This research Impact of job design on employee performance was perform out to identify factors of job design which play a critical role in job design so that it could motivate the employees and in return they give best performance.
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The objective of this study is to investigate the factors of job design on employee performance in private schools. This research is designed to analyze five dimensions of the job : Skill variety, Task identity , Task significance, Autonomy and Feedback. And three dimension of the employee performance. Trait , Behavior and Result.
The data was gathered through some secondary sources such as internet while some primary sources were also used. The study was conducted by using a random sampling of any four school. The sample size chosen is 60 employees. The individuals were surveyed through questionnaires.
The study found that the job design is significantly and positively related to its employee performance. An implication is that more attention has to be given to improving task significance and autonomy so as to improve quality level of Job Design for school teachers that they can improve their employees’ performance in achieving quality students.
Human resource is very important resource as compared with other resources like machine, material, and land. In the organizational point of view, the effectiveness of human resource its depend on the designing the job according to human abilities and capability and characteristics. Job design is an important function of Human Resource Management. It tells that, designing of methods, contents and function of job.
The education is the most important to produce a total man with knowledge, skills and attitudes that required not only for the present world but also for the future. For the quality of education the teachers are the most important and valuable resources.
Employees’ performance is also a vital role in any organization; it is that how well an employee performs his/ her task duties, skills, competency requirements and responsibilities. Because the achievement of goals and objectives of the organization is assessed by performance of employees. Employee’s performance should be assessed and maintained yearly/periodically. Teachers are also employees category in the education sector .Therefore, the teachers’ performance is crucial in education sector. (Hussain Ali and Aroosiya, n.d)
This research is focus on motivating job and enhances performance through job design and well designed jobs can have a strong impact on employee performance and satisfaction and it’s also motivating the employees so job design takes special importance in today’s human resource management. It is essential to design the jobs so that stress can be reduced, and satisfaction of employees and their performance can be improved so that organizations can effectively compete in global market place. (Pooja Garg and Renu Rastogi,2005)
Job Design is the process of various elements to form a job, both organizational and individual worker requirements. It typically refers to the way that all tasks or position is organized.
What tasks are done?
When and how tasks are done?
How many tasks are done?
Factors which affect the work.
Organization of the tasks and contents.
Good design established the relationship with organizational goals and values and it should be well understood in order to align the job’s responsibilities. The job design should be:
Employee should have the option to vary activities according to personal needs, work habits, and the circumstances in the workplace.
Include the training requirements so employees know what task to do and how to do them properly.
Provide good schedules.
Provide feedback about their performance. (University of Guelph,2012)
BENEFITS OF JOB DESIGN
The following are the benefits of a job design:
Employee Input: A best job design enables a good job feedback. Employees have the option to select tasks as their personal and social needs, habits and in the workplace.
Employee Training: Training is an important part of job design so employees are well known about their job demands and when and how it is to be done.
Work / Rest Schedules: Job design suggest good work and rest schedule by clearly defining the number of hours an individual employee has to spend in his or her job.
Job designed is endless and ever evolving process that is helping employees make adjustments with changes in the workplace. The final goal is reducing dissatisfaction and employee engagement at the workplace and enhancing motivation. (Management study guide,2008)
TECHNIQUE OF JOB DESIGN
Techniques of job design are:
Job enlargement extends job horizontally. It develops the job scope, i.e. the number of different operations required in a job and the frequency with which the job cycle is repeated. It declines some boredom but it is not enough to motivate as nature of work remain same.
Job rotation is the planned rotation of individuals in pre-determined jobs so that they improved and gain knowledge and skills.
Some major benefits of job rotation are:
It provides opportunities with knowledge, skills, and abilities by working in different departments, business units, and functions.
It finds out the areas where improvement is required.
Job enrichment is expand vertically it is different from job enlargement which focuses on increasing the number of tasks a job holder is responsible for performing more work/task to do.
In job enrichment, additional tasks are not the focus for the objective/goal, but tasks will be increase and it could be a result of giving the job holder more authority and responsibility in their current role. It is the effectively motivating tool used by the organizations which enhance the decision making skills of the mangers and help in their development. (allsubjectsforyou , n.d)
JOB DESIGN APPROACH
Job characteristics approach was known by Hackman and Oldham. According to his approach there is a relationship between job satisfaction and rewards. They said that employees will be their give best and committed when they are rewarded appropriately for their work. The five basis dimensions that can be used to describe any job.
