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Untill recently talents or employees can join an organization with the expectation of staying there for their entire career, now life long careers are a thing of the past. Employees lacking worldly experience and understanding still believe that they are immune to the ongoing reductions because they are doing a good work and adding value to the organization. However rapid technological change, increasing completion, relentless restructuring and downsizing mean that high performance no longer protects the employees form the termination or dismissal. People increasingly will move from one opportunity to another opportunity without regard to the traditional job boundaries.
Realistic career planning forces employees to foresee problems and opportunity and to be proactive. Career planning and development involves two process of career planning and career management. Career management is integral to Human Resources planning. But Human Resources planning and career management do not exist or are not integrated in some organization.
Career planning and development should be seen as a process that aligns the skills and interets of the employees with the need of the organization. This means that career must be strategically managed so the skills that are demanded by the organization strategic business objectives are understood and a workforce with a matching profile of skills is developed. Career planning and development play an important role in ensuring that the organization has a knowledgeable workforce together with a competitive advantage.
Human Resources planning and career planning and development
The important reasons why organisation and employees are paying more attention to career planning is because there are EEO legislation and AA pressures,employees educational level and aspirations are rising, employees are more concern about their quality of life, employees are transiting from vertical careers to lateral careers and a global talent war is created by the shortage of skilled workers.
Components of Career planning http://www.docstoc.com/docs/8714685/Career-Planning-1
The Goal: Matching individual and Organization needs
A career development program should be viewed as a dynamic process that matches the needs of the needs of the orgazation with needs of employees.
Each and every employee should be concerned about his her own career planning and development, but many employees ignore this , preferring it to leave it to the organisation.By adopting such a passive stance employees give up their future career by limiting their future employability.This reduces the employees chances of achieving their career goals.Therefore employees has to take initiate in finding such oppurtunities and ways for career planning and development.
Though some of the organisation provide in house traning and develop, this is often provided for the purpose of the organisation’s needs and not for the needs of the individual employees.Individula career planning menas that employee him/herself should find his/her own vocational interests,weakness present skills, ability levels and finally the career goal.
The Organizational role http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/shengvn-65920-session-8-career-development-education-ppt
Effective and proactive HR manger will recognize the importance of the career planning and development and will satisfy the organizational and employees needs.If the HR department is fully awrae of the organisation HR needs,career chances and traning and development oppurtunities than the HR department is well placed to promote career planning amoung employees
- Current competencies Employee turnover
- Future competencies Absenteeism
- Market changes Talent pool
- Mergers, etc Outsourcing
- Joint ventures Productivity
- Career stage
- Family concerns
- Education and training
- Spouse employment
- Promotion aspirations
- Mobility Performance
- Outside interest
- Current career path
What is career development?
Career development is which an individual takes personal improvements which he/she undertakes to achieve a personal career plan.Career development is also important for the organisation to create and maintain a continuos learning environment.
Factors in career development
For a successful career development and growth include the following important factors.
Exposure: if the employee wants to succed, the employee has to become known to the top or the senior management.Employees can be known to the senior management through performing superior work performance, giving presentations, report writing, taking initiate in and involveing organizations special events in organisng and arranging them in addition individually involveling company training and development programmes and social events.
Performance: Employees who perform the job up to the management expectation will be well recognized by the department heads and the senior management, but employees who performa badly will also be rescognised but for the career development oppurtunities are less likely to be offred to them.
Qualification: Strong correlation exsists between graduate earnings and the experience and the konledge that they have.
Employer reputation: Some organisation have an strong reputation that is well known around the globe as breeding ground for high potential employees.Therefore employees getting a job in these companies will be an important factor for a successful career and for a long term employability.
Mentor: Successful managers will have a mentor or a sponsor who helps advance their career by offering advice, providing instructions and opening career oppurtunities.
Benefits of Menotoring
Mentoring provides the structure for the groeth and development of all employees within an organisation.
Mentoring plays an important role in motivating the employees and improves the employees job satisfaction.
Mentoring also helps to impress the corporate values of the organisation.
Mentoring also helps to avoid discrimination over women by helping them to overcome the gender related barriers to advancement.
Helps companies and organisation to encourage and capitalize on diversity by identifying talents.
