Training And Development In Workplace

3117 words (12 pages) Essay

11th May 2017 Management Reference this

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The world is changing very fast. New technologies are replacing traditional work methods with new form of work techniques which requires new types of skills. In this changing world training both physically, socially, mentally and intellectually are very essential for up gradation of not only the skills of employee but also of the organization. Employees’ training and development programs are the part of good management practices and good risk management strategies. Therefore, both employers and employees have responsibility for improving skills. Periodic training is very essential for every organization. For example, training might be required for a worker if a new machine is installed to upgrade a factory and that worker has to work with this machine. He will need training to learn everything about that machine. Training is a continuous and never ending process.

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Training and development program are also very helpful to improve the self-efficiency of individuals. Self-efficiency is the belief in individual’s abilities to do a specific task. Studies show that self-efficiency is directly related to job performance. Self-efficiency can be improved by guided experiences, mentoring and role modeling. Employees can also get training for self-management, where they can systematically enhance their self-efficiency.

In human resource management, training and development is the field concerned with the activity of an organizations directed towards the improvement of an individual or a group. It is also known as human resource development.

Training and development contains three main activities: Training, education and development

Training: Training is the process of upgrading skills, capabilities and knowledge of an employee according the needs job not only for present but also for future. Training is very important for organizational development and success. Training can be given to staff by various methods like classrooms, workshops, meetings, conferences, demonstrations.

Education: Education is the training given to the employees to do a different job. It is often given to employees who have been identified as being promotable, being considered for a new job either lateral or upwards, or to increase their potential.

Development: Development is training given to employees to make them capable of thinking out of the box. It makes them more creative.

Current Issues

Many organizations are investing a big amount of money into the training and development of their employees. But they are facing so many issues to do it successfully. Some of the issues are

Unable to identify the specific needs of the learner : The biggest issue in training and development program is the training managers fail to identifying and assessing the real needs of the learner or employee. They don’t know what type of training should be provided to each and every individual.

Objectives set by trainers not by learner : Objectives are set by the managers. The training manager actually create the training program according to the needs of the organization. They do not know what the employees want or what they need. They just create a training program and ask the employees to join it.

Absence of policies and procedures : Training managers may lack the well created policies and procedures for the training programs. It may leads to the failure of it.

Training viewed as an event, not a process : Training is a process not an event and it should be ongoing and continuous with time. Skills of employees need to be upgraded time by time.

Failing to manage time for preparation and participating in learning events : The constraint of time is another factor that can fails a training program. Employees are unable to set their schedule according to their work and training. Most organizations can’t afford that their employees are away from their work for long time.

Culture : The culture comes from company’s management and leadership. If an employee thinks that the manager does not support the training initiatives, then the training program will fail (Pohl, 2009).

Lack of training personnel and materials : The organizations may lack tack skilled trainers who can create and present well-received training classes. Also, not all organizations can afford new technologies and study material to give training to their employees. In many cases, training materials may not be available for purchase until after a new product has been launched. Training may be delayed as the instructors must familiarize themselves with the subject matter and develop the needed training materials (Acevedo).

Employees are less motivated towards their self development : Employees may not be enthusiastic about required training courses. They think it is unnecessary and waste of time. They view the training programs as event rather than important process. Employees don’t know how important it is for themselves and for development of the company.

Implementation

While creating a successful training program, the training manager has to keep all the above issues in his mind. Otherwise, it will be the waste of money. He has to go step by step to make a better training program.

The creation of a successful training program should include the following steps:

Determine what training is needed: What do the learner needs to know to fulfill the job related tasks?

The first step in creating a training program in identifying the needs of the employees. What type of training the employees need, what are the requirements of the job, what are the future needs for that job. Each and every requirement should be fulfill. This can be done by establishing a need analysis. Employee’s motivation for training should be considered while establishing the need analysis. The training program should meet the employees’ need to induce employees’ motivation. There are so many techniques to collect the data for the assessment. These techniques include

Person analysis: This analysis includes dealing with the learner and instructor. Person analysis will answer the questions like who will receive and their level of knowledge, who will be the instructor. the training surveys, interviews, observations and customer comments.

