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Training is the process of learning that involves knowledge acquisition, sharpening of skills, concepts; it changes the attitudes and behavior of employees towards work and hence enhances the performance of employees which ultimately leads to high productivity and quality performance of the organizations. The concept of training and development changed a lot during 1990s and 2000s, contributing to high employee’s performance and meeting organizations goal. As training involves designing and supporting learning activities to achieve certain level of performance where as development refers to the long term growth and learning, focusing the attention on what the employees may need to know or do at some future time. The focus of training is on currents job, tasks and responsibilities where as development refers to future job development (David, 1999). In this context training and development is important for the organizations that aim to have a competitive advantage, high productivity and qulality performance through highly skilled, trained and flexible workforce. As the skilled and trained employees can increase productivety by performing higher level of work with grater value and efficiency. Similarly the skilled and trained workforce can improve an organization’s operative flexibility due to their broad knowledge of multi skills. This helps the management to introduce new technology and change production methods. As it is correctly stated that in the current competive climate efficient production even of technically unsophisticated products benefits from technically advanced machinery operated by a workforce with a high level of skills Another important aspect of training and development is that it leads to job satisfaction, employee commitment and motivation as emplyees should be considered as valued assest, a source of competitive advantage through their commitment, adaptability and quality of skills and performance (Juliana S,2004).
2.Purpose Of Training and Development For Employees:
For employees training is one of the most important strategy to gain proper knowledge and skills needed to meet the environmental challenges. Employee training and development cannot be just attained by attending seminars and learning about the latest equipment, it requies proper planing to create a nurturing, supportive workplace, where the employees can gain at the maximum and can know about the latest techniques and methds to meet the challenges of the rapidly changing technology and business processes.
Well trained, qualified employees are an asset for the orgnaization as they contribute in determining long term profitability of the business trhrough their skills. As training is not just for new employees on job and continuous training and development is necessary for individual and organizational performance. The purpose of traning and development should be to encourage creativity, inventiveness and shape the organizational knowledge so that the employees can differentiate their company from others and make it unique. It is a fact that none of the organizations can hire people with all the expertise and knowlelge of business processes required for carrying out various functions, it is the systematic process of trainig and development of personel that contributes to the attainment of organizational goals and challenges (Jelena VemiÄ‡, 2007). According to American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) president and Chief Executive Officer, business is investing more in training and development than ever before. According to ASTD 1996 companies have realized that a well trained workforce leads to competitiveness. The greater the organizations want excellence the more imminent the employees training becomes. In the organizations where information is not propagated through training and development lead to little or no performance. (Isiaka Sulu Babaita, 2010). The results of significant training and development have moved average performers to efficient performers as the following diagram shows:
Source: (Mike Sondalini 2007)
Reasons for emphasizing training and development programs for personnel in todays business world includes:
To readily create a pool for available and adequate replacement of personnel who may be leaving or moving up in the organization.
To help improve the company’s ability to adopt new and advanced technology because of highly knowledgeable and trained staff.
Training and deveolpent programs contributes to a more efficient, effective and highly motivated team, which enhances the company’s competitive position and improves employee morale.
Training and development programs motivates employees to develop a greater sense of self-worth, dignity and well-being.
It ensures adequate human resources for expansion into new programs.
Training and development help employees to learn how to use the resources in an approved fashion that allows the organization to reach its desired output.
More over the purpose of employee training and development should not only be attainment of new knowledge, abilities and skills but it should be ensured this program develops entrepreneurship, encourages employees to adapt to new changes according to their attitudes and they should be involved in the process of decision making so that they can contribute more to the organizations in the most effective way (Jelena VemiÄ‡, 2007)
3.Purpose Of Trainig and development For Organization:
According to Cascio (1989) training and development is a package consisting of planned programs designed to enhance performance at the individual, group and at organizational levels. The process of training and development in any organization is aimed at solving significant problems, proper analysis of its contribution to the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization and an aid in adjusting to work environment that can increase the capacity of individual or group in contributing to the attainment of the organizational goals (Isiaka Sulu Babaita, 2010). Training and development programs in an organization lead to increased productivity, it reduces the employee turnover, and it enhances the employees efficiency resulting in financial gains. The figure shows how training and development programs are interlinked with the business environment, changes and challenges, the learning process and ultimately resulting in business excellence.