Women sometimes find them excluded from mentoring, this is because mentoring is repetadly or frequently based on personal relationships that is built outside the working hours.
Development: Rapid expansion of skills and knowledge makes the employee more valuable, where the employee will be more attracted and appreciated by the management.
Language skills: The internationalization of business and the development of global business, business organisation’s seeks employees that not only speak English fluently but competency in a second language, and the more languge the employee know the more the better.
Networking: It is extremely important for the employee to maintain or build a network of contacts with the people who are likely to be useful for the his/her career devellopement.
Goal setting: A succeseeful career planners are extremely self motivated.The have pre identified what goels they need to achieve and what they have to do to reach and achieve it.
Computer skills: Computer literacy is an important skill, having that far better than other l is a competitive advantage amoung other employees.Intodays world high skilled employees must be “technology capable”.
Fainacial planning skills: To savvy employees understand that there is no life long employement gurantees.
Apperance: Apperaence plays an important role in compensation and career success.
Factors involved in career development system
In this step it defines the present system.It involves conducting a needs assessment as in a training programmes. It estabilhes roles and responsibilities of all employees and the organization.By identifying the needs it helps to establish, the target groups,mission or philosophy of the programe,cultural parameters, determine organisation receptivity and commitment and support for the career development.
The career system need to have a relation with the intervention. The vision creates a longterm philosophy.
Design intervention for the organization, its employees and managers.
Organize and make nessecary career information that is required to support the programme.
Establish the objectives of the programme.
To achieve the vision an action plan must be developed.And also the top management support is nessecarily important.
Create a survey programme
Establish a consultancy or advisory group.
Asses’ resources and competencies.
Involving the advisory group in the programme design, implementation, and for the evaluation and monitoring.
Identifying Career Opportunities and Requirements
Begin with competency analysis
It is important for any organisation to learn its jobs carefully in order to identify and assign weights to the knowledge and skills each one requires.This can be achived with job analysis and evaluation systems such as those used in compensation programs.The system used at sears measures three basic competencies for each job, such as the know-how, problem solving and accountability.Know how is divided in to three respective categories of knowledge: technical, managerial and human relations.Problem solving and accountability also have different types of dimensions.The scores of each of the above competencies are assigned to each job and total value is accumulated for each job.
Identifying Job Progressions
Once the skill demands of jobs are identified and weighted according to their improvement , it than possible to to plan job progressions. Employees without any experience (new employees) will typicall assign a starting job. When the employee get experience from the current job, than the new employee can be promoted to a post that requires more knowledge and skill. most organization concentrate on developing job progression for managerial, professional and technical jobs.But these organizations also can develop job progression to types of jobs.When job progressions are develop it serve as a baisi for developing the career paths of the individual employees. Organisation can also make informative and attractive brouchers providing information in regarding the career paths that are available in the organisation for the employees.
Recognize lots of possibilities
Career development and planning systems were once primaly focused on promotions and advancement. However in todyas ever changing business ennviroment and the flatter o organizations and employees career development can occur in several different ways, which includes transfer to a from one place to another, demotion due to lack of competence and experience and job promotion to a better position or to a senior position within the organization. To provide the above possibilities HR policies have to be flexible enough to adapt and willing to help to support the career change.
Promotion is the change from the current position to a position that is high level within the organisation assigned with more responsibilities. The position that was promoted provides the employee lots of benefits based on the responsibilities; it increases the pay, R&R etc.The three principal criteria for determimg promotions are merit, seniority and potential.
A transfer is the placement of an employement of an employee in another job for which the duties,responsibilities, status and renumerations are approximately equal to those of the previous job.A transfer can provide an individual to prepre for an eventual promotion.Trasfers make the path way for the employees to aquire more knowledge by tranfering from one organisation to another, to a different group, transferring to aboard or work shift.A transfer can also be a demotion, which the employee moves to a low level postion from the current position that can provide development oppurtunities.
Relocation services include a range of internal business process that the HR department engage to transfer the employee, employees famility or the entire department to new work location.Relocation also include help in moving, selling a home, learning a new culture etc.