Organizational analysis: This analysis is conducted to know the needs of business and other reasons for which training is required. The analysis of organization’s objectives, goals, and strategies. This analysis answers the questions like who has decided that the training is required, what problems are occurred for which training program is seen as important.

Work analysis: This is the analysis of task which has to be performed. This analysis includes the analysis of job and other requirements for performing a specific work. It also includes main duties of employees and skills level required.

Content analysis: The analysis of laws, procedures and document which are used on job comes under content analysis. This analysis answers the questions like what type of knowledge and information is used in the job for which training program has to create. The information for content analysis can be obtained from document and manuals.

Performance analysis: This analysis is conducted to get the answers to the question, are the employees performing up to the standards established by the managers. If the answer is ‘no’ then can the training be helpful to improve their performance.

Training sustainability analysis: This analysis tells weather the training is the best solution to solve the employee problem. Training may not be the best solution for this problem. It is very important to know if the training will be effective to develop the skills of employees. If the training program fails to meet the requirement then investment of the business in these programs will be waste of money.

Cost-Benefit analysis: This analysis is most important for an organization. Cost-benefit analysis tells that what will be the return of an investment. Effective training given to employees can give good return to the organization and can be seen in increment in productivity and organizational development.

Determine what training approach to use : What learning methods are needed?

Now, the training manager has all the information about who needs to be trained and in which area. The next step to create the training program is design. In this step, manager has to determine the training methodology which has to be used. There are many options by which training can be given to employees. Training can be given by seminars, classrooms, workshops, meetings, conferences and demonstrations.

Today, seminars are the popular amongst them. To train large group of employees, seminars are the most appropriate method of training. The benefits of this type of training are that they are usually given by experts of that field, they covers all the issues, the materials for training are provided, employee actually like to attend these seminars because that’s how they can get out of work for seminars.

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The main drawback of seminars are time and money that they require. Sometimes, employees are away from work for one or more days to attend the seminars. So, company has to pay for temporary replacement or hire temporary workers. The company also has to pay for seminars, travel and meal of employees.

Another drawback of this type of training is that materials are presented to a large number of audience in same pace and manner. All the audience may not be same. So, some audience may be bored after some time, while other are enjoying the seminar.

Programmed instructions are the alternative to seminars to overcome the pricing issue. Programmed instruction is the hard copy format of employees’ training. It is basically delivered through step-by-step booklet of the training material or by computer softwares. This type of training facilities the employees to go back as many times they needed and read the whole material of the course. They can progress their skills at their own pace.

The main drawback of this type of training is to purchase the whole material for all the employees. This can make the training program more costly.

Case studies is another alternative, where a case of a problem is given to employees. In this type of training, critical thinking of all group is discussed and they try to find the alternatives to solve that problem. The advantage of this type of training is that the issues addressed are specific to the company. This type of learning also increase the team spirit in the employees.

Putting together your own training program : What learning contents and resources are needed?

At this step, everything should be written down in documents. Documentation is most important for protection against lawsuits relating to employee relations. The materials which should be written are

Training objectives : It includes the identification of skills of learner, how training is to be conducted, the proficiency that need to be attained by the end of training session

Training material : Training material should be written down in the manner that is easy to understand and follow. It should be based on the skill level of learner. An instruction sheet should be prepared which include the skill title, who have to attend the training, when it has to be performed, what materials are required and most important step-by-step instruction.

Evaluation material : Evaluation materials are as important as the training materials. Evolution materials tells how everything is going. The evaluation material include evaluation forms for employees and employer, response form and evaluation procedures.

Training employees : Implementing the training program.

Now, the training manager has identified all the skills on which he has to focus, the employees who need training and the methodology that has to be used for training program. All the training material is in order. So, it’s time for implementing the program that is designed and developed in previous steps. If the previous steps that are analysis, design and development are done properly, then the implementation of the program should go smoothly. The learners need to know the objectives of training and how their progress will be monitored, what training methodologies are available and which one is better for them.

Time constraint is the issue that can fail the training program. Therefore, the schedule for training should be carefully made. One of the things to be considered is the training project should be placed in ideal time. If the training manager is dealing with the difficulty of scheduling, then he can opt alternatives like computer based training and off-hour training. He can also consider skill-based or professional enrichment over lunch-based training sessions that provide little instructions and meal to the employees at same time (Acevedo).

To overcome the cultural issues, top managers should observe the whole training procedures and training sessions.

Evaluation : Is the training program has meeting the needs of learner?

The keys which the instructor has to consider are

Are employees participating in the training?

The instructor should closely monitor the attendance and participation of each learner. The biggest problem in training program is that the employees do not want to attend the training. If the employees do not want to attend the training, then they need motivation for getting the training. Motivation is a psychological process that is goal directed. Motivating employees about training program is the essential part of the successful training program. The unmotivated employees may leave the training with little knowledge or enthusiasm. They may not well process the training material. The employer invest in training and development of their employees and hope that it will boost the profitability of the company and employees’ performance. There are many ways to motivate employees.

Offer incentives and rewards like vacation or raise in pay to the employees who perform well in training. Small success needs to be rewarded as stepping stones to a stronger self-image and greater achievements (Kreitner, Kinicki, Cole, Digby, & Koziol, 2010). It will motivate the employees to do well during training.

To check whether they are paying attention in training session, ask quiz to them. But let them know that there will be quiz after the training session. It will motivate them to pay attention during the class.

Let the employees have to perform tasks within the company that they are not trained to do. Allowing employees to face the task will motivate them to attend the training.

Ask employees that what type of training they want. Giving the opportunity to select the training will motivate them to attend the program.

Employees can also be motivated through goal setting. Goals are what an individual trying to accomplish (Kreitner, Kinicki, Cole, Digby, & Koziol, 2010). The goals motivate employees by directing attention, regulating efforts, increasing persistence, fostering strategies and action plans. The employer can set the goals strictly to motivate the employees. For example, employer can strictly order his employees to attend the training. Otherwise, they may lose the job.

Convey them the importance of successful training as a carrier booster for them. Employers invest on their employees to work well in their company. But there are chances of leaving the company for better opportunities. Letting them know that the skills which are presenting to them with are useful beyond employment in the company motivates them to take their career and training opportunities more seriously (Hudock).

Complex, challenging, and autonomous training may tend to enhance self-efficacy of the employees. On the other side boring, tedious training tend to do the opposite.

Is the instructor evaluating the quality of the activities and achievement of objectives?

The instructor has to collect feedbacks of every learner. He has to ask them questions like how well the information is presented, if they found the training helpful, if there any area that needs improvement, if there any other skill they need to improve.

What changes might be needed to the learning activities and materials?

Training plans are changing frequently with time. For example, if there is a new version of a computer software is launched then the employees who are working with that software, need training to upgrade their knowledge about that software.

Conclusion

Training and development is considered as a strategy for growth in every organization. It is adopted by the organization to fill the gap between skills and future opportunities. These training programs definitely enhance skills, improve efficiency, and productivity and growth opportunities for employees. Skills, knowledge and attitudes are the basics for efficient running of a business through the human resources of an organization. But, the impact of these basics is often reduced by lack of effective training program. Investment in employees’ development means increasing the value of the organization’s human resources. By improving the capabilities of employees, organizational capabilities can also be improved. In result, the structure of organization become flatter, in which there will be fewer levels between the top and the bottom employees. Many organizations provide coaching to their high-potential employees to develop their skills in creativity, thinking, innovation, vision, motivating others and brainstorming. Rather than putting the employees into management and expecting that they will develop their knowledge and skills on their own, organizations can systematically develop their skills through combination of training and development programs. To get better results from training programs, executives must focus on what happens in the workplace before and after employees go to class(DeSmet, McGurk, & Schwartz, 2010).

Evaluation of training must be appropriate for the persons and situations. The feedback from learners is important not only for instructors but also for confidence of the learner.