Skill Variety: The employees able to utilize their skills and develop new skills.
Task Identity: The extent to which task or work is required to be done for completion of the job.
Task Significance: Importance of the job to the other people, what impact does it create on their lives.
Autonomy: Its offer freedom and independence to the individual performing the same.
Feedback: Its provide feedback of job so it’s necessary for improving performance. (Management study guide,2008)
In any organization the success of business depends on employees’ performance. The most effective ways to increase performance and profit is to increase the performance of employees. It is not result of well functioning system but also depends on effective human resource strategies that succeed in recruiting and maintaining and motivated workforce.
The dimensions of performance on which an employee is evaluated are called the criteria of evaluation. Some several criteria become needed in order to evaluate job performance of an employee accurately. The data or information that manger receive on how well employees are performing their jobs can be of three different types.
Trait-based information: It identifies a subjective character of the employee such as attitude, creativity or initiative.
Behavior-based information: It evaluates of job performance focus on what is included in the job itself.
Result based information: Results are outcomes produced by the employee and organization. Result based information consider employee accomplishment.
For jobs in which measurement is easy, a result based approach works best.
(Hussain Ali and Aroosiya, n.d)
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The research identifies the various key factors related to job design on employee’s performance.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The main aim of this study is to see the following:-
The main purpose of this study is to find reasons of job design that its impact on the performance.
To find out what are the factors through which employees performance can be satisfied.
To explore the aspects of the job that employees value the most.
This research has been undertaken in schools within the Karachi, targeted will be Gulshan-e-Iqbal & Gulshtan-e-Jhaur, primary data has been collected through the school teachers.
Study is may be limited due to time and location constraint. The explanation is to the limit of my observational, analytical research skills. The report I have submitted is according to the best of my capabilities.
CHAPTER # 2
RESEARCH METHOD AND PROCEDURE
2.1 Research Design
This research design consists of the following steps:
Purpose of the study
Instrument and data collection
2.2 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to find reasons employee satisfaction about job design.
Identification Of Target Population
The target population consisted of employees in private schools.
The sample size consists of 15 employees of any 4 schools who were asked to fill out questionnaires (refer Appendix A). I used the most convenient sampling method any four private schools were taken from two randomly selected area of Karachi that is Gulshan-e-Iqbal and Gulshtan-e-Jhaur.
2.4 Instrument and Data Collection
Secondary sources of data has been the relevant and related published material available in the library and the pertinent data acquired from the web. References thereto, wherever applicable, are given in the last section of the research.
Primary data for this research has been gathered by the help of questionnaire.
2.5 Scoring For Job Designed Questionnaire
To analyze five dimensions of the job design that is Skill variety, Task Identity, Task Significance, Autonomy, and Feedback and three dimensions of employee performance that is Traits, Behavior, and Result likert scale was used.
In likert scoring chart agree shows highly satisfied, slightly agree shows satisfied, disagree shows highly unsatisfied and slightly disagree shows unsatisfied results.
CHAPTER # 3
3.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
This Literature review has been done to know about the various aspects of job design in order to identify those factors that affect the employee performance.
By (Kapil Dev n,d) Productivity is necessary for any organization. Managers should take care that the process of productivity improvement does not dehumanize jobs. Dehumanization of jobs can takes away from them good human qualities such as kindness and independence.
Job design principles can solve problems such as work under load or overload, repetitiveness, limited control over work, delays in filling vacant positions, increase in working hours, and limited understanding of the job process. Managers try to design jobs in a way that they are behaviorally, technically, and economically realizable for workers as well as the organization.
In organizations through job design they try to raise productivity levels by offering non-monetary rewards for greater satisfaction from a sense of personal achievement to increased challenge and responsibility of one’s work.
Job design is affected by environmental, organizational and behavioral factors. A proper designed job will make it increase productive and satisfying. It requires the assembly of a number of tasks into a job. An individual may carry out one main task which consists of a number of elements or functions. On the other side, task functions may be dividing between a team, working closely together. In more difficult jobs, individuals may carry out a variety of connected tasks; each with a number of functions, or may be allocated to a group of workers or divided between them.
Job design decisions are based on various elements like degree of specialization, job content required, and work environment in the organization. It helps managers carry out job analysis and job specifications.