Outplacement is type counseling that is given help the employees that are terminated to locate or find a new career.The consultation provided by the consultant vary but it includes, career evaluation, termination procedures , phycological appraisals, interview traning preparing resumes, certain techniques to search for jobs etc.
As more women are entering the workforce HR managers has to develop specific policies and programmes for accomodationg the dual career aspirations of employees and their spouces.HR mangers has to particularly pay attention to the implications of an employed spouse when providing career counseling to an employee.Dual career couples need to be flexible , to be mutually committed to both careers to adopt coping mechanisums to develop the skills of career planning.Therefore inturn organisation can provide flexible work schedules, effective career management, counseling, child care support etc.
Career plateau menas that high points in ones career where the probability and the motivation is minimal.When this happens the employees finds it difficult or trapped which it unables to achieve further advancement.If an employee is avoide plateauing it is difficult for the employee to get adapated and develop in the face of change or transition.
Intodays’ business environment employees are now reaching pletaues earlier than before, it is extremely important for the organizations and individuals today to prepare to cope with the phenomenon successfully.and most importantly when there is sign of impending plateuea are observed. Significant decline in the competiveness is less if the organisation accept responsibility for employee development and if the employees are willing to invest time for their development.
Work family conflict
Work family conflict is commonly exsisting isn dual-income family and single parent family.People today are facing problem in identifying the deffrence or what is meant bu success and how to balance work and family.Specially for women it is difficult to balance the work and family responsibilities because the job demand competes with the traditional family demand being the mother, wife etc.Other than women, men also face the same problem if they place the family first, therefore they have to face lots of problem with their co-workers and with the company. http://www.scribd.com/doc/18002097/Career-Planning-and-Development
What is career management?
Career management is the process of designing and implementing goals, plans and strategies to enable the organization to fulfill the employee needs which this allows the individual employees to achieve their career goals. It is also the process whereby the employee indentify their own interest values and their own weakness and strengths And also the individuals establish action plans to achieve their career goals. .In today’s global world each and every organization felt the need of career planning and development. The reason why career management is important because if the organization fails to motivate their employees to plan their career, the organization will face the following issues, such as loss or shortage of employees to fill the vacant positions, commitment by the employees become lower and high training cost.
The career management process includes:
Self assesement: employees determine the values, interests,aptitudes and dehaviroual tendencies.The self assessment is uaully involves phsycological tests.
Reality check: Using the available information employees identify how the organisation or the company evaluate their skills and knowledge and where they fit in the companys plan.
Goal setting: in this process employees establish and develope longterm and short term onjectives.
Action plan: After the individual establish his/her goal, the individual developes an actional plan determimg how they will achieve their short and long term career goals.
Employee role in career mangement
The employees individually has to initiative to ask for feedback from managers and peers in regarding their skill in the work place and their strengths and weaknesses. This will help the individual employees to further improve their performance where improvements is needed.
The employees have to seek challenges by gaining exposure to a range of learning opportunities.
The employee has to Interact with employees from different work groups and organizations inside and outside the company environment.
The employees has to create visibility through good performance skills
HR managers role in career management
The HR manager to provide relevant information to the employees in regarding the training and development opportunities that are available in the organization.
The HR manager has to help the employees for to search for jobs.
The HR manger is responsible to provide counseling services to the employees who have career related problems.
Organization role in Career mangement
Oraganizations or companies are responsible to provide nessecary resources needed by the employees for their career planning.
Career planning workshops
Workshops offer similar experiences that are provided in the workbooks.Comparing to workbooks, workshop has several advantages to employees, such as the employees has the chance to dicuss their ideas, concerns, attitudes and plans with others in similar situations.Diffrent workshops has different focus. Some workshops focus on the employees current job performance and development plans.And some focus on broader life and career plans and values.Career workshops assit the employees to learn how to make decisions, find career planning information, set career goals and bbuild confidence and self esteem within the employees.
Career planning workbooks
These workbooks are prepared by the organization to guide their employees through systematic self estemm of values,abilities, personal development plans and interests.
Career counseling is usually done by HR department. Career counseling involves talking with employees with their personal interests and goals, about their current job activities, their personal skills and career development objectives.In some organization career conselling is done annually and partially.Career counseling is usually voluntary.
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