The world is changing very fast. New technologies are replacing traditional work methods with new form of work techniques which requires new types of skills. In this changing world training both physically, socially, mentally and intellectually are very essential for up gradation of not only the skills of employee but also of the organization. Employees’ training and development programs are the part of good management practices and good risk management strategies. Therefore, both employers and employees have responsibility for improving skills. Periodic training is very essential for every organization. For example, training might be required for a worker if a new machine is installed to upgrade a factory and that worker has to work with this machine. He will need training to learn everything about that machine. Training is a continuous and never ending process.

Training and development program are also very helpful to improve the self-efficiency of individuals. Self-efficiency is the belief in individual’s abilities to do a specific task. Studies show that self-efficiency is directly related to job performance. Self-efficiency can be improved by guided experiences, mentoring and role modeling. Employees can also get training for self-management, where they can systematically enhance their self-efficiency.

In human resource management, training and development is the field concerned with the activity of an organizations directed towards the improvement of an individual or a group. It is also known as human resource development.

Training and development contains three main activities: Training, education and development

Training: Training is the process of upgrading skills, capabilities and knowledge of an employee according the needs job not only for present but also for future. Training is very important for organizational development and success. Training can be given to staff by various methods like classrooms, workshops, meetings, conferences, demonstrations.

Education: Education is the training given to the employees to do a different job. It is often given to employees who have been identified as being promotable, being considered for a new job either lateral or upwards, or to increase their potential.

Development: Development is training given to employees to make them capable of thinking out of the box. It makes them more creative.

Current Issues

Many organizations are investing a big amount of money into the training and development of their employees. But they are facing so many issues to do it successfully. Some of the issues are

Unable to identify the specific needs of the learner : The biggest issue in training and development program is the training managers fail to identifying and assessing the real needs of the learner or employee. They don’t know what type of training should be provided to each and every individual.

Objectives set by trainers not by learner : Objectives are set by the managers. The training manager actually create the training program according to the needs of the organization. They do not know what the employees want or what they need. They just create a training program and ask the employees to join it.

Absence of policies and procedures : Training managers may lack the well created policies and procedures for the training programs. It may leads to the failure of it.

Training viewed as an event, not a process : Training is a process not an event and it should be ongoing and continuous with time. Skills of employees need to be upgraded time by time.

Failing to manage time for preparation and participating in learning events : The constraint of time is another factor that can fails a training program. Employees are unable to set their schedule according to their work and training. Most organizations can’t afford that their employees are away from their work for long time.

Culture : The culture comes from company’s management and leadership. If an employee thinks that the manager does not support the training initiatives, then the training program will fail (Pohl, 2009).

Lack of training personnel and materials : The organizations may lack tack skilled trainers who can create and present well-received training classes. Also, not all organizations can afford new technologies and study material to give training to their employees. In many cases, training materials may not be available for purchase until after a new product has been launched. Training may be delayed as the instructors must familiarize themselves with the subject matter and develop the needed training materials (Acevedo).

Employees are less motivated towards their self development : Employees may not be enthusiastic about required training courses. They think it is unnecessary and waste of time. They view the training programs as event rather than important process. Employees don’t know how important it is for themselves and for development of the company.

Implementation

While creating a successful training program, the training manager has to keep all the above issues in his mind. Otherwise, it will be the waste of money. He has to go step by step to make a better training program.

The creation of a successful training program should include the following steps:

Determine what training is needed: What do the learner needs to know to fulfill the job related tasks?

The first step in creating a training program in identifying the needs of the employees. What type of training the employees need, what are the requirements of the job, what are the future needs for that job. Each and every requirement should be fulfill. This can be done by establishing a need analysis. Employee’s motivation for training should be considered while establishing the need analysis. The training program should meet the employees’ need to induce employees’ motivation. There are so many techniques to collect the data for the assessment. These techniques include

Person analysis: This analysis includes dealing with the learner and instructor. Person analysis will answer the questions like who will receive and their level of knowledge, who will be the instructor. the training surveys, interviews, observations and customer comments.

