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Leader plays an important role in the world environment. When any organization whatever wants to be successful, a good leadership is one of the success factors. Leadership is in everywhere. Leadership occurs in our surrounding environment. The main objective of leadership is to achieve a common goal or task with a group of people in the organization together. But the leader may or may not have any power. Leader is being with intangible spirit here to lead the people to accomplish the goals and tasks. The leader should lead the people on the right track. The leadership has been described as a person can complete a common task in the process of social influence, while seeking the aid and support of others.
Three of the authority, responsibility, functions and power to perform their duties, the exercise of the functions of a means and conditions to perform their duties, the exercise of their functions is of the essence and core of the leader. However, the leader in order to effectively exercise leadership function alone institutionalized statutory powers is not enough, you must have convincing and to comply with the high degree of authority, have a huge appeal to subordinates, attractive and subtle influence.
What is the effective leadership? The aims of this assignment is to explore what the effective leadership is and evaluate the leadership how to make impact on a matter such as followers, organizations, and relationships and so on.
Definition of leadership
First of all, now note that what the definition of leadership is. In fact, leadership is not a clearly defined and its definition of each person can be different. So here quote some representative definitions and as the following:
Leadership is “the behavior of an individual when he is directing the activities of a group toward a shared goal.” (Hemphill & Coons, 1957, p.7)
Leadership is “interpersonal influence, exercised in a situation, and directed, through the communication process, toward the attainment of a specified goal or goals.” (Tannenbaum, Weschler, & Massarik, 1961, p.24)
Leadership is “the influential increment over and above mechanical compliance with the routine directives of the organization.” (Katz & Kahn, 1978, p.528)
Leadership is a process of giving purpose (meaningful direction) to collective effort, and causing willing effort to be expended to achieve purpose. (Jacobs & Jaques, 1990, p.281)
According to the above definition of leadership, leadership is two-way relationship and a chain reaction with followers. Leadership is a process to guide the followers to accomplish a common goal or task. In the process, leader and followers will get satisfied through communicate with each other. The leadership has influence for followers to work together to complete the instruction. Leadership has collective power of solidarity toward meaningful direction.
To be effective leadership, followership is an important relationship. It is because followership and leadership are a “two-way relationship”, which constantly touch each other. Better leadership and better followership and vice versa. In addition to the leader personal capacity, how to attract followers to follow is one of the most critical factors in the relations of good leadership.
“Bass (1990) points out, “leadership and followership are mutual activities of influence and counter-influence”, since both stimulate and reinforce the other’s behavior.
In modern enterprises, an effective follower has not to be always following somebody’s advice and to be dead set the simple dedication. Followers should have the following qualities: critical and independent thinking, proactive work attitude, willing to take responsibility determination, the courage to dare to challenge the authority of the self-management ability. These characteristics make the followers become the core strength of the company, so that they become the organization efficient fundamental.
As above mention, followership and leadership’s relationship cannot separate. For the leadership, in different situation have different approach to apply into it. There are diagram to show the stages of leadership theory and research as the following:
Here are several of leadership approaches to express how to make effective leadership. This report will focus on trait approach, situation approach and new leadership approach to explore these approaches how to affect an effective leadership.
Trait theory suppose that leaders have some common characteristics, such as psychological, personality and sociological to determine its effectiveness. The example of the psychological characteristics involved intelligence and charisma. The sociological characteristics involved level of education and status of social economic class. The trait theory focuses on the requirements of demand or a variety of circumstances between the leader and the followers.
The trait approach is the earliest and you can understand the success of leadership and is concentrated in the leader’s personal characteristics or personality. Based on assumption, leaders are born, not made. How can distinguish the leaders? There are too many traits. So here choose a few of the more important traits that a success leader needed to discuss.
Intelligence has been identified as an effective leadership of the most important factors. An effective leadership has to clear analysis of the force. A good intelligence can help leader to rise up his power of analysis. When face the mission, leader can use his intelligence to work well and organize the group member to accomplish the mission. As based on assumption, leaders are born, not made. Intelligence cannot be acquired through efforts and by congenital got it. Leaders have good verbal skills, perception and reasoning.
Self-confidence is one of the critical traits of leader’s characteristics to effective leadership. A person’s ability and skills have a certain capacity. It includes self-respect, self-affirmation, and believe that they can make a difference. Leaders have ability to influence others. This is very important.
Leaders have eager to get this job done. It includes active, persistent advantage. The aggressive leaders have ability to adhere to oppose obstacles.
Honest and trustworthy. Adhere to a set of principles, solid strength, and take responsibility for their own behavior. Ethical leadership and inspire other people’s confidence. They do what they say, how do we do. They are reliable, loyal and not a lie.
This is the tendency of leaders to seek a pleasant social relationship. Leaders full of friendly, cheerful, polite, tactful, and diplomatic. They have to take care of others and well-being.
Leader do not need to have all trait to demonstrate themselves are effective leadership. As proprietor know, no one is perfect. For example, the 42nd president of United States – William Jefferson Clinton (hereinafter referred to as Clinton). Clinton to attend various speaking engagements in term, his presentation skill showed his self-confidence and to attract followers. And his excellent interpersonal skill makes the United States to be in a leadership position under his leadership. Although the sex scandal happened in his time, but Clinton’s personal charm makes others to support him. Clinton’s public support rate is 65% to end off his time. That is a new record after World War II U.S. President.
