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In the workplace todays complex, maintaining satisfied employees who continue to serve an organization is the ultimate goal of all the human resources department of a company. Job satisfaction is the most frequently studied variable in organizational behavior research (Spector, 1997). He was examined in a variety of ways, and is defined differently in various studies. Thus, to understand and appreciate the role of job satisfaction on employee behavior of this study was undertaken.
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The researcher introduced the concepts of attitude and behavior, then transported further by explaining the three main components of attitudes work is important that participation in employment, organizational commitment and job satisfaction. The dimensions, antecedents and measures of job satisfaction were also examined in detail. The researchers also collected information on the various theories of motivation that are used by managers in organizations
There is enough discussion on the impact of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction with the behavior of workers, which in turn affects the functioning and performance of an organization. Need to conclude with the researcher examined the job satisfaction for employees because it affects not only his life but also his personal life. It is very important for organizations to identify the determinants of job satisfaction in an effort to maximize the productivity of their employees and avoid the costs of turnover. The restructuring of operations and employment in organizations and human resources to meet the demands and needs of these structures is of paramount importance for both employees and managers. The view of many managers and employees of various items was taken into account.
Organization Behavior (OB) is a very important study and application of knowledge about how people as individuals and groups act in organizations. It examines what people do in an organization and how their behavior can affect the performance of the organization. It seeks to identify ways in which people can act more effectively. It is an applied behavioral science that relies on the contributions of a number of behavioral disciplines. It provides a set of tools for different levels of analysis. For example, it helps managers understand the behavior of individuals working in an organization. It also facilitates their understanding of the complexity in relationships. Population structure, technology and environment in which the organization are key elements in the study of organizational behavior (Robbins, J. and Sanghi, 2008).
In the work environment today, organizations focus much of their attention to ensuring job satisfaction for each of their employees. The cost of disgruntled employees is extremely high for any organization. Satisfied employees are expected to be more productive, more efficient and more likely to perform acts that lead to customer satisfaction. Disgruntled employees, on the other hand, are those who are not satisfied with their conditions of work for various reasons and consequences of having an organization are very negative in nature (Newstrom and Davis, 1993, and George Jones, 1999; Bennett, 1991).
Attitudes and Behaviors
Attitudes are the feelings and beliefs that largely influence the way employees should perceive their work environment, to undertake actions identified and behave as a result. These are statements of evaluation which may be favorable or unfavorable, on objects, people or events. They essentially reflect how a person feels something. Attitudes consist of three main components: the cognitive component which refers to the opinion or belief segment of an attitude, affective component focuses on the emotional or feeling segment of an attitude and, finally, behavioral component speaks to intend to behave in a certain way towards some or something. These factors help explain the complexity and the potential relationship between attitudes and behavior. In organizations, attitudes are important because of their behavioral component. To explain the link between attitudes and behavior, Leon Festinger proposed the theory of cognitive dissonance in the 1950s. This theory refers to possible incompatibilities that an individual can be observed between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes.
Recent research has confirmed the opinion stating that attitudes Festinger predict future behavior significantly and that relations between employees and the organization can be improved by taking into concern the moderating variables. Important attitudes that reflect the core values of personal interest, or identifying with individuals or groups other than the individual values are considered very important in nature. Attitudes that people consider important tend to show a stronger relationship to behavior. The link between the two is even stronger when the attitude and behavior are very specific in nature. For example, ask an employee of his intention to remain with the organization for the coming months will predict turnover for this person from where they were asked how they were satisfied with their pay. Attitudes that are easy to imagine, or are often revealed by an employee play a key role in predicting behavior than behaviors that are not easily accessible in memory.
The differences between attitudes and behavior are very likely to occur when the social structures of stress individuals to behave in certain ways. This tends to characterize the behavior in organizations. Also the attitude behavior relationship is likely to be far higher if an attitude refers to something with which the individual has a direct personal experience. Attitudes are generally used to assess and understand the following action took place instead of before, to guide action. Organization Behavior concentrated on a limited number of work-related attitudes, even if a person can be any number of attitudes. May positive or negative feedback that makes the employee about their work environment are captured by work-related attitudes. Job satisfaction, Job involvement and organizational commitment are the three main attitudes that have been studied by many academics and researchers.