Thus job design managers conduct activities like recruitment and selection, orientation and training. While making the decision to hire a new employee, job design plays a vital role in determining factors such as – Will the job be ongoing or short term? How many hours per week the job is for? What will the wage be? Where will the job be located? Can job completed in a flexible way?
Another study by Hackam,J.R,&Oldham,
An organization or employer may incorrectly assume that money is the sole motivator for their employees. For many employees, job design is an important as fair remuneration in motivating employees to be more effective. Job design has an effect on employee job satisfaction, motivation, and commitment to their organization, all of which have a significant and positive impact on the efficiency of your business.
Jobs are also often designed in a way that promotes specialization. Work is split into specific tasks, with the employee distribute to each task becoming very skilled, and efficient at performing it. However, a frequently overlooked problem with specialization is that it generally has a negative impact on employee motivation.
The lack of variety in their day can lead to boredom and a feeling of detachment from the overall goals of the business. Employee feels that as long as they complete their job satisfactorily, than there is no need to be concerned with any other aspect of the business.
A feasible solution to this problem involves providing employees with more variety in their work. To do this is introducing a technique is job rotation, in job rotation employees where move different jobs periodically. And this will reduce the boredom of their work, and it will develop a team with a wider range of skills.
Another way to improve employee motivation is through job enlargement. This is where employees provided with more challenging work and greater responsibility and many employees enjoy learning new things and will get more fulfillments from their work if they are given extra responsibility. This also helps you to raise the skill level of your team.
Job enrichment is another way to motivational technique that you may want to consider. It entails providing employees with more control over the work they do and providing them with more authority and responsibility, and it may encourage them to desire out better and more efficient ways to complete their task, leading to a potential increase in productivity. The more interesting an employee’s job is, the more likely they will be motivated to apply effort and raise their productivity. The Job Characteristics Model assists to explain the benefits of job design.
Core Job Characteristics:
Knowledge of results
The job characteristics will reinforce employees’ job satisfaction and motivation, potentially leading to better outcomes for your business.
Well designed jobs increase the job satisfaction of your employees may help you to improve efficiency and productivity in your business. And, this could lead to less employee turnover, absenteeism and potentially make your business more profitable.
Hence this literature review satisfies the entire variable that there is relationship between job design and employee performance.
3.3 TEACHERS MOTIVATION
Teacher motivation is determined by monetary and non-monetary factors. Pay level and other benefits must be sufficient to meets basic human needs such as food, clothing, healthcare, transport, and education and training. Job satisfaction among teachers is also strongly determined by social needs, self -esteem, job security, interpersonal relation to work between teachers, education managers and parents.( Tanya Khan,nd)
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Another study by (John Andrius)
Motivation is a vital factor in the teacher’s management of learning and behaviour in the classroom. In the classroom, motivation is observed as students show interest and enthusiasm, and how students give attention and concentration to learning task. Conversely, low levels of motivation are observed in student apathy and misbehaviour.
It is closely related to personal needs and self-concept. Maslow (1970) has described a hierarchy of needs extending in pyramid from basic physiological and safety needs for love and belongingness, to self-esteem needs, and the highest level need for self-actualisation.
The motivating role of teachers attempts to create condition within a classroom which will energize, direct and sustain student’s performance. The end role is for promoting climate and morale, and involves the sustaining of positive attitudes and enthusiasm towards school goals and learning tasks, both those assigned and self-generated by the students.
CHAPTER # 4
4.1 ANALYSIS OF PRIMARY DATA
For data analysis we conducted questionnaire surveys. It consists of 16 questions which are filled in by employees in schools. Sample size of 60 employees was taken which 15 employees from each school. School was selected randomly selected in two areas Gulshtan-Jahur and Gulshan-e-Iqbal
4.2 SCORING FOR JOB DESIGN AND EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE QUESTIONNAIRE
This research is designed to analyze five dimensions of the job: Skill Variety, Task Identity, Task Significant, Autonomy, Feedback and three dimension of employee performance Trait and behavior and result.
Skill Variety———–Total the scores for questions 1, 9
Task Identity———- Total the scores for questions 2, 6
Task Significant————Total the scores for questions 3,7,11
Autonomy ———Total the scores for questions 4, 8
Feedback————Total the scores for questions 5,10
Trait and Behavior————Total scores for questions 12 ,13
Result————Total scores for questions 14,15,16
4.3 DATA ANALYSIS RESULT
The results from employee survey are shown in graphical method as under:-
4.4 SKILL VARIETY:-
According to the survey large majority i.e. (40%) of the employees agree that there is lot of skill variety in job so that they can use their skills in job. minority i.e. less than (5%) of the employee disagree that there is variety in job. According to graph result overall satisfaction level is acceptable because majority of employee’s shows their satisfied response regarding skill variety in job.