Different angles of trait approach in organization
Give some benchmarks
a century of research
Too straight delimit
No take situation in case
Not useful way for develop leadership
Transactional leadership and Transformational leadership
These two approaches also use in motivate and encourage followers to achieve whether long-term or short-term goals or tasks in their expectation. These two approaches are feasible, which depend on followers is belong to which one of followers.
Transactional leadership: The leaders agree that the followers want and like to help them achieve their goals in order to satisfy their getting from efforts. That’s means leaders and subordinates in an exchange relationship. The leader through substantial reward to clarify subordinates should play a role and mission requirements. When the subordinates finish their scheduled task, the leader will give them what they wanted money or material rewards as exchange.
Just like Bass views, he generally defines transactional leadership behavior for three components as the follow:
Rewarded and the use of incentives and team awards, the clarification of the impact of work motivation.
Under the supervision and corrective measures to ensure that the work to proceed effectively.
Added by Bass and his colleagues (Bass & Avolio, 1990; Yammarino & Bass, 1990), penalties and other corrective measures, including the use of significantly deviate from the standard of acceptable performance.
Leaders have the ability to inspire and motivate followers to achieve the schedule effect, even greater than expected. Transformational leadership emphasizing the constructivism vision and actively get subordinates agree on the vision. The leader help subordinates to view their own values and beliefs and help them to develop amazing potential. Subordinates are with the leaders to achieve the vision and to complete the impossible task.
Next, Bass further proposed four elements of transformational leadership which included charismatic leadership, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulus and individual consideration.
On the above mention, give an example, the former coach of Chinese national women’s volleyball team – Chen Chung Wong. He led the Chinese women’s volleyball team won the champion of a number of major competitions. He encouraged the volleyball team to play out the potential of the different personalities of the players. In the dynamic competition, he and his team member’s goal is also to win the champion. He use transformation approach to lead his ball team and he was successful. He was able to influence his followers and achieve the goal, so he did an effective leadership.
Transactional leadership versus Transformational leadership
To the interests of the lure
Emphasis on individual performance
Inspire potential, attention to overall objectives
Subordinates belongs to passive, do not like to work and irresponsibly
Dynamic, changeable environment
Low degree of task structure
Non-routine, requiring subordinates decision task
Subordinates belongs to active, positive potential
Completion of leaders matters assigned
Completion of impossible challenging mission
Transactional leadership and transformational leadership are dissimilar but not mutually exclusive. The same leader will use these two different methods of leadership approach in different times and in different circumstances. These types of leaders to guide or encourage their followers to achieve that target in the direction and the leader plays a clear role and knows clear task requirements. Transactional leadership and transformational leadership should not be seen as competing methods to get things done. So, if you are a good transactional leadership, but there is no change in the quality, you may only be a banal leader. The best leaders are mixed up transactional leadership and transformational leadership.
In the leadership and management of the company or team cannot use unchangeable methods. And have to change the approach of leadership and management when the situation and rapidly changes in the environmental context and the different of employees. The management was focus on the leader.
Here is a diagram of situational leadership applies the following leadership behaviors:
Situational leadership model for employees in specific job the employee growth process is divided into four stages:
Directing (S1) – the leaders just told the followers how to do it. Just give direction for followers. That’s low supportive and high directive. If an employee lack of experience to perform tasks, such as a new employee. In this case, his leadership has to give him a direction to help him to accomplish the task. In this situation, directing leadership will be effective.
Coaching (S2) – the leaders provides information and direction. There is more to communicate with followers. This style more interactive. So that’s high supportive and directive. In some situation, coaching leadership will be effective. For example, when a low-level subordinate has certain ability, but do not have the needed skills, knowledge and information. And he lack of motivation to do the task. Coaching leadership will be suitable for these employees.
Supporting (S3) – the leaders pay more attention to the relationship rather than direction. Leaders and team work and share decision-making responsibility. That’s high supportive and low directive. When a senior-level subordinates do not work hard because of production capacity or personal reasons. The leader gives more support that will make him work hard again. In this situation, supporting leadership will be effective.
Delegating (S4) – leadership on followers or group most of the responsibility. The leaders also monitor progress, but their participation in decision-making. That’s low supportive and directive. This style has more freedom to work in this stage. For a senior-level subordinates have all the skills to carry out a less risk and no more time limited task and also have an internal backup support case. In this situation, delegating leadership will be effective.
Relative to the four different stages of the employees, the leadership should take four different style of leadership. Four leadership styles for different stages included directing, coaching, supporting and delegating leadership style. When the employees in the first phase of S1, leaders have to take informed style to guide and instruct employees; when employees in the second stage of S2, leaders have to take marketing formula to explain the work to persuade employees; when the employees in the third stage of S3, leaders should adopt a participatory to motivate employees and help employees to solve problems. At the end of stage of S4, leaders will have to take authorization and delivered to employees, leader simply for the monitoring and inspection work.
In the conclusion, we can know that no matter in which environment, leadership always around our life. In the organization, leader’s leadership skills can affect the employee’s behavior even the organization holder. In the life, everyone have leader to lead us. A good effective leadership should have good influence for their followers.
An effective leadership must be personal charm to influence and motivate followers; should be master and applied scenically incentives and should have good basic quality such as good communication skills. The different stages of development and scale should adopt a different style of leadership. With the continuous development and changes in the environment, leadership approach also should be transformed into an effective leadership style. A good leader should be based on the different stages of company development, size of organization and management object at any time to adjust their leadership style and approach. Finally, leadership is in everywhere.
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