Participation in employment measures the degree to which people are psychologically relevant to their jobs and develop their self-esteem and perception of performance. It has been shown that employees who are very involved in their work themselves identify strongly with their work and value of its value in their lives. Because of their commitment to their work, they are significantly caught in their jobs, to invest time and energy in their work and consider it a fundamental element of their life together. Increased level of professional commitment and psychological empowerment leads to increased organizational citizenship and job performance by the individual. Holding jobs and interesting to play and are important for their self-image that helps to explain the traumatic effects of job loss on their needs for esteem. Persons involved in their jobs to participate in the following code of ethics of their work rather than occupational exposure to high growth needs, and also benefit from their participation in decision-making. Thus, job involvement also helps to reduce absenteeism and turnover. Also a strong involvement of a manager of labor leads to higher job satisfaction of employees, allowing an important factor in the effectiveness of an organization in a highly competitive environment.
Organizational commitment is generally defined as the force of its identification and participation in their respective organizations (Mowday et al., 1979) as cited by Silva. P (2006). It is the state where the employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and sees he / she works with that organization in the future. It is a means by which an employee will remain as a member of this organization for the future is also evaluated. It often reflects the belief of the employee at the mission and goals of the company will make efforts in their performance and intend to continue working. Under the case of high involvement in an employee identified for specific jobs, while organizational commitment in a high employee identifies with the organization that employs him. It was found that a positive relationship between organizational commitment and productivity at work. Employees who are committed organizational usually have lower rates of absenteeism, low turnover and also a willingness to respect the policy of their company.
“Take my people, but leave my factories, and soon the grass grows on the factory floors. Take away my factories, but leave my people, and we will soon have a new and improved “plant
– Andrew Carnegie
(cited by Brown, 1996)
Job satisfaction, in the words of Ivancevich and Matteson, 1990, is an attitude that individuals are related to their jobs. It stems from their perception of their jobs. Several aspects of employment such as pay, promotion opportunities and coworkers plays a role in forming the basis of job satisfaction. Also factors such as the workplace such as the style of the supervisor, policies and procedures, etc. affect the level of job satisfaction. It details other determinants of job satisfaction such as promotion, coworkers, management styles and policies / procedures. Job satisfaction is a feeling generally favorable or unfavorable and emotions with which employees perceive their work. Job satisfaction is an emotional attitude and a sense of relative likes and dislikes. It can be seen as an overall attitude or it can be applied to different parts of the work of an individual.
Job satisfaction is linked to the positive feeling from an employee receives for work resulting from an assessment of its characteristics. Jobs require interaction with your colleagues and bosses, following organizational rules and policies, performance standards, living with working conditions. It was found that a positive relationship exists between the level of employment of a person with satisfaction and positive feelings about the job in question, even when a person dissatisfied with her work focuses on the negative feelings work and organization. Each organization seeks to have satisfied employees. There are several reasons for that same employee performance increased as the said George and Jones (1999), higher levels of motivation found by Bennett (1991) and the longevity of the tenure of the organization as described by Robbins (1996). All these responses are essential for any organization especially in the case of the hospitality industry where employee performance, high levels of motivation and saving costs incurred in replacing employees is essential.
Dimensions of job satisfaction
Job satisfaction is a complex concept and not easily measured simultaneously. Job satisfaction is different from motivation. It is more of an attitude, an internal state. It could, for example, be associated with a sense of personal achievement, either quantitative or qualitative Whereas motivation is more a process leading to May job satisfaction as a result. It is not clear whether job satisfaction consists of a single dimension or a number of distinct dimensions. But it seems to be a positive correlation between satisfaction and various fields of activity. But some workers may be satisfied with some aspects of their work and dissatisfied with other aspects. Level of job satisfaction is affected by a wide range of variables related to individual, social, cultural, organizational and environmental factors. All these factors influence job satisfaction of individuals in a given set of circumstances, but not necessarily in others (Mullins. L, 2001).
It is important that managers are aware of the enormous differences that seem to exist in the past between what they believed workers want their jobs and that workers said they really wanted. It is also important that they realize what effect a change in economic or other has on these priorities. A May to generalize this point that the right of individuals based on their perception or interpretation, not based on reality itself. One of the main reasons for understanding the study of behavioral sciences is that they help get our perception of reality. Therefore, bringing their perceptions closer and closer to reality, what their people want, managers can often increase their effectiveness in working with employees. Managers can not and do not act on their own assumptions of decision. They must know and understand the factors that motivate their employees (P Hersey. And Blanchard. K, 1992).
BACKGROUND job satisfaction
Many researchers and scholars have conducted studies to identify and understand the variables and factors affecting job satisfaction of employees. A wide range of people, social variables, and organizational culture were identified as factors affecting the level of job satisfaction of employees. These factors affