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This section critically analyses Balmer’s Marketing Mix (1998) and Balmer’s 6Cs (2006) making references to his work. As discussed above, marketing concepts are evolving and is undergoing through a paradigm shift ever since 1950s, which is evident from ascendancy of the management concepts. In their respective works
Balmer (1998, 2001) and Greyser (1997) have noted that marketing concepts have gone through various stages of transformation with respect to orientation/focus:
Production and manufacturing
Sales and marketing
Corporate marketing represents the most recent evolutionary stage of development in this discipline.
As the marketing concepts were evolving, the original 4 P’s of marketing had to be extended to 11 P’s to accommodate the multi – dimensional concepts of marketing that formed an important part of the organisation-stakeholder relationship. For e.g. Brand perception was added to the existing P’s as its contribution to the organisation-stakeholder relationship was immense.
In the more recent times, new marketing mix shifts its focus from the product to organisation as a single entity.
Balmer then later simplified the 11P’s to 6C’s which can be used by seniors executives to follow the mission of the organisation.
2.2 Balmer’s Marketing Mix (1998) and 6C’s
The original Marketing Mix was given by Borden which was simplified by Mcarthy to 4P’s, which is easier to remember and recall. In 1998, Balmer extended the marketing mix to 10 elements to articulate the new Marketing Mix. He later added an eleventh ‘P’ so as to take account of corporate brand.
What the organisation sells or does
The reputation held of the organisation
Philosophy and Ethos
What the organisation stands for, the way it undertakes its work and activities.
The valuation its brands (corporate, services and product). What it charges for its products and services.
11 P’s of marketing mix
In addition to customers: the organisation’s internal and external constituencies and communities
Selling and distribution of products and services.(Franchising, outsourcing, licensing).
The expectations associated with the corporate brand and the promise underpinning the corporate brand
Quality of products and services.
Standards vis a vis issues of governance, ethics and social responsibility
Co-ordinated corporate communications
(Corporate advertising, corporate PR, visual identification etc.)
The organisation’s position relative to its
The critical role of personnel vis a vis corporate marketing activities.
Figure 1: The 11 Ps of Corporate Marketing Mix Explanation (Balmer 1998)
Source:- Balmer and Greyser, Epilogue, revealing the corporation, pg 348-355
Corporate Identity: What we are
It is the factors that differentiate or one entity from another. The distinct feature can be tangible and intangible such as corporate ownership and structure, corporate philosophy and corporate history
Corporate Culture: what we feel we are
It is the views of the staff about the organisation.. These beliefs are derived from the values, beliefs, and assumptions about the organisation and its historical roots and heritage.
Corporate Governance: Whom we seek to serve
The philosophy of corporate-marketing depends on the needs and wants of the stakeholders such as employees, investors, local community etc) because without their support it will be difficult for the organisation to exist.
Corporate Image and Corporate Reputation: How are we seen?
It is the perceptions of the corporate brand held by customers and other key stakeholder groups.
Corporate Communications: What we say we are
Corporate communications is the controlled message from the organisation to the customers and the stakeholders.
Corporate Brand: What is promised and expected
A corporate brand is like a contract, which can be compared to a covenant holder groups often have a religious-like loyalty to the corporate brand. Failure to acknowledge the contract could lead to bad reputation and identity.
2.3 Critical analysis of 11P’s and 6C’s
The focus of 4P’s been in terms of products and services rather than corporation. Balmer’s Marketing Mix can be orchestrated to underpin the new gestalt of organisations.
The Balmer’s Marketing Mix are not only profit orientated but also focuses on the survival of the business.
One of the major component of corporate marketing is coordinated organisational activities therefore the corporate marketing mix helps to understand the present needs and wants of the stakeholders
The corporate marketing mix also tries to balance the current shareholders demands and the customer needs with those of the future.
Since the Marketing mix are extended to 11P’s, the communications mix will need to be extended in order to encompass the many stakeholder groups which are of importance to organisations, as well as taking into account the numerous channels of communication.
Corporate Marketing Mix given by Balmer has the similar problem as Bordon’s marketing Mix; it had the difficulty of remembering and recalling. Therefore Balmer simplified the mix to Balmer’s 6C.
Marketing concepts should be broadened so as to circumscribe any unit and that it should be able to be applied to all kinds of business and not just product dominated businesses. Balmer’s 6c is the revised version of 11P for an entity rather than a mix collected together for a department.
The components of the six dimensions are easier to remember and recollect than Balmer’s 11P’s.
The senior executive should not follow the same structure of the elements as it is not attainable. They should view the dimensions in a broader perspective and a dynamic alignment because identities are always in the making. A rigid alignment of the elements could be hazardous.
Source: (Comprehending Corporate Marketing and the Corporate Marketing Mix
J.M.T. Balmer Working Paper No 06/08 March 2006 and Revealing the corporation), (Balmer and Greyser, revealing the corporation, pg 349-355).
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