4.5 Task Identity
The result in the above figure shows that majority (40%) private school’s task is identified to their employee’s and 20 % of employee s are slightly agree disagree regarding task identity in their job.
4.6 Task Significance
Our study shows that their work is significant in organization because majority (30%) employee’s agree with task significance and 30 % shows slightly agree and disagree.
The above figure shows that majority (35%) private school employees have autonomy in their job and 25% of employees disagree regarding autonomy in their job. In this result satisfaction level is acceptable. But on the other hand we can’t neglect the unsatisfied result of employees.
4.8 Feed Back
The above figure shows that majority of employee 40% ,16% respectively, agree and slightly agree with feedback of work. This means that employees are satisfied and happy with recognition of work.
The survey is to analyze three dimension of Employee Performance:- Trait ,Behavior and Result.
4.9 Trait and Behavior
The above figure shows that majority of employees 35% , 20% respectively are agree and slightly agree that traits and behavior change according to their job design that makes an association between job design and their performance.
The above figure shows that majority of employee 30%, 23% respectively, agree and slightly agree with outcome of their work and accomplishment given by their organization. That means they are satisfied with the results of their work.
CHAPTER # 5
FINDING CONCLUSION AND RECOMMANDATION
Employees are getting variety to their work.
Some of the employees think that their knowledge, skills and abilities, are matching the job requirements.
Employees need freedom and authority in their job.
Employees are satisfied with their job but they personally want that his/her work is significant in organization.
Mostly employees are satisfied with their job but not satisfied with their income.
Mostly employees are motivated when they get feedback.
Mostly employees are interacting with other and solve difficulties together.
So the study found that the job design is significantly and positively related to its employee performance. An implication is that more attention has to be given to improving task significance and autonomy so as to improve quality level of Job Design for school teachers that they can improve their employees’ performance in achieving quality students.
The main theme of this study has been achieved through the response of school teachers. It has been observed that, if we apply job design in job so employees use their abilities and they use their skills with more effort and job will not boredom for them.
The results of the study lead to confirm that there is a significant and positive relationship between job design and employees’ performance of school teachers. An improvement of quality of Job Design for School Teachers results in improvements of Employees’ Performance.
Recruitment and selection is also important for teachers and should be merit based.
There is needed to be improving in working conditions and remuneration for teachers.
Structure of school and school environment can have a strong positive effect on teacher’s motivation to teach .(Tanya Khan,nd)
Rotate tasks among employees; have employees move from one task to another according to a schedule.
Add more tasks to the job.
Incentive systems or reward for the quality of work naturally determine the “right” pace of work.
There should be workshops for teachers so they learn new methodologies for teaching.
There should be appraisal system in schools so that they review their performance every yearly /periodically.
Hussain Ali and Aroosiya, 2010, IMPACT OF JOB DESIGN ON EMPLOYEES’ PERFORMANCE, ICBI 2010 – University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka , viewed 3rd nov 2012
Pooja Garg, Renu Rastogi, (2006) “New model of job design: motivating employees’ performance”, Journal of Management Development, viewed 1st nov’12
University of Guelph,2012,Human Resourse,Job design,viewed 6th nov 2012
Management study guide,2008, Job Design – Meaning, Steps and its Benefits ,viewed 6th nov 2012
Management study guide,2008, Job Design – Approaches to Job Design ,viewed 6th nov 2012
all subjects for you,nd,Job design viewed 6thnov 2012
Job Design – Vital For Organizations,enziarticles, Kapil Dev ,viewed 23rd nov 12
Theories of motivation,motivation through job design,by Hackman J.R,Oldham J.R,viewed 26/12/12
Teacherjob satisfaction and incentive,TanyaKhan,nd viewed by 26/12/12
Teacher role motivating,Jhon Andrius Viewed by 27/12/12
Rural Teacher Training Program in Pakistan October 18, 2005,viewed 23/12/12
Hand Tool Ergonomics – Job Design may 2 2011,viewed 23/12/12
Teacher job satisfaction and incentive,Tanya khan,nd,viewed 24 /12/12
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