The research was carried out to find out the relationship between the brand recall and consumer purchase intention. Consumer purchase intention is influenced by many internal and external factors that include demographics(age, education level, income level, marital status, occupation) psychographics (lifestyle), knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, feelings, personality, motivation, culture, sub-culture, place, traditions, family, social class, reference groups, lifestyle, and market mix factors which include the brand awareness, recall ,recognation,and influence by the advertising and promotional activities and also the price factor is very important..
Brand recall comes from brand awareness, is one of the most important dimensions of brand equity, is often considered to be a precondition of consumers’ buying decision, and represents the main aspect for including a brand in the consideration set.
. Marketers use various channel in order to aware the consumer about their brand which include different well-known channels of promotion such as advertising, launching events, word of mouth publicity, social media which include blogs, sponsorships, launching events, etc.
To communicate a brand massage to consumer, it is very important to make reliable brand image, taglines and slogans. Its gives strengths to the brand, the message to be communicated should also be reliable. Strong brand awareness leads the company to high sales and high market share in comparison to competitors in the market. It is important to be familiar with the theories about consumer buying behavior when making a research about choice of brand. According to Söderlund (2001), the consumer buying behaviour depends on which intentions, attitudes, preferences, effort to commitment, and way of identifying the consumers have.
Evaluation of alternatives
Post purchase behavior
Kotler (1999) As seen in the “buying decision process-model” above, consumers has passed through five stages in consumer buying decision process. Consumers are not going all stages at every purchase. In daily routine purchases consumers usually skip some stages. In a “small” purchase, like everyday commodities, consumer does not usually make effort in searching information and evaluation. However, the figure shows that the consumer take all the considerations when facing a new complex purchase situation. Need recognition is the first step in the model. Here the consumers define a problem or something that consumer need. A need could be generating either by some internal or external stimulus. An internal stimulus is define for example when you are hungry enough to need something to eat. An example of an external stimulus is when consumers see a commercial on television, or we can say is the outcome of the advertisement launched by a marketer and after that consumer think that the particular product/brand is needed. This is why it is very important for the marketers to find out that what stimulus most often activates interest in the brand. Information search is the stage when the consumers start searching information. The information can be collected from different sources which include personal sources, commercial sources, public sources and experiential sources. The awareness and knowledge of the available brands increases, as more information is obtained by the consumers’. Alternative evaluation is the stage where the consumers use the information in order to evaluate and rank the alternative brands. Here it is important for marketers to know about the alternative evaluation. The consumers are trying to satisfy some needs and looking first for certain benefits by buying a special brand. Further on, the consumers look for the product attributes which can be price and quality, benefits etc. Consumers also look for salient attributes, which are things that come up in the consumers’ mind when thinking of the brand. Purchase decision is when the consumer actually purchases the product. The consumers’ choice of brand might be affected by two factors, attitude of others and unexpected situational factors. Post-purchase behaviour is the stage where the consumers compare the brand expectations with the perceived performance. If the expectations are the same as the product’s performance then consumers are satisfied.
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The problem was to investigate the impact of brand recall on consumer purchase and also examine the factors that help in recalling the particular brand and how it helps the consumer in making buying decision. Proposed study utilized consumer behavior theories, and different brand recall approaches to analyze the research questions and to test the acceptance/ rejection of the developed hypothesis.
Hl: Brand recall and consumer purchase intention are associated to each other.
It is the degree to which a brand name is recalled as a part of product, service or product. Brand recall comes from brand awareness
It is a plan to purchase a particular products or service in the future by target consumer.
CHAPTER2: LITERATURE REVIEW
Sanjay Putrevu (2004) in his article “Communicating with the Sexes: Male and Female Response to Print Advertisements” found that male and female’s has the different behavior towards intention to purchase and the attitude towards the advertisements.
Beerli and Santana (1999) Purchase intention is one of the most important measures for gaining the information about the consumer perception. There are many factors that influenced the consumer behavior that include culture, traditions, education, perception, motivation, and by using this information the marketers make products for consumer’s and persuade them to purchase.
Chisnall, P (1995), Solomon, M. (2002), and East, R (1990) The marketing professionals put a lot of efforts in order to find out the consumer buying behavior. It is very critical for the companies to find out the needs and wants of the customer and what kind of a product consumers actually want. Marketers tried to find out the best product uniqueness and characteristics that satisfy the needs of target market and the customers .Many studies has been done in which researcher make an effort to investigate the factors that effect the consumer purchase intention. Study shows that different customer has different needs and wants at different places and intention to purchase is also very different in order to satisfy their need.
Lim, K. and O’Cass, A (2001) According to research brand name is very important factor for the consumer during the buying process and the product brand name also influence consumer buying behavior. On the basis of brand name customer can distinguish the products from other companies. Brand name is one of the most successful factors for the companies to differentiate goods and service from competitor’s in the worldwide market after putting the brand name on product by manufacture the products becomes more appealing and attractive to the customer and this make the product a different identity in the eyes of customer and it affect the consumer purchase intention. The brand name also gives the social status to customer some times. It is also said that some times the brand name is more important for the customer than the product itself. Brand name also adds the value to the product.
Gold smith,Lafferty & Newell(2000) companies spend huge amount of money in advertising in order to create brand awareness and brand recall and provide information to assist consumer to make purchase decision not only to purchase but to continue repurchase and eventually develop brand loyalty. When a sport athlete endorses a sport-related brand, sport man treated as celebrity and a superstar at the same time and has a positive affect in purchase intention. There are many factors that influenced the consumer behavior that include culture, traditions, education, perception, motivation
Rettie and Brewer(2000) Research shows that people do not make much effort in daily routine purchase like searching information or evaluating the alternatives according to study partially grocery purchase is not planned and according to Henley enter survey around 73% of buying decision is made at the point of purchase which also shows at the time of purchase time pressure is an additional factor in supermarket and packaging design is also an other important factor in buying that effect consumer decision making
Dickson and Sawyer(1990) In buying decision making process the consumer has verity of brands that are present at the point of choice (e.g. at a supermarket or store)but research shows only specifies brands that consumer recall at the short amount of time to choose brands from a wide range at the time of purchase.
Aaker and Mayers (1982), Blech and Blech (1990) Brand awareness and brand recall plays a very important role in purchase decision. According to study when consumer are aware about the brand name then that particular brand name comes in consumer evoked set or consideration set and at the point of purchase the advertising of that particular brand recall in consumer memory and there is more probability that customer purchase the brand. Reminder advertising plays a very important role in recalling the brand in consumer mind.
Sissor and Bumba (1989) Billboard and the advertising that appears in terminals, at stations, on public transport and in waiting areas plays a very important role in consumer buying decision making because this type of advertising serve as a reminder to consumer mind before purchase.
Norris (1984) According to research on advertising media author suggest that the billboard advertising media is very suitable for reminding the brand to consumer before purchase and also it is very effective way to communicate a message to the public. On the other hand the advertising of brands on the television is also very important and it is used to give awareness to the people about the product and it is used to differentiae product from competitors.
Keller (2003) Brand recall comes after brand awareness when customer aware about the brand and recall the particular brand. They can identify brand by its symbol, brand name, its logo, packaging style, context, these are some factors through which the customer associates to the brand and remind the brand at the time of purchase.
Bettman (1979) and Solomon (2007) Brand recall is very important when the customers are not at the retail store or supermarket and they are just relying on memory in order to generate information on the other hand recognition of a brand is very important when customer buy products from stores because at that time there are many other alternatives are also available so if customer recognize the brand through the brand logo, name, contex etc then customer can purchase that particular brand.
Lardinoit and Derbaix (2001) Brand recall helps consumer to identify and differentiate the product from various alternatives that are displayed at the point of purchase. At the time of purchase customer have to make a decision that which brand they should buy if they recall any particular brand customer buy at that point with out making any extra effort
Yoo (2000) Consumer purchase decision is influence by many factors and one of the most important factor is the consumption and experience of brand or a service because after using the product the consumer made perception about the product which also play a very important role in repeat purchase decision in future
Sundar (1998) Researcher did many experiments in order to compare the media advertising effectiveness with print and internet advertising media and the result shows that print and advertising media is more effective than only the internet media for the brand attitude of the consumer that how consumer perceive the brand and in research it is also found that banners advertising is less effective then the print media in brand recall and brand attitude of the consumer. In other words we can say that the print media is superior in recalling the brand in consumer memory.
Gallagher, Foster, and Parsons (2001) According to research these both medium are equally affected for consumer brand recall and brand attitude.
Metha (2000) Advertising effectiveness depends on consumer attitude towards the brand, according to Mehta research the consumer who has the positive attitude towards the brand advertisement have the higher chance to recall the brand rather than the consumer who have the negative attitude towards the brand.
Cho, Lee, & Tharp (2001) The exposure of internet advertising is much bigger than the banner advertising so there is higher chance that consumer recall the internet advertisement than the banner.
Colman and Grimes (1989) Heflin and Haygood (1985) Thorson, Friestad, and Zhao, (1987) did an experiment to investigate the consumer memory that to what extent consumer recall and recognize the brand which is shown to audience in advertisement, this investigation is based on the following measures (a) Free recall: In this type of measure the consumers were asked to write down the six advertisements, brand name, product type which they remember. (b)Recognition of the product type: in this measure a list of 48 product types are given to the subject and out of 48 product type there are six product types that is linked to the target advertisements. (c)Cued recall of brand name: in this measure the lists of 6 product type is given to the correspondent and were asked to recall the brand name. (d) Recognition of brand names: in this type the researcher take the five brand names from the American magazine that include the brand name that is used in the shown advertisement and the respondent were asked to try to select or choose the right answer.(e) Recognition of advertisements: Here investigator’s select the six advertisements among 12 American advertisements, which shown the unknown brand names and similar product type and the consumer were asked to try to choose from the advertisements that shown to them. These all measures are done in order to find out that to what extent subject can recall the advertisements
Teenagers are one of the most important segments for the marketer because this segment is brand loyal for many reasons.Tennagers always want some thing new innovative products, teenagers want to become a trendsetters so this segments always attract to marketers that’s why marketer’s always try to bring some thing new in the market and try to convey their messages through various communication medium.
