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Advertising which is one type of marketing activity (McCall KL, 2003). Besides that, based on (Chris Fill, 2006) mention that no matter on international, national, local or direct basis, is important, because it can affect audiences by informing or reminding them of the existence and awareness of a brand, or alternatively by persuading or helping them differentiate a product or organization and comparison from others competitors in the market.
The media usually used by food advertisers and marketer, Television – which the largest single source of channel that promo food messages to children (Gallo AE, 1999). Television viewing starts from young, US children around the ages of 2 to 4 years normally view 2 hours of television daily; this increases to more than 3.5 hours near the end of primary school, then decrease to around 2.75 hours in late adolescence (Roberts DF, Foehr UG, Rideont VJ, Brodie M, 1999). US children who in low-income families and fewer youth tend more like to watch television (Roberts DF, Foehr UG, Rideont VJ, Brodie M, 1999; Gentile DA, Walsh DA, 2002). Therefore, Food is very often advertised product category on US children’s television and food advertise account for more than 50% of all advertise are targeting children (Gamble M, Cotunga N, 1999; Kotz K, Story M, 1994; Coon KA, Tucker KL, 2002; Taras HL, Gage M, 1995 ).
Internet – US Census data shows that the year between 1998 and 2001 was increase from 51% to 75% of US adolescents (ages 14-17 years) are using the Internet and increase from 39% to 65% of US children (ages 10-13 years) are online (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2002). The 2001 US Census data shows that half (51%) of US children around 10 to 13 years old and 61% of those who around 14 to 17 years old have Internet access at home (Montgomery D, Pasnik S, 1996).
Therefore, Advertisers and marketers have start use different kinds of new interactive advertising and marketing techniques to target the rapidly growing number of US children online (Montgomery D, Pasnik S, 1996).The way to advertising and marketing on the Web is not similar significantly from television commercials. Advertisers and marketer able pass thought the special feature of the Internet to seamlessly integrate advertising and Web site content (Montgomery KC, 2001). Great majority of the big companies will created their own websites, and designed as “branded environments” for children, the purpose is to advertise and market to children (Montgomery KC, 2000, 2001).
For example, Burger king food company website (http://www.burgerking.com) their provide Games, toys, tunes, and other downloads to promoted alongside for their food items. These is under Big Kids Club which is link on the home page, where encouraged 4 to 12 year old to join club members (Story and French International Journal of Behavioural Nutrition and Physical Activity, 2004).
2.4 Food Advertising Influence to Children Eating Preferences
Nowadays, more and more people attract important that Advertising which aimed at children (Keane and Willetts, 1994; Moore and Moschis, 1983; Moschis et al., 1980). Because “no other agent of consumer socialisation has received more attention than the mass media” (Moschis, 1987, p. 121). There is a large amount of scholarly research in the area that focuses mainly on two dimensions of media that confers affect upon children, namely, advertising and editorial/programming content, especially intend to promote young people about products and encourage them to purchase (Ward and Wackman, 1973; Clancy-Hepburn et al., 1974; Galst and White, 1976; Gorn and Goldberg, 1982; Woodward et al., 1997; O’Guinn and Shrum, 1997).
Approximately, 11 of 19 commercials per hour were for food. Those advertises occupy 246 (44%) to promoted the kind of fats and sweets food, such as candy, soft drinks, chips, cakes, cookies and pastries. Fast-food restaurant advertising was very frequently, which stand of 11% of total food advertisements. The most often advertised food product was high sugar breakfast cereal. And there were no fruits or vegetables on advertisements. Also by indicate evidence of other studies that advertises on US children’s television are majority on high in sugar and fat food, it was very field to fruits or vegetable (Gamble M, Cotunga N, 1999; Coon KA, Tucker KL, 2002; Taras HL, Gage M, 1995; Morton H, 1984; Dibb S, Harris L, 1996; Lewis MK, Hill AJ, 1998; Chestnutt IG, Ashraf FJ, 2002; Byrd-Bredbenner C, Grasso D, 2000)
More and more TV viewing in children and/or adolescents is associated with decrease fruit and vegetable consumption (Ortega, RM, Andrés, P, Requejo, AM, López-Sobaler, AM, Redondo, MR & González-Fernández, M, 1996; Lowry, R, Wechsler, H, Galuska, DA, Fulton, JE & Kann, K, 2002; Boynton-Jarrett, R, Thomas, TN, Peterson, KE, Wiecha, J, Sobol, AM & Gortmarker, SL, 2003; Matheson, DM, Killen, JD, Wany, Y, Varadt, A & Robinson, T, 2004), more snacking (Francis, LA, Lee, Y & Birch, LL, 2003; Snoek, HM, Van Strien, T, Janssens, JMAM & Engels, RCME, 2006) and add more intake non healthy foods and taking less healthy foods (Woodward, DR, Cummings, FJ, Ball, PJ, Williams, HM, Hornsby, H & Boon, JA, 1997)
2.5 Food Advertising Influence of children healthy
It is very importance whether food products of marketing and advertising for youth-targeted has any impact on children’s food behaviours or body weight (Coon KA, Tucker KL, 2002).
From the research evidence indicate that preschoolers and grade school children’s food habit and food purchase more on high sugar and high fat food are affected by television exposure to food advertising. (Isler L, Popper HT, Ward S, 1987; Coon KA, Tucker KL, 2002; Horgan KB, Choate M, Brownell KD, 2001; Taras HL, Sallis JF, Patterson TL, Nader PR, Nelson JA, 1989; Borzekowski DL, Robinson TN, 2001).
On the other hand, a new WHO/FAO consultation shows the report on diet and prevention of chronic diseases investigated the evidence showing the hazard of developing obesity by dietary and lifestyle factors (Geneva, World Health Organization, 2003). Under scientific strong evidence Diet and lifestyle factors can be categorized on four levels of evidence: convincing, probable, possible and insufficient. The report indicate that even the evidence shows heavy marketing of fast food outlets and energy-dense, micronutrient-poor food and beverages to children causes obesity is equivocal, enough indirect evidence to place this fulfil in the “probable” category for increasing hazard of obesity (Geneva, World Health Organization, 2003).
2.6 Children Preferences Influence to Family Consumption
Children strong affect how the family functions-in terms of relationships, employment, and purchases-and their affect is changing family consumption throughout much of the world (Blackwell, miniard, engel, 2006) studies based on Canadian data shows that young children depreciate parents’ participation in the; labor force, it will influence how families spend their money, and lower the amount of time and money available for leisure (RoBert E.Wilkes, 1975)
Has a huge influence on children to make purchase decision involving products for their own use (Chankon Kim and Hanjoon Lee, 1997), In addition their also influence over parental spending when they request particular products and brands (Blackwell, miniard, engel, 2006).
Not only do Children affect choices, but they also are used family money and their own to purchases. Just like a cycle, children influences family spending, family influences young consumers’ cognitive and evaluation of product and brand choices (Margaret Hogg, Margaret Bruce, and Alexander Hill, 1998).
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