coincide with the population of interest.
A survey aimed at establishing the number of potential customers for a new service in the population of Colombo City. The research team has drawn 500 numbers at random from a telephone directory for the city, made 200 calls each day from Monday to Friday from 8am to 5pm and asked some questions.
In this example, population of interest is all inhabitants of the city; the sampling frame includes only those Colombo City who satisfy all the following conditions:
Has a telephone;
The telephone number is included in the directory;
Likely to be at home from 8am to 5pm from Monday to Friday;
Not a person who refuses to answer all telephone surveys.
The sampling frame in this case definitely differs from the population. For example, it under-represents the categories which either have no a telephone (e.g. the most poor), have an unlisted number, and who were not at home at the time of calls (e.g. employed people), who don’t like to participate in telephone interviews (e.g. more busy and active people). Such differences between the sampling frame and the population of interest is a main cause of bias in surveys and other methods aimed at random sampling.
Types of Samples
Is the purest form of probability sampling. Each member of the population has an equal and known chance of being selected. When there are very large populations, it is often difficult or impossible to identify every member of the population, so the pool of available subjects becomes biased.
Is often used instead of random sampling. It is also called an Nth name selection technique. After the required sample size has been calculated, every Nth record is selected from a list of population members. As long as the list does not contain any hidden order, this sampling method is as good as the random sampling method. Its only advantage over the random sampling technique is simplicity. Systematic sampling is frequently used to select a specified number of records from a computer file.
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Is commonly used probability method that is superior to random sampling because it reduces sampling error. A stratum is a subset of the population that shares at least one common characteristic. Examples of stratums might be males and females, or managers and non-managers. The researcher first identifies the relevant stratums and their actual representation in the population. Random sampling is then used to select a sufficient number of subjects from each stratum. “Sufficient” refers to a sample size large enough for us to be reasonably confident that the stratum represents the population. Stratified sampling is often used when one or more of the stratums in the population have a low incidence relative to the other stratums.
Is used in exploratory research where the researcher is interested in getting an inexpensive approximation of the truth. As the name implies, the sample is selected because they are convenient. This non probability method is often used during preliminary research efforts to get a gross estimate of the results, without incurring the cost or time required to select a random sample.
Is a common non probability method. The researcher selects the sample based on judgment. This is usually an extension of convenience sampling. For example, a researcher may decide to draw the entire sample from one “representative” city, even though the population includes all cities. When using this method, the researcher must be confident that the chosen sample is truly representative of the entire population.
Is the non-probability equivalent of stratified sampling. Like stratified sampling, the researcher first identifies the stratums and their proportions as they are represented in the population. Then convenience or judgment sampling is used to select the required number of subjects from each stratum. This differs from stratified sampling, where the stratums are filled by random sampling.
Is a special non probability method used when the desired sample characteristic is rare. It may be extremely difficult or cost prohibitive to locate respondents in these situations. Snowball sampling relies on referrals from initial subjects to generate additional subjects. While this technique can dramatically lower search costs, it comes at the expense of introducing bias because the technique itself reduces the likelihood that the sample will represent a good cross section from the population.
Under Survey I take Questionnaire method. Questionnaire is the most commonly used method in survey. It is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. I declare that to the best of my knowledge and belief the information given in this questionnaire. I understand that information given by you will be treated in confidence. My aim and objective for this research regarding improve the market share and level of customer satisfaction of ABC Pvt Ltd.
Q1 – What is your gender?
Q2 – Your age group is?
70 & older
Question 1& 2 Justification
The purpose of this is to help the ABC (Pvt) Ltd identify participants the gender and age group. Its help to identify which gender is most use ABC washing powder also which age category gender is use it ABC washing powered regularly.
Q3 – Which type of washing powder do you use?
Q4 – How often you buy washing powder?
Question 3 & 4 Justification
The purpose of this is to help the ABC (Pvt) Ltd identify which type mainly customer buy the daily use or weekly use it is help to identify the customer satisfactions of which type ABC washing powder.
Q5 – In what quantity do you buy washing powder?
Q5 – In what quantity do you buy washing powder?
Q6 – From where do you like to buy your washing powder?
Question 5 & 6 Justification
The purpose of this is to help the ABC (Pvt) Ltd identify customers every time buying ABC washing powder quantity because it mainly helps increase their packing capacity every week. Question no 6 its help to identify which shops most of ABC washing powder moving.
Q7 – Are you satisfied with the price and quality?
Yes, But not with quality
Yes, But not with price
Not at all with both price
Q8 – Why do you like ABC brand?
Fits on my budget
My Favorite Star endorses it
I get promotional discounts,
Question 7 & 8 Justification
The purpose of this is to help the ABC (Pvt) Ltd identify main business problem why came to their business because these two question mainly helps to identify the ABC washing powder buying customer mainly facing what type problems. E.g.: the quality is not enjoying like other brands or price is high comparing the competitor brands like problems easy to identify ABC (Pvt) Ltd.
Questionnaire design is a long process that demands careful attention. Design begins with an understanding of the capabilities of a questionnaire and how they can help the research. If it is determined that a questionnaire is to be used, the greatest care goes into the planning of the objectives. Questionnaires are like any scientific experiment. One does not collect data and then see if they found something interesting.
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