The reason for this assignment is to assess Organisational performance by looking some factors and barriers in the context of the management study. Barclays and Lehmans case is included by research and theories of organizational behaviour and its effect is used in this assignment. The research finally suggests that innovative and corporate system is related to the management; that when the organizational behaviour is less courteous, more decentralized and integrated, management effective activities is more favourable; and that management style is positively related to Operational effectiveness. Hence these calculated results do vote the process oriented view and points out that social mixing performs as the merging part in between organisational climate, organisational infrastructure, and knowledge handling. This process based on empirical evidence supports the view that social relations and shows organizational climate, organizational structure, and arbitrate between knowledge management does.
Organizational behaviour of those thoughts, feelings, emotions, and in the creation of a work is concerned with actions. Understand individual behaviour is a challenge, but an understanding group behaviour in organizational environment management is a monumental managerial task. According to Gary Johns, the organization "through the efforts of communities outside the group for emulation purposes as a statement means that as a group of organizations on a wide variety of people or groups, schools, religious to meet as from social to invent a special purpose. institutions, hospitals, government business and so on.
Basic elements in Organizational behaviour:
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â€¢ People: make the organization's internal and social system. They consist of individuals and groups. Groups large or small, formal or informal, can be public or private. Group dynamic and their work in this company.
â€¢ Structure: formal relations of organizations explains. Organization with different types of work to different people according to their line needs to be relevance.
â€¢ Technology, technology, machines and work processes, who will perform work and deliver its effect on resources. Technology always working relationship is a big influence. This allows people and any additional work is good, but limited staff similar "to.
â€¢ Environment: All organizations are working within the external environment. It is part of a comprehensive system of government such as family and other organizations, many other elements. All of which is a complex system affect one another
Key Factors of Successful performance:
Factors which can be considered the complete performance of work are likely to determine the successful performance of work Organisation is mentioned below:
1. Employee Engagement
3. Encourage employee
4. Time Management
5. Goal formation
6. Goal formation
Most Important factors have been detailed described below:
1: Employee Engagement:
Employee participation in organizations is considered popular. Level organization to promote engagement initiative is launched. Some of these dedicated human resources staff to handle important dimension. . The Conference Board in USA in its 2006 publication, a review and implications of research staff unions described. "A strong emotional connection that an employee organization seems to be more discretionary effort from employees in his practice work to be done".
1.1 Employee engagement and satisfaction:
Engagement is about passion and commitment-the willingness to invest oneself and expand one's discretionary effort to help the employer succeed, which is beyond simple satisfaction with the employment arrangement or basic loyalty to the employer Therefore, the full engagement equation is obtained by aligning maximum job satisfaction and maximum job contribution. Stephen Young, the executive director of Towers Perrin, also distinguishes between job satisfaction and engagement contending that only engagement (not satisfaction) is the strongest predictor of organizational performance.
1.2 Key Drives of employee engagement:
Engaging employees is important for organizations today because what extent an employee is emotionally attached to this organization and to get emotional about his work indicates. Building a committed and loyal staff about today's challenges will help. Grace White 2008 Employee Engagement survey, enter some key drivers of employee commitment:
â€¢ career development opportunities and training
â€¢ More difficult work
â€¢ a work and career goals more clearly about
â€¢ the organization's employees expect more clearly
â€¢ better collaboration between partners
â€¢ More say in how work is
â€¢ better relations with Iran
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Scholars defined communication as linking function between two or more persons. People can reach others community by their thoughts, feelings, ideas and values. According to this theory, 'bridge' using people misunderstanding ", cross the river safely, sometimes they are different, the above approach and attitude expressed by scientists shows that the transfer of information by any person (or group) must interact with.
To avoid confusion to the theoretical description of these contacts, send and receive messages for a better, is a process.
2.1: Business Communication
Generally, 'business name is a dialogue with corporate communications. In this sense, normal conversation is a specific branch. Process, types, methods, etc. are the same as normal conversation. Only difference between the status of application. Generally trade, sale, or goods or services produced or created wealth limit, cause-related activities. However, commercial activity for personal use things not within the jurisdiction refused to production goals.