Organizational analysis: This analysis is conducted to know the needs of business and other reasons for which training is required. The analysis of organization’s objectives, goals, and strategies. This analysis answers the questions like who has decided that the training is required, what problems are occurred for which training program is seen as important.

Work analysis: This is the analysis of task which has to be performed. This analysis includes the analysis of job and other requirements for performing a specific work. It also includes main duties of employees and skills level required.

Content analysis: The analysis of laws, procedures and document which are used on job comes under content analysis. This analysis answers the questions like what type of knowledge and information is used in the job for which training program has to create. The information for content analysis can be obtained from document and manuals.

Performance analysis: This analysis is conducted to get the answers to the question, are the employees performing up to the standards established by the managers. If the answer is ‘no’ then can the training be helpful to improve their performance.

Training sustainability analysis: This analysis tells weather the training is the best solution to solve the employee problem. Training may not be the best solution for this problem. It is very important to know if the training will be effective to develop the skills of employees. If the training program fails to meet the requirement then investment of the business in these programs will be waste of money.

Cost-Benefit analysis: This analysis is most important for an organization. Cost-benefit analysis tells that what will be the return of an investment. Effective training given to employees can give good return to the organization and can be seen in increment in productivity and organizational development.

Determine what training approach to use : What learning methods are needed?

Now, the training manager has all the information about who needs to be trained and in which area. The next step to create the training program is design. In this step, manager has to determine the training methodology which has to be used. There are many options by which training can be given to employees. Training can be given by seminars, classrooms, workshops, meetings, conferences and demonstrations.

Today, seminars are the popular amongst them. To train large group of employees, seminars are the most appropriate method of training. The benefits of this type of training are that they are usually given by experts of that field, they covers all the issues, the materials for training are provided, employee actually like to attend these seminars because that’s how they can get out of work for seminars.

The main drawback of seminars are time and money that they require. Sometimes, employees are away from work for one or more days to attend the seminars. So, company has to pay for temporary replacement or hire temporary workers. The company also has to pay for seminars, travel and meal of employees.

Another drawback of this type of training is that materials are presented to a large number of audience in same pace and manner. All the audience may not be same. So, some audience may be bored after some time, while other are enjoying the seminar.

Programmed instructions are the alternative to seminars to overcome the pricing issue. Programmed instruction is the hard copy format of employees’ training. It is basically delivered through step-by-step booklet of the training material or by computer softwares. This type of training facilities the employees to go back as many times they needed and read the whole material of the course. They can progress their skills at their own pace.

The main drawback of this type of training is to purchase the whole material for all the employees. This can make the training program more costly.

Case studies is another alternative, where a case of a problem is given to employees. In this type of training, critical thinking of all group is discussed and they try to find the alternatives to solve that problem. The advantage of this type of training is that the issues addressed are specific to the company. This type of learning also increase the team spirit in the employees.

Putting together your own training program : What learning contents and resources are needed?

At this step, everything should be written down in documents. Documentation is most important for protection against lawsuits relating to employee relations. The materials which should be written are

Training objectives : It includes the identification of skills of learner, how training is to be conducted, the proficiency that need to be attained by the end of training session

Training material : Training material should be written down in the manner that is easy to understand and follow. It should be based on the skill level of learner. An instruction sheet should be prepared which include the skill title, who have to attend the training, when it has to be performed, what materials are required and most important step-by-step instruction.

Evaluation material : Evaluation materials are as important as the training materials. Evolution materials tells how everything is going. The evaluation material include evaluation forms for employees and employer, response form and evaluation procedures.

Training employees : Implementing the training program.

Now, the training manager has identified all the skills on which he has to focus, the employees who need training and the methodology that has to be used for training program. All the training material is in order. So, it’s time for implementing the program that is designed and developed in previous steps. If the previous steps that are analysis, design and development are done properly, then the implementation of the program should go smoothly. The learners need to know the objectives of training and how their progress will be monitored, what training methodologies are available and which one is better for them.