According to Daniel (2003) training should not be taken as a luxury or a remedy to train weak employees, it should not act as a group of physicians who minister organizational ills, but it should act as an agent of change. Further the training unit should understand the strategic directions of the organization and its core functions and design and implement the training session accordingly and should move the employees in direction incompliance with its core values. In the current scenario the organizations have realized the importance of training and development and shifted their thinking accordingly. It is evident to the organizations that training is where skills are developed; attitudes of employees towards are changed, ideas are evolved and organizations are reinvented. Training and learning new skills will increase the sales build effective and efficient team, improve the quality, standards of work and meet a broader range of objectives hence creates a new organizational culture. Training and development has grown its concerns not only to help individuals to improve their skills, enhance their knowledge, but also helps whole organizations and sub departments grow and develop (Isiaka Sulu Babaita, 2010)
4.Companies Using Training And Develpoment Program:
Siemens is one of the leading technology business and one of the largest electrical and electronics engineering companies in the world. Siemens understands the fact that for a business to be competitive, it is important that it has the right number of people with the right skills in the right jobs. For this purpose it carries on work force planning that enables it to audit its employees, their skills and identifies the areas where their is a skills gap necessary for its objectives. As Siemens has a business focused on innovation therefore it needs to anticipate and respond rapidly to external business environment such as climatic change. To tackle with the climatic changes and other internal business changes Siemens either recruit new employees with the required skills or train the existing employees to develop their skills in order to fulfill their business demands. Siemens train their employees either by providing on job training or by off job training. Further siemens has three main development programs for the entry level people who start their careers with siemens, who are benefited from the training and educational programs to enhance their skills required by the company. These programs are:
Siemens Commercial Academy
Siemens Graduate Programmes
An appraisal system named as Performance management Process is used by Siemens to measure the effectiveness of its training and development program, this process helps to focus everyone on the developing needs of the business. There are several benefits for Siemens in using appraisal. It can
Ensure that all training is being used well and for the best interests of the company
Keep all staff up-to-date in a fast changing business
Make sure that staff is well motivate
Get feedback from staff on changes
Make sure staff is involved in changes.
Siemens needs motivated and well trained staff that have up to date skills in order to be competitive, as it understands the fact that well trained staff is an asset to the company therefore provides its staff with a learning environment where they not only enhance their knowledge but also sharp their skills. (http://www.thetimes100.co.uk/case-study–training-development-strategy-for-growth–89-335-1.php)
4.2Case study Of Nestle:
Nestlé is today the world’s leading food company, with a 135-year history and operations in virtually every country in the world. The most important parts of Nestlé’s business strategy and culture are the development of human capacity in each country where they operate. Learning is an integral part of Nestlé’s culture. The policy deals with recruitment, remuneration and training and development and emphasizes individual responsibility, strong leadership and a commitment to life-long learning. Nestlé’s principle is that each employee should have the opportunity to develop to the maximum of his or her potential. As it pays off in the long run in their business results, and that sustainable long-term relationships with highly competent people and with the communities where they operate enhance their ability to make consistent profits. It is important to give people the opportunities for life-long learning as at Nestle that all employees are called upon to upgrade their skills in a fast-changing world.
4.2. Training Programs at Nestlé:
Nestle provide different training programmes to train its staff to be benefited of their skills and abilities. Therefore the willingness to learn is an essential condition to be a part of Nestlé. The employees are given on job training. It is the responsibility of the concerned manager to guide and coach the trainees and ensure the staff makes progress in his/ her position.
Most of Nestlé’s people development programs assume a good basic education on the part of employees therefore the company provides the employees the opportunity to upgrade their essential literacy skills. A number of Nestlé companies have therefore set up special programs for those who missed a large part of their elementary schooling.
Nestlé Apprenticeship Program
Apprenticeship programs have been an essential part of Nestlé training where the young trainees spent three days a week at work and two at school.
As two-thirds of Nestlé’s employee work in factories therefore they are being trained on the continuous basis to meet the business needs. Further a number of nestle operating companies run their own residential training centers. Local training is the largest component of Nestle and nearly 240000 employees get training every year. It is the responsibility of the manager to provide appropriate and continuous training to the employees, for this reason the managers are also provided training to enhance their coaching skills. (http://www.mbaknol.com/management-case-studies/case-study-of-nestle-training-and-development/)
The methods chosen to train the employees should motivate the employees to learn, help them retain and transfer what they have learned and enhance performance with other skills and knowledge. There are two broad types of training which most of the organizations adopt to train their new and existing employees:
On the job training
Off the job training
On job trainnig program is for the emplyees who perform their jobs regularly. Its a time saving technique as the employees are in the process of learning while they are on job. In this type of trainig a plan is developed about what should be the employees taught, to involve the emplyees to participate actively they should be in formed about the details, in short a plan layout should be communicated. Futher the on job techniques include orientations, job instruction training, apprenticeships, internships and assistantships, job rotation and coaching.
Off-the-job training is the employee training at a site away from the actual work environment.this technique includes lectures, special study, films, television conferences or discussions, case studies, role playing, simulation, programmed instruction and laboratory training. (http://www.zeromillion.com/business/personnel/employee-training.html)
Training evalution is the proces of evaluating the training program and should be an integral part of the training program as it checks whether the desired results are achieved or not. And ensures wheether the employees are able to immplment their learning to the work place or not .
6.1.Purposes of Training Evaluation
The five main purposes of training evaluation are:
It helps in giving feedback to the emplyees defining the objectives and linking to learning outcomesof the training program
It helps to ascertain the relationship between acquired knowledge, transfer of knowledge at the work place, and training.
It helps to control and alter training program because if the training is not effective, then it can be dealt with accordingly.
It helps to determine that whether the actual outcomes are aligned with the expected results of the trainig.
It can be concluded that trainig and development programs are essential for all type of organizations and for all employees, as it enhances the skills and knowledge of the employees which ultimately results in high performance and increases organizations productivity. There major outcomes of training and development programs are that the emplyees who are trained requires lesser super vission than the employee who is yet qualified but not trained. Training is a source of increasing employees confidence in carying out any task with efficiecy and more accurcy. Similarly the orgnaizations which invest in their employees tend to have more productivity and have lower employee turnover. Although training costs money and time but ultimately it benefits the organizations with highly skilled workforce and high performance leading to high profits.
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