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Buying decision process and Sony overview

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Marketing
Wordcount: 5368 words Published: 27th Apr 2017

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Sony was founded in 1946 in Tokyo to be a new revolution in the world of communications and technology, was able to progress throughout her career innovative products added all the new and useful to the lives of millions of people, Sony is one of the best companies in the world’s leading manufacturer of Audio & Video

In addition to excellence in the areas of technology and development of industry computer laptops and mobile phones

It is well known for many fans and viewers of the technical world of electronics

Since it was founded in May 1946 and to this day continues to Sony in its bid submission to the infinite and well-being and comfort of all categories of consumers through a variety of high-quality products.

We may need a lot of pages to talk about Sony and its history of achievements, which had said the welfare of people’s lives

But the company is well known by it’s fans and clients and it’s products is almost devoid of any where in the house

Acquire products and all categories of people and on a different level of consumer

In this report we will learn on one of the excellent products, which is a high-quality TV set in terms of purity and clarity of image and sound

What makes this product the perfect choice for those who wish to enjoy watching favorite programs with all the comfort that it is not only a high quality product in terms of the characteristics contained in

But several of the most important aspects of it available to consumers at a competitive price is almost unmatched by any other product on the market

And where the decision to purchase is the most important decisions of interest to any organization interested in studying the market and the marketing of their products we will discuss in some important details about.


This offer is available at all Sony stores, and customers would enjoy 10% discount if they buy online from our web site www.sony.com

Also we offer free delivering and one year guarantee

Facilities for payment by installments with the possibility of payment in installments over two years

60 inch LX900 Series 3D Full HD BRAVIA LCD TV

High frame rate LCDs with a “frame sequential display”, Sony makes it possible to watch Full HD 3D quality video on 3D compatible BRAVIA LCD TVs. This technology involves alternately transmitting images for the left eye and right eye to the screen.

When viewed through the “active shutter glasses”, the two separate images on the shutter glasses are synchronized with the onscreen image with their Full HD quality intact and precisely transmitted to the viewer’s eyes. The high-quality super-fine Full HD 3D images deliver unprecedented reality and presence.

This offer includes loudspeakers and a DVD Player which makes the user feels

Like a home cinema


LCD size: 60″(152cm), 16:9

TV system: digital: dvb-t analog

Display resolution: full HD 1080 (1920 x 1080)

Buyer behavior – decision-making process

How do customers buy?

Customers go through a five-stage decision-making process in any purchase. This is summarized in the diagram below:

This model is important for anyone making marketing decisions. It forces the marketer to consider the whole buying process rather than just the purchase decision (when it may be too late for a business to influence the choice!)

The model implies that customers pass through all stages in every purchase. However, in more routine purchases, customers often skip or reverse some of the stages.

For example, a student buying a favorite hamburger would recognize the need (hunger) and go right to the purchase decision, skipping information search and evaluation. However, the model is very useful when it comes to understanding any purchase that requires some thought and deliberation.

The buying process starts with need recognition. At this stage, the buyer recognizes a problem or need (e.g. I am hungry, I need a new TV set, I have a headache) or responds to a marketing stimulus (e.g. you pass Sony store and are attracted by a big screen showing a football match or an action movie and).

An “aroused” customer then needs to decide how much information (if any) is required. If the need is strong and there is a product or service that meets the need close to hand, then a purchase decision is likely to be made there and then. If not, then the process of information search begins.

A customer can obtain information from several sources:

• Personal sources: family, friends, neighbors etc

• Commercial sources: advertising; salespeople; retailers; dealers; packaging; point-of-sale displays

• Public sources: newspapers, radio, television, consumer organizations; specialist magazines

• Experiential sources: handling, examining, using the product

The usefulness and influence of these sources of information will vary by product and by customer. Customers’ value and respect personal sources more than commercial sources (the influence of “word of mouth”). The challenge for the marketing team is to identify which information sources are most influential in their target markets.

In the evaluation stage, the customer must choose between the alternative brands, products and services.

How can the customer benefit from the information?

An important determinant of the extent of evaluation is whether the customer feels “involved” in the product. By involvement, we mean the degree of perceived relevance and personal importance that accompanies the choice.

Where a purchase is “highly involving”, the customer is likely to carry out extensive evaluation.

High-involvement purchases include those involving high expenditure or personal risk – for example buying a house, a TV set or making investments. Low involvement purchases (e.g. buying a soft drink, choosing some breakfast cereals in the supermarket) have very simple evaluation processes.

