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Organizations today are influenced by many factors attempt to achieve a goal or gain a reputation. Dwyer (2005) explains that “effective and efficient communication is just as essential to the successful operation of any organisation” .Indeed, communication is used frequently in almost every aspect of business, such as: in meetings, discussions, interviews, e-mail or teleconferencing. Pomeroy (2006) also explains that successful company practice great communication. Based on some previous literature study, In order to face the uncertainty change and need of organization, communication becomes one of the most important competences to use in workplace. Additionally, organizational communication refers to communication climate as a whole of organization and the use of different instruments for communication. It can decidedly affect the quality of relationship and organization`s effectiveness. A positive communication climate may contains many Factors, such as the climate that mutual trust, effective communication mechanism, praise each other, humors, Mind magnanimous and sincere and the mentality of communication. On the contrary, a negative communication climate may contains many barriers, such as personal barriers, physical barriers and language barriers.
‘Communication is a conscious or unconscious, intentional or unintentional process in which feelings and ideas are expressed as verbal and nonverbal messages; sent, received and comprehended'(Berko, Wolvin & Wolvin ,1998).
Verbal communication can be defined as a way for people to communicate face to face or communicating people`s thoughts through words. It is an ability that every one should develop to improve interactions and relationships. Yoder et al. (1996) define non-verbal communication as ‘all non-language aspects of communication behaviour’. Some key aspects of nonverbal communication are: proxemics, artifacts kinesics, oculesics, haptics, vocalics, and chronemics.
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Putnam and Cheney (1985) define communication climate as “the atmosphere in an organization regarding accepted communication behaviour.”Usually use supportive and defensive communication climate as distinction for the key factors in the communication climate (Hoof &Ridder, 2004). A supportive climate is nonjudgmental so that the other person does not feel defensive by communication. It encourages open, constructive, honest and effective interaction. Defensive climate can define as makes the other person feel self-protective and leads to competitive or destructive conflict. Therefore, the competent communicators will attempts to maintain a supportive communication climate. According to Dr. Gibb (1961) describes six dimension of behaviour to warm up or chill the communication climate (See Appendix A). The pole of these dimensions creates a defensive climate and supportive climate. They applied equally in every small group.
Positive communication climate
A positive communication climate is very important to the people, so how to build a positive communication climate.
1. Creating the organizational climate that mutual trust
There is a well-known bank, the managers of the bank decentralized to the middle-level employees that they can spend enough money to marketing which they don’t have to care. Some people may worry that(Joyce E. Bono; Hannah Jackson Foldes,2007) the employees will overspend, but in fact that the employees did not overspend, but to maintain a lot of customers. In contrast, some managers see the money very strict, they fear that other people overspend, but the employees are in the dark by all means seeking their own interests. In another company, the manager’s office is placed in an open hall the same as the general staff so that every general staff can see what the manager is doing. When the staff went out to buy daily office supplies, in addition to normal claims, the company also paid a number of additional hard costs, this move put an end to the employees who want to get virtual sham. In this two cases we can see that mutual trust for each member organization is very important.
2. Establish an effective communication mechanism
Understanding and trust is not empty talk, sometimes a small misunderstanding may caused endless trouble. There is an employee who wants to resign, but the manger said: you shouldn’t leave, you are so outstanding, what I did before is just want to exercise you. However, the employee thought what the manger said is just a pack of lies. He dedicated (Yoder, D., Hugenberg, L. & Wallace, S. 1996) himself to work, but the incomes he gets are less than the bootlicker. The manger would like to reuse the talent; the enterprise wants to play to their talents, but just because the poor communication, the all get nothing. So establish an effective communication mechanism is very important to a company.
3. Praise each other
Praise is almost a well-tested communication lubricant. In this world, there is on person who don’t like to preceiving recognition, so iinstitute of praise will be smooth sailing in any communication.
4. Communicate with humours
Humours not only are the steps to harmony and a springboard for dialogue, but also a panacea for resolving the conflict. The ugliest girl in the class walked onto the stage that runs for the Class Flower, she said to the female students: Please vote for me, after a few years, you can say to your boyfriend pointing at me, look! I am more beautiful than the classes flower. So, she was unanimously elected. Humour can be a miracle to make the impossible possible.