Such information in a business environment just as closed circuit flows can be described. Owner of a company and TS in each of our clients a firm hold of their most important business driver monitoring is a poor relation ... For business purposes, a business daily, exchange of words outside their organization with people, feel, information, etc. One such organization to link business transactions as business contacts care "successful operation.
If corporate communications knowledge, education, application, recommendation, care to express any kind of action is and think a person or a person inside or outside organization, any of their business information, informed decision number will, objectives, etc. and on receipt of the message recipient to expect. If the main purpose of corporate communication from the recipient to ensure action emphasizes, is that style that attracts attention, interest, trust and influence the development of action arousing.
2.2: Effective communication business:
When, both the sender and the receiver of the message perceive the message in the same sense, we called effective communication. Messages to be perceived in the same sense must be audience centred. This means that audience consideration is the key factor for all effective communication.
Meaning defined Griffin as that the person who initiates the communication process wishes to convey. In effective communication, the meaning is transmitted in such a way that the person receiving the message understands it clearly.
For effective communication the message must be clear, concise, complete, correct, courteous and consistence.
2.3: Role of Communication
1. Better planning
2. Effective operations
2.4: Effective communication functions:
There are many ways, but four main functions of a group or organization.
â€¢ emotional expression
2.5: Types of Organizational Communication
There are three types of organizational communication.
1. Network Communication
2. Computer Communication
3. Knowledge management
Organisations have different obstacles but mainly face the below mentioned similar obstacles:
â€¢ Personality differences
â€¢ Performance Management
â€¢ development of common culture
â€¢ Talent retention
Obstacles mentioned above are further described below:
Motivation level of every organisation should be high as it's directly related to the organisation performance and its objectives. Organisations face many difficulties achieving its goal where employee is not committed due to low motivation. Same in the case of Lehman Brothers, Level of Motivation of Lehman Brothers' staff were not very high and it was quite normal under those circumstances to expect staff to behave like this. This staff belonged to a company which was a leader in industry not so long ago but now it was being merged or overtaken by another competitive firm.
If a firm in nowadays environment is trying to go in the mode of swinging its profits for a change then there is only one lesson to be learnt. Old school criterions has to be changed and as every other market round the globe prepare for the worst outcome of recession swings. Which can lead to talent being misused, promoting X leadership styles, and last but not the least bring company reputation down with it.
2: Personality Differences
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In every organisation there are different personalities working in organisation. This obstacle takes place when employees work together in same department or even in other cross departments. It also takes place when two companies merge their operations with each other.
For example at the time of Barclays and Lehman's merger there was also expected clash between different personalities from both sets of employees. Human Resource Management was required to be aware of this as there were a lot of different personalities were involved and this can create a clash which is not in the best interest of the organisation and can also result in failure of the merger process and can also affect the desired outcomes in a negative manner. Human resource management need to eliminate the mentality of them-us. Even though it is big challenge but still it is one which can be achieved successfully.
Communication is the basic element required for success of an organisation and it becomes ever so important when it is the matter strategic planning.
For example: During the complex and thoughtful merger process where the Barclays PLC were trying to bring two different groups of employees together, it was extremely important to have a flow of information and to have constant communication. It is important to stay connected with emotional feelings and motivation of employees. It was important for the human resource management to keep the communication clear and make sure that everyone is well informed through the internal official sources rather than getting information through rumours or through press and media.
4: Performance Management
Performance management can also be a challenge where the management has to review performance and this phase will not be completed without coaching and mentoring.
For example: The set of employees from Lehman Brothers will be in need of coaching and mentoring mainly as without this it will be extremely difficult to make them adjust in new organisation and new set of rules. This management needs to be extremely accurate as repercussions of this going wrong can be harmful for not only the merger process but in fact for the future of the organisation and employees alike.
Having a comprehensive and competitive reward scheme is also important and can become a challenge as without this factor it is not possible to make the culture sustainable. It also makes sure that employees also feel part of the organisation and they will try to give their input for the good of the company. If there is no reward plan then it might become extremely difficult to motivate employees and achieving the targets.
6: Stress Management
With the hype surrounded by change can cause disruption and this result in creating stress on the employees. Stress makes people under perform and this is totally opposite to what is expected out of the merger. The change in organisational structure and the management structure can lead to employees getting stressed. Change also creates stress on employees as they are unaware of what is going to happen and are also worried about job security. Positive and clear communication is required to manage the stress.
7: Development of Common Culture
It is also a challenge to develop a common organisational culture. Employees who never or have worked under separate organisational cultures will be reluctant to adopt new culture but it will be responsibility of human resource management to make sure that a new and common culture is devised and adopted by all concerns. Without a common culture there will not be a sense of ownership and direction. Employees will be reluctant initially to adopt the cultural changes as it is with all other changes but it will be a task for human resource management to implement it successfully. Same as Barclays and Lehman Brother's case.
8: Talent Retention
Resignations are the big challenge for every organisation as employee is the big asset for the organisation. Organisation performance is directly related to the skilled person resignation. Most of the talented employees start to get stressed due to rumours and uncertainty. This talent starts to leave the organisation for better opportunity or they are snapped up by other organisations due to the experience and talent they possess.â€ƒ
Overcoming the Obstacles:
Organisations adopt different styles and procedures to overcome the obstacles but the most important and appropriate way of resolving or overcoming the problems are mentioned below:
â€¢ Determining Gap
â€¢ Diagnosing problems
As per understanding of resolving and overcoming the obstacles below mentioned procedure will be beneficial for the organisational behaviour and its effectiveness.
1: Effective communication:
Effective Communication is a very important element in our change management process and we feel it as not just imparting information but it's about achieving involvement and commitment to the change which in turn is the key to breakdown resistance. Some of the key elements in our communication strategy are:
- To be honest
- Simple/ clear set of objectives or what is involved in the process.
- Explain the need for and the benefits of change realistically.
- Give people time and space to absorb the implications of change
- Involve as many people (stake holders) as possible in the process to secure commitment and make change a collective effort.
As a small group involved in the process we have chosen one-to -one meeting would be the ideal and best of communication as it has the advantages of being personal, able to get reactions quickly and address concerns directly and immediately.
2: The race for quality and the need for continuous improvement
Process should be transparent which brings in more employee loyalty, improve environment and long term sustainability of the company. To achieve this which forms the basis for continuous improvement strategy it is suggested that organisation should always look at ways to improve quality of service whether in terms of reliability, cost effectiveness, motivation or a timely service.
Our quality and continuous improvement change strategy is based upon reviewing/ analysing employee satisfaction information - identifying factors which led to employee dissatisfaction, finding ways to improve/ exceed employee expectations - implementing those action plans identified through focus groups and quality improvement teams - measuring/reviewing the results against the set objectives once the plan is implemented- and carrying on the continuous improvement cycle as the race for quality has no finish line.
3: Ways to involve employee in continuous improvement process:
Involvement of employee in quality and continuous improvement process depends on the level of commitment employees have towards change which in turn is the case of knowledge, understanding and awareness employees have about the whole quality process and the need to continuously improve the standards. Empowering staff with skills and knowledge relating to quality and continuous improvement through formal training is very important to attain employee commitment. Some of the other key contributors for increased employee involvement in the change process are:
- Consistency in the approach, goal setting, well defined objectives and continual support from the management side.
-Reward / compensation for better ideas and improved ways of doing the job or process.
-Constituting quality improvement teams with employee participation can significantly improve commitment to quality and can be a medium for employee suggestions who actually work on the process.
4: Ways to evaluate continuous improvement process:
Both quantitative and qualitative information relating to process effectiveness and efficiency are analysed to determine whether the process has attained its desired results as set out in the objectives.
Management is the cornerstone of Organisational Effectiveness
It is very difficult to give a precise definition of the term management. Different management authors have viewed management from their own angles moreover, during the evolutionary process of management different thinkers laid emphasis on different expects. For example, F.W. Taylor emphasized engineering aspects, Elton Mayo laid emphasis on human relations aspects, E.F.L, Brech, George R. Terry emphasis on, decision making aspect, Ralph Davis stresses leadership aspect and some other like Barry Richman etc. emphasized integration or coordination aspect.
1.1 Basis functions of Management:
Planning is very important factor in any organisation. It includes goals, strategy, and preparing plans and activities by coordination.
Deciding that work be initiated. Sub-group and module work in a systematic way how to design pieces to complete, and where a decision to close.
Job Analysis recruitment, employment and adequate personnel to recruit.
Employee enthusiasm, guidance, communication and implementation of any solution jammers fastest and choose effectively.
To a strong idea that as projects are assigned respectively ensure compleed. Be the case if I should correct them.
1.2: Multi-divisional Management hierarchy
The management of organisation may have three levels.
â€¢ Senior Management
â€¢ Middle Management
â€¢ Low level Management
1: Top level management
â€¢ Require an extensive knowledge of management roles and skills
â€¢ They have to be very aware of external factors such as markets
â€¢ Their decision are generally of a long term nature
â€¢ Their decisions are made using analytic, directive, conceptual and/or behavioural participative processes.
â€¢ They are responsible for strategic decisions.
â€¢ They have to chalk out the plan and see that plan may be effective in the future
2: Middle management
â€¢ Mid-level managers have a specialized understanding of certain managerial tasks.
â€¢ They are responsible for carrying out the decision made by the top-level management.
3: Lower Management
â€¢ This level of management ensures that the decisions and plans taken by the other two are carried out
â€¢ Lower- level manager's decisions are generally short term ones.
2: 21st Century Critical Analysis
In 21st century observers find it increasingly difficult to subdivide management into functional categories in this way. More and more processes simultaneously involve several categories. Instead, one tends to think in terms of the various processes, tasks and objects subject to management.
Note that many of the assumptions made by the management have come under attack from business ethics viewpoints, critical management studies and anti- cooperate activism.
As one consequence, workplace democracy has become both more common, and more advocated, in some places distributing all management functions among the workers, each of whom takes on a portion of the work. However, all management to some degree embraces democratic principles in that in the long term workers must give majority support to management; otherwise they leave to find other work, or go on strike. Despite the move toward workplace democracy. Command-and-control organisation structures remain common place and the de facto organisation structure. Indeed, the entrenched nature of command-and-control can be seen in the way that recent layoffs have been conducted with management ranks affected far less that employee at the lower levels of organisation. In some cases, management has been even rewarded itself with bonuses when lower employees have been laid off.
To survive , multiply and increase business, targets of achievements have to be set in each of these respectively. Most of the firms around the globe see balance of operations as the key source to complementary characteristics to reaching goals, picking the right people for the right job in each field. As they say 'Strike while the Iron is Hot'
In order for a firm to survive and prosper and earn a profit, reasonable goals in each of these components must be achieved. In most organizations, effectiveness is measured by the balance of such complementary characteristics as reaching goals, employing the skills and abilities of employees efficiently, and ensuring the influx and retention of well-trained and motivated employees.
Secondly in spite of its great contributions, the scientific management approach has been criticized for its various limitations as follows:
1. It is mechanistic approach ignoring human element in the organization it is concerned with the efficiency of workers in the technical sense emphasizing production only and attaching no importance to the social and psychological need of the workers. In this context it has called unfair and undemocratic.
2. Trade unions have opposed scientific management on the ground that it leads to autocratic management and also raises the workload of workers with a corresponding adverse impact on employment of men.
3. It assumes that workers are inherently lazy and they require strict supervision and exercise of authority by management. It is also its wrong assumption that workers are motivated by material gains, i.e. money only.
4. It has been called by some critics as narrow, impracticable and titled towards exploitation of workers.
5. It is said that this approach is primarily concerned with problems at operating level only and it hardly emphasizes the managerial organization and processes
Conclusion and Summary:
Many factors and processes that influence organisation effectiveness and performance which have been highlighted in essay. Also included the relevant theories to explain the dynamics of Organisational behaviour. For outstanding organisational behaviour, management should consider carefully when assembling or running any kind of business.
In recent times world economy has witnessed a lot of dynamism and challenges. Therefore, there is a need to take longer perspectives of operations so as to ensure that available resources are purposely harnessed for the optimal direction of the affairs of the business organisations.
An enhancement of business organization performance will depend on managements recognition of the following functions: setting objectives, establishing policies with which to work towards objectives, assign responsibilities and provide for coordinated action, selecting and developing key personnel, helping them adjust to change, motivating and stimulating them to think creatively and measuring progress and evaluating results.
The business organizations should adopt a competitive position, which will allow them to defend themselves against any obstacles and forces in the industry environment. In order to achieve better performance, business organizations need to take bold steps.