Why should a marketer need to understand the customer evaluation process?

The answer lies in the kind of information that the marketing team needs to provide customers in different buying situations.

In high-involvement decisions, the marketer needs to provide a good deal of information about the positive consequences of buying. The sales force may need to stress the important attributes of the product, the advantages compared with the competition; and maybe even encourage “trial” or “sampling” of the product in the hope of securing the sale.

Post-purchase evaluation – Cognitive Dissonance

The final stage is the post-purchase evaluation of the decision. It is common for customers to experience concerns after making a purchase decision. This arises from a concept that is known as “cognitive dissonance”. The customer, having bought a product, may feel that an alternative would have been preferable. In these circumstances that customer will not repurchase immediately, but is likely to switch brands next time.

To manage the post-purchase stage, it is the job of the marketing team to persuade the potential customer that the product will satisfy his or her needs. Then after having made a purchase, the customer should be encouraged that he or she has made the right decision.

Factors affecting buying decision

Possible influences on the decision process

Personal influences




Psychological influences





Social influences

Roles and family

Reference groups

Social classes

Culture and subcultures

Personal factors:

Is one that is unique to a particular person? It can influence purchasing decision

In this section we discuss three categories which are demographic, situational, and level of involvement factors.

Demographic factors:

Such as age, sex, race, ethnic, origin, income, family life-cycle, and occupation

Demographic factors have a bearing on who is involved in family decision making. For example, it’s estimated that by 2010 the Middle East and North African countries. Will have the largest market for TV sets because of more new apartments built for old men who is getting married that means more opportunities to sell wide number of TV sets .

Men with age between 25 and 35 are know to have more influence in buying decision process for furniture and other equipments when they are starting furnishing their new apartments with all Necessities.

Another example is a person’s age and income may affect the number and types of information sources used and the amount of time devoted to seeking information.

Demographic factors also affect to which a person uses products in a specific product category. Consumers in the 20 to 45 age group are more interested in buying new technology such as this TV set with high definition image specially those who get high income they find it easy to buy a new TV set even if the old one still in a good shape or condition .

Here Sony set plans how to attract those potential consumers in term of marketing mix focusing how to set prices and

Situational factors:

Are the external circumstances or conditions that exist when a consumer is making a purchase decision. Sometimes a consumer engages in buying decision-making as a result of unexpected situation. For example, a person may hurriedly buy a TV set to watch the world cup 2010 or owner of a coffee shop try to attract more customers by offering them watching their favorite teams in the world cup or Olympic Games just two or three days before it starts or sometimes during that occasions. Yet in other circumstances the same individual might spend many weeks shopping around for a discount or any offer available. Situational factors can influence a consumer’s actions during any stage of the buying process.

The time available to make decision is a situational factor that strongly influences consumer buying decision. If there is a little time for selecting and purchasing the TV set, a person may make a quick choice and purchase a readily available brand.

Level of involvement:

Many aspects of consumer buying decisions are affected by the individual’s level of involvement; it determines why he or she is motivated to seek information about this product and brand but virtually ignores others. The extensiveness of the buying decision process varies greatly with the consumer’s level of involvement. The sequence of the steps in this process may also be altered. Low-involvement buyers may form an attitude about this product and evaluate its features after purchasing it rather than before. Conversely, high-involvement buyers spend much time and effort researching their purchase beforehand.

Such TV set is a product that undergoes a great deal of investigation before they are chosen.

Psychological factors influencing the buying decision process

Operating within individuals partly determine people’s general behavior and thus influence their behavior as consumers.


Different people perceive the same thing at the same time in different ways. Similarly, the same individual at different times may perceive the same product in a number of ways. Perception is the process information inputs are the sensations received through sight, hearing, and touch the product.

Perception is a three-step process. Although consumers receive numerous pieces of information at once, only a few of them reach awareness. They select certain inputs and ignore many others because they do not have the ability to be conscious of every input at the same time. This phenomenon is sometimes called selective exposure because they select inputs that are to be exposed to their awareness. For example if they are concentrating reading this paragraph, they probably are not aware that car outside making noise, that the light is on, or that they are touching this book. Even though they are receiving these inputs, they ignore them until they are mentioned.

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For example a person hoping to buy this TV set is likely to watch an advertisement containing TV set information. An input is likely to reach awareness if the information helps satisfy current needs. If the intensity of an input changes significantly, the input is more likely to reach awareness. When a store manager reduces a price slightly, they may not notice because the change is not significant, but if the manager cuts the price in half, they are much more likely to recognize the reduction.