5. Mind magnanimous and sincere
Many entrepreneurs (Ali D Akkirman and Drew L Harris,2005) like to entertain customers in bathing place, because that can get a closer relationship with customers, in the bathing place people meet all sincerity, no one will put on airs. This is also a non-verbal signals, a number of non-verbal signals used by Human beings are all in this intention, such as salute, handshake are all in order to communicate with each other that they do not have a weapon.
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6. Adjust the mentality of communication
With the rapid develop of the modern communication technology and information networks, the way of people communicate are more and more manifold. Even if two people far apart, communication between them will be fairly easy. On the surface, The communication between people is indeed more frequent. But in fact, most of the communication has become a the surface behaviour that driven by material interests of society, which the effect can be imagined. But most people in modern company lack of a sincere attitude of communication. So the organization communicator of modern enterprises should not only do business operation procedures of communication, but also should pay attention to the hearts of communication between members.
There is such a case: The management of a factory hope that the staff can bring coffee their own, and in order to save time, they hope the staff can drink coffee not in coffee shops, but beside the machine. The company has been very frank and candid. In the staff meeting, The management had shown the electricity consumption tables of the factory, the tables illustrate that when the staff drink coffee in the coffee shops, the factory will waste much electricity. They give this case in order to proved prolonged work stoppage would result in loss of profits. So the staff readily accepted the new rest system finally. This case illustrates that in an organization, communication has its essential value. It is need to communicate to disseminate information and exchange ideas between Management and management, management and staff or staff and staff. Information transfer between people is to communicate, and the goal is to make the recipient understand the meaning of information. Managers and team leaders to convey the instructions, Colleagues Grasp the progress of work each other, no matter upper and lower layers or the same layers, they all must take the power of communication to ensure the normal operation of collaborative work so that ensure the members within the organization can keep dynamic link with others, and the overall and promote the development of the organization.
Negative communication climate
There is a case that shows the negative communication climate: Damian (accounting manager) and Jenny (marketing director) interviews with a number of audit positions of candidates together. Then they and three other department heads together to determine the final candidates, when Jenny proposed that a candidate’s shortcomings what she had seen, Damian immediately sharply questioned Jenny’s ability to evaluation of audit skills, Jenny is natural felt very angry about the attack by Damian. Although Damian apologized to Jenny and said she was very remorseful about this matter, but Jenny has been brooding on this matter. This case shows that negative communication climate will do great harm to relationships.
Even if the receiver can receive the information, various kinds of interference will limit the understanding of information. These barriers like noise, it will obstacles to communicate, It may occur in the physical environment, or arising from personal emotions. Noise will make communication can not be entirely, or filter out some of the content, or distorted information intended. There are three types of communication disorders (Daisy Saunders,2007): personal barriers, physical barriers and language barriers
Personal barriers is due to people’s feelings, values, or bad listening habits which caused communication barriers, It also includes the level of their education, race, gender, socio-economic status, and other communication barriers. Personal barriers often associated with the psychological distance between the people. It is very similar to the actual physical distance. For example, A talk to B with domineering tone, which makes B very offensive. The offensive has led to the psychological distance between the two.
Physical barriers refers (M. Sandy Hershcovis; Nick Turner; Julian Barling; Kara A,2007) that the barriers present in the environment of communication. A typical physical barrier is that the noise suddenly appears which interferences the talk. Other physical barriers include the distance between people and so on. When the physical barriers appear, people will realize and take appropriate measures to compensate.
In the language of communication, Team members from different cultural backgrounds because used to using the different mother tongue, which lead to language difficulties. It indeed exist communication problems in a multicultural cross-cultural team. Even if team members can keep using a common language, such as English, However, for those team members who are not native to that language, They express the feeling in the team communication is often not in place. This will cause misunderstanding with other team members. In addition, the members affected with different cultural backgrounds, they may have different ideas, ways of thinking and world view. So the language barriers will be more obvious in team.
A pleasant working atmosphere is a very important factor for highly efficient team work, positive communication climate played a significant role on improving the motivation of employee. Therefore, if managers can master the skills to create positive communication climate, and used it in their own work, then the manager will be able to identify the behaviour is efficiency or not, and be able to change it effectively so that can efficient and easy to get creative achievements. Positive communication climate not only can bring to the enterprise the smooth flow of information, but also provide basic protection for the organization’s decision-making and execution. All organizations should be fully aware of the importance of positive communication climate, and eliminate the obstacles blocking, finally reached a good communication environment
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