Derbaix & Bree (1997) Teenagers play a very important role in purchasing process and the factor that perused teenagers to buy include driver license, credit/debit cards. These factors increase youngster ability to buy a branded goods and it also increased teenager responsibility that include buying daily routines shopping goods which give confidence and become more energetic or take a very active role in consumer decision making process.
Keller (2001) Marketing professionals use different communication channels in order to convey message to the general public about their products or services so that people get the information about product and consumer consider these product while making purchase decision. Marketer also give advertisements to remind the customer about product from time to time so that the customer didn’t forget there brand. Marketers use different ways of advertising which include sending messages through internet, fax, telephone and mail for the awareness of their brand and also give advertising on television, radio and in newspaper.
CHAPTER3: RESEARCH METHODS
3.1 Method of Data Collection
Data was gathered by means of survey questionnaire, consisting of questions to infer the existence of the impact brand recall on consumer purchase and repeat purchase intention. Avolio (1991).It has been acknowledged that selecting a survey respondent is well established approach in management research .The data were collected from questionnaire.
3.2 Sample Size
A sample size of 200 cases was used.
3.3 Statistical Technique
For the purpose of data collection the research was based on two variables. The tool that was being used was SPSS. A Wilcoxon signed rank test was carried out keeping in view the nature of the hypothesis and the data.
4.1 Findings and Interpretations of the Result
Table 4.1 Descriptive Statistics
Brand recall influence consumer to purchase brand
Customer purchase a brand which comes first in their mind at a time of purchase
The first table titled descriptive statistics where SPSS has generated descriptive.
It shows the buying decision making process of the consumer whose buying decision process is effected by brand recall factor and top of mind recall factor.
The total number of sample size is 200.
Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test
Table 4.2 Ranks
Sum of Ranks
Customer purchase a brand which comes first in their mind at a time of purchase –
Brand recall influence consumer to purchase brand
a. Customer purchase a brand which comes first in their mind at a time of purchase < Brand recall influence consumer to purchase brand
b. Customer purchase a brand which comes first in their mind at a time of purchase > Brand recall influence consumer to purchase brand
c. Customer purchase a brand which comes first in their mind at a time of purchase = Brand recall influence consumer to purchase brand
In this table we can see that 79 consumer out of 200 purchase a brand which consumer recall first during buying decision making process.
There are 54 consumers whose buying decision making process is affected by the brand recall factor.
In the end there are 67 consumers top of mind recall and brand recall factor does not much affected consumer buying decision making process
Table 4.3 Test Statisticsb
Customer purchase a brand which comes first in their mind at a time of purchase – Brand recall influence consumer to purchase brand
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)
a. Based on positive ranks.
b. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test
This table contains the Z-value of -3.4752.The test value Z is approximately normally distributed for large samples that are n>10, so that P=0.000.By examine the final test statistic table we can see that brand recall and creativity factor leads the change in consumer purchase decision making process. In statistic Wilcox on signed rank test is denoted by the test statistic although we can report the Z statistic instead.
4.2 Hypothesis Assessment Summary
Brand recall and top of mind recall are associated with each other
Accepted. Since the result shows the positive relation
CHAPTER 5: DISUSSIONS, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH
This study advances knowledge of consumer purchase intention and brand recall. Research found that in buying decision making process brand recall is one of the factors that influence the consumer purchase. As per research it shows that advertising, brand loyalty and the brand recognition of the product are also some other factors that effect the consumer purchase intention.
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The primary purpose of the present study is to investigate the association between the brand recall and top of mind recall and its impact on consumer purchase intention and to see the generalizabilty of the research to the population with the sample size of 200 respondents. The purpose is to prove that the brand recall factor and top of mind recall influence the consumer decision making process.
5.3 Implications and Recommendations
Past research has been focused on the impact of brand recall and top of mind recall on consumer purchase intention, therefore the brand recall and top of mind recall factor has been highly under researched area in an under research. Though an extensive literature review proposed that how consumer purchase intention has the association with brand recall and top of mind recall factor. The literature review has provided the basic theoretical evidence with regard to the link between the consumer purchase intention and brand recall and top of mind recall. Questionnaire was developed for data collection. Descriptive analysis used to describe the data by using descriptive summary. Wilcoxon signed test used to describe the relation between variables by checking the acceptance or rejection of hypothesis and to see the nature of relationship between variables. These findings show the association between the brand recall and consumer purchase intention that there were be lots of other factors that play role in consumer purchase intention.
5.4 Future Research
Adcock (2001) Recommended a model in which he has shown different elements that take place in consumer buying decision making process and the factors that influence the consumer preference. The factors include the consumer demographic, physiological stimuli, social and psychological profile as shown in the given model in (figure 1). Above model shows that these all factors affect the consumer choice to purchase a certain product. Study shows that consumer behavior is different in different places and they act in different manner in order to make buying decision.
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