Is an internal energizing force that directs activities towards satisfying a need or achieving a goal. Motivation is the set of mechanisms for controlling movement toward goals. A buyer’s action at any time is affected by a set of motives rather than by just one. At a single point in time, some motives in the set have priority, but the priorities of motives vary from one time to another. For example, a person’s motives for having this TV set when not having a TV set rather than if having an old TV set. Motivation also affects the direction and intensity of behavior. Individuals must choose which goals to pursue at a particular time.

A buyer may use a particular shop because of such patronage motives as price, service, location, honesty, product variety, or friendliness of salespeople.

That’s why Sony marketers should try to determine why regular customers patronize a store and then emphasis these characteristics in the store’s marketing mix.

The marketing department should do researching by asking group of people for example what motivates them, why they keep buying that brand even if they know that brand is not as good quality as Sony. Keep researching what motivates them by other brands and what are motives of other brands.

Ability and knowledge

Individuals vary in their ability, their competence and efficiency in performing tasks. One ability of inters to marketers is an individual’s capacity to learn. Learning refers to changes in a person’s behavior caused by information and experience. The consequence of behavior strongly influences the learning process. Behavior that results in satisfying consequences tends to be repeated. For example, when a consumer buys a TV set and likes it, he or she is more likely to advise friends or relatives to buy the same TV set with the same brand he/she bought. In fact, the individual will probably continue to purchase that brand until it longer provides satisfaction. But when the affects of the behavior are no longer satisfying, the person will switch to a different brand.

This is very important for marketers in SONY Company to keep searching for reasons that makes individuals satisfied with this product related to the marketing mix.

Buyers when making purchasing decisions, have to process information. Individuals have differing abilities in this regard. For example, when purchasing this TV set , a well-educated potential buyer who has experience with technology and good brands available in the market may be able to read, comprehend, and synthesis the considerable quantities of information in technical brochures for various competing brands. On the other hand, another buyer with more limited abilities may be incapable of performing this task and will have to rely on information obtained from advertisements or from a sales representative of a particular brand.

Here SONY marketers should offer all information’s that attract different levels of people, and choose smart advertisements that introduce the product, and its benefits.

Inexperienced buyers use different types of information from more experienced shoppers who are familiar with the product and purchase situation. Inexperienced buyers use price as an indicator of quality more frequently than buyers who have some knowledge of a particular product category.

So sources of information are different, while buyers with expertise are more confidence to compare and find direct information related to the product, consumers who lack expertise may seek the advice of others making a purchase or take a long a friend.

Marketers should be aware of what general consumer back ground of the company and its products, while some consumers think SONY is quite expensive others believe that SONY has the best quality and so on, here SONY have to create the best tools of providing positive information and knowledge for those


Refers to knowledge and positive or negative feelings about the product.

The acts towards which consumers have attitudes may be tangible or intangible, living or non-living.

An individual learns attitudes through experience and interaction with other people. Just as attitudes are learned, they can be also changed.

An individual’s attitudes remain generally stable and do not change from moment to moment. Likewise, at any one time, a person’s attitudes do not all have equal impact; some are stronger than others.

Consumer attitudes towards a firm and its products greatly influence the success or failure of the firm’s marketing strategy. When consumers have strong negative attitudes towards one or more aspects of a firm’s marketing practices, they may not only stop using the firm’s product but also urge their relatives and friends to do likewise. For example, one of SONY stores in NORTH AFRICA is was not trusted by wide range of customers because of unfair prices related to other branches in the MIDDEL EAST countries, consumers in those countries does not know that was not SONY company, so the image of SONY was affected in that area, and sales started to flow down because of that big mistake by the company who was representing SONY company in NORTH AFRICA.

Marketers in SONY should always measure consumer’s attitudes towards prices, package design, the brand name, advertisements, salespeople, services after sale, stores locations, features of the product, and also social responsibility activities.

Several methods can help gauge these attitudes. One of the simplest ways is to question people directly. Asking about the consumer satisfaction about the TV set, are they satisfied with quality and the price, knowing the feedback of consumers, and keep going determining the positive and negative points , to check the performance of all steps involved while marketing the product, trying to attract more consumers by studying their attitudes.