Time constraint is the issue that can fail the training program. Therefore, the schedule for training should be carefully made. One of the things to be considered is the training project should be placed in ideal time. If the training manager is dealing with the difficulty of scheduling, then he can opt alternatives like computer based training and off-hour training. He can also consider skill-based or professional enrichment over lunch-based training sessions that provide little instructions and meal to the employees at same time (Acevedo).

To overcome the cultural issues, top managers should observe the whole training procedures and training sessions.

Evaluation : Is the training program has meeting the needs of learner?

The keys which the instructor has to consider are

Are employees participating in the training?

The instructor should closely monitor the attendance and participation of each learner. The biggest problem in training program is that the employees do not want to attend the training. If the employees do not want to attend the training, then they need motivation for getting the training. Motivation is a psychological process that is goal directed. Motivating employees about training program is the essential part of the successful training program. The unmotivated employees may leave the training with little knowledge or enthusiasm. They may not well process the training material. The employer invest in training and development of their employees and hope that it will boost the profitability of the company and employees’ performance. There are many ways to motivate employees.

Offer incentives and rewards like vacation or raise in pay to the employees who perform well in training. Small success needs to be rewarded as stepping stones to a stronger self-image and greater achievements (Kreitner, Kinicki, Cole, Digby, & Koziol, 2010). It will motivate the employees to do well during training.

To check whether they are paying attention in training session, ask quiz to them. But let them know that there will be quiz after the training session. It will motivate them to pay attention during the class.

Let the employees have to perform tasks within the company that they are not trained to do. Allowing employees to face the task will motivate them to attend the training.

Ask employees that what type of training they want. Giving the opportunity to select the training will motivate them to attend the program.

Employees can also be motivated through goal setting. Goals are what an individual trying to accomplish (Kreitner, Kinicki, Cole, Digby, & Koziol, 2010). The goals motivate employees by directing attention, regulating efforts, increasing persistence, fostering strategies and action plans. The employer can set the goals strictly to motivate the employees. For example, employer can strictly order his employees to attend the training. Otherwise, they may lose the job.

Convey them the importance of successful training as a carrier booster for them. Employers invest on their employees to work well in their company. But there are chances of leaving the company for better opportunities. Letting them know that the skills which are presenting to them with are useful beyond employment in the company motivates them to take their career and training opportunities more seriously (Hudock).

Complex, challenging, and autonomous training may tend to enhance self-efficacy of the employees. On the other side boring, tedious training tend to do the opposite.

Is the instructor evaluating the quality of the activities and achievement of objectives?

The instructor has to collect feedbacks of every learner. He has to ask them questions like how well the information is presented, if they found the training helpful, if there any area that needs improvement, if there any other skill they need to improve.

What changes might be needed to the learning activities and materials?

Training plans are changing frequently with time. For example, if there is a new version of a computer software is launched then the employees who are working with that software, need training to upgrade their knowledge about that software.

Conclusion

Training and development is considered as a strategy for growth in every organization. It is adopted by the organization to fill the gap between skills and future opportunities. These training programs definitely enhance skills, improve efficiency, and productivity and growth opportunities for employees. Skills, knowledge and attitudes are the basics for efficient running of a business through the human resources of an organization. But, the impact of these basics is often reduced by lack of effective training program. Investment in employees’ development means increasing the value of the organization’s human resources. By improving the capabilities of employees, organizational capabilities can also be improved. In result, the structure of organization become flatter, in which there will be fewer levels between the top and the bottom employees. Many organizations provide coaching to their high-potential employees to develop their skills in creativity, thinking, innovation, vision, motivating others and brainstorming. Rather than putting the employees into management and expecting that they will develop their knowledge and skills on their own, organizations can systematically develop their skills through combination of training and development programs. To get better results from training programs, executives must focus on what happens in the workplace before and after employees go to class(DeSmet, McGurk, & Schwartz, 2010).

Evaluation of training must be appropriate for the persons and situations. The feedback from learners is important not only for instructors but also for confidence of the learner.

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