Includes all the internal traits and behaviors that make a person unique. Each person’s unique personality arises from both heredity and personal experience. Personalities are typically describes as having one or more characteristics, such as compulsiveness, ambitiousness, gregariousness, dogmatism, authoritarianism, introversion, extroversion, aggressiveness, competitiveness.

Here should attempt to find relationships among such characteristics and buying behavior. Even though a few links between several personality characteristics and buyer behavior have been determined, the results of many studies have been inconclusive. Some researchers see the apparently weak association between personality and buying behavior as due to unreliable measures rather than a lack of relationship. A number of marketers are convinced that a consumer’s personality does influence the types and brands of products purchased. For example the type TV set brand that a person buys may reflect one or more personality characteristics.

At times, SONY aim advertising campaigns at general types of personalities. In doing so, they use positively valued personality characteristics, such as gregariousness, independence, or competitiveness. Most products promoted this way.

Social factors influencing the buying decision process

The forces that other people exert on buying behavior.

Roles and family influences

Every person occupies position within groups, organizations, and institutions. Associated with each position is a role. A set of actions and activities that a person in a particular position is supposed to perform, based on the expectations of both the individual and surrounding persons. Because people occupy numerous positions, they also have many roles. For example, a man may perform the roles of son, wife, father, employee or employer, civic organization member, and student in an evening class. Thus are several sets of expectations placed on each person’s behavior.

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An individual’s roles influence both general behavior and buying behavior. The demands of a person’s role may be inconsistent and confusing. To illustrate, assume that the man mentioned above is thinking about buying this TV set. While he wants this TV set to enjoy watching world news or football games, his children want to watch cartoons or connect the screen to play station and play games. His wife wants him to delay the TV set purchase until next month. A colleague at work insists that he should buy a particular brand, known for high quality. Thus an individual’s buying behavior is partially affected by input and opinions of family and friends.

Family roles related directly to purchase decisions. The male head of household is likely to be involved heavily in the purchase of this product. Deciding if it’s the right time to purchase or not. Although female roles have changed, women still make buying decisions related to many household items. Husbands and wives participate jointly in the purchase of products, especially durable goods such this TV set. Some young men aged 25 to 35 who is getting married in summer season; their brand loyalty can be quite changeable.

In this case marketers in SONY frequently promote for such product during holidays to catch this hard to reach group at time when they are more receptive to a promotional message.

When two or more family members participate in a purchase, their roles may dictate each is responsible for performing certain tasks: initiating the idea, gathering information, deciding whether to buy this TV set, or selecting another brand.

That’s why marketers need to be aware of how roles affect buying behavior. To develop a marketing mix that precisely meets the needs of the target market, and they must know not only who does the actual buying, but also what other roles influence the purchase. Because sex roles are changing so rapidly, they must ensure that information is current and accurate.

Reference groups

A group becomes a reference group when an individual identifies with it so much that he or she takes on many of the values, attitudes, or behavior of group members. The person who views a group as a reference group may or may not know the actual size of the group. Most people have several reference groups, such as families, friends, religious, civic, and professional organizations.

A group can be negative reference group for an individual. Someone may have been a part of a specific group at one time but later rejected its values and members. One can also specifically take action to avoid a particular group.

A reference group may serve as a point of comparison and a source of information for an individual. A customer’s behavior may change to be more in line with the actions and beliefs of a group member. For example, a person might stop buying one brand of TV set and switch to SONY on the advice of members of the reference group. Generally, the more conspicuous the product, the more likely it is that the brand decision will be reference group.

This days reference groups plays a big role affecting the buying decision, specially in advertising and the way the company choose to promote for the product, it was a very successful experience when SONY do a smart advertisement for it’s products specially TV screens, a lot of consumers enjoyed watching the Brazilian football player RECARDO KAKA doing the advertisement, he attracted a lot of customers, even who don’t watch football matches.

Social classes

Within all societies, people rank others into higher or lower positions of respect.

This ranking results in social classes. A social class is an open group of individuals who have similar social rank. A class referred to as “open” because people can move into and out of it. The criteria for grouping people into classes vary from one society to another. In western countries, many factors are taken into account, including occupation, education, income, wealth, race, ethnic group, and possession. In some countries like Arabic countries, wealth and income are more important than education and occupation in determining social classes.

A person is ranking someone does not necessarily apply all of society’s criteria. The number and the importance of the factors chosen depend on the characteristics of the individual being ranked and the values of the person who is doing the ranking.

Social class influence many aspects. For example, it affects childhood training, choice of religion, selection of occupation, and how people spend their time. Because social class has a bearing on so many aspects of a person’s life, it also affect buying decisions, for example, upper-class seem to prefer luxury automobiles such as the BMW and MERCEDES-BENZ, which symbolize their status, income, and financial comfort.

Thos upper-class would buy TV set with the latest technologies available which is full HD screens and 3D with 60ince size with all the accessories, they like to make it like a home cinema they might spend large amount of money to buy such a TV set.

Culture and subculture

Is everything in surroundings that is made by human beings. It consists of tangible items, and intangible concepts, such as education, welfare, and laws. Culture also includes the values and wide range of behaviors that are acceptable within a specific society. Are learned and passed on from one generation to the next.

Culture influences buying behavior because it permeates daily lives. It determines what people wear, eat, where to live and travel. It also influences how people buy and use products and the satisfaction gained from them.

While some countries spend a lot of time watching TV , others might spend much time surfing the internet, so culture determines how TV purchased and used, it in turn affects all the marketing mix, promotion, distribution, and pricing of the product.

Marketing mix

The Market Mix (often referred to as the 4-Ps)

Refers to the unique blend of marketing

Elements designed to meet the needs of the

Organization’s target market. The Marketing

Mix consists of the organization’s…

• Product

• Price

• Promotion

• Distribution (Place)

Understanding how to position the market offering

Putting the right product in the right place, at the right price, at the right time.

We already have created a TV set that is a particularly group of customer’s wants, now we put it on sale in a place that those same customers visit regularly, and price it at a level which matches the value they feel they get out of it; and do all that at a time they want to buy.

There’s a lot of truth in this idea. However, a lot of hard work needs to go into finding out what customers want, and identifying where they do their shopping. Then we need to figure out how to produce the item at a price that represents value to them, and get it all to come together at the critical time.

The marketing mix is a good place to start when we are thinking through our plans for this TV set, and it helps avoid any kind of mistakes.

The marketing mix and the 4 Ps of marketing are often used as synonyms for each other. In fact, they are not necessarily the same thing.

“Marketing mix” is a general phrase used to describe the different kinds of choices organizations have to make in the whole process of bringing a product or service to market. The 4 Ps is one way. A good way to understand the 4 Ps is by the questions that we need to ask to define marketing mix. Here are some questions that will help you understand and define each of the four elements:


What does the customer want from the product/service? What needs does it satisfy?

What features does it have to meet these needs?

Are there any features we’ve missed out?

Are we including costly features that the customer won’t actually use?

How and where will the customer use it?

What does it look like? How will customers experience it?

What size(s), color(s), and so on, should it be?

What is it to be called?

How is it branded?

How is it differentiated versus your competitors?

What is the most it can cost to provide, and still be sold sufficiently profitably? (See also Price, below).


Where do buyers look for this product?

If they look in a store, what kind? A specialist boutique or in a supermarket, or both? Or online? Or direct, via a catalogue?

How can you access the right distribution channels?

Do you need to use a sales force? Or attend trade fairs? Or make online submissions? Or send samples to catalogue companies?

What does competitors do, and how can we learn from that and/or differentiate?


What is the value of the product to the buyer?

Are there established price points for the product in this area?

Is the customer price sensitive? Will a small decrease in price gain extra market share? Or will a small increase be indiscernible, and so gain extra profit margin?

What discounts should be offered to trade customers, or to other specific segments of your market?

How will the price compare competitors?


Where and when can we get across marketing messages to target market?

Will we reach audience by advertising in the press, or on TV, or radio, or on billboards? By using direct marketing mail shot? On the Internet?

When is the best time to promote? Is there seasonality in the market? Are there any wider environmental issues that suggest or dictate the timing of market launch, or the timing of subsequent promotions?

How do competitors do their promotions? And how does that influence your choice of promotional activity?

The 4Ps model is just one of many marketing mix lists that have been developed over the years. And, whilst the questions listed above are the key, they are just a subset of the detailed probing that may be required to optimize marketing mix.

Amongst the other marketing mix models have been developed over the years is Boom and Banter’s 7Ps, sometimes called the extended marketing mix, which include the first 4 Ps, plus people, processes and physical layout decisions.

Another marketing mix approach is Lautenberg’s 4Cs, which presents the elements of the marketing mix from the buyer’s, rather than the seller’s, perspective. It is made up of Customer needs and wants (the equivalent of product), Cost (price), Convenience (place) and Communication (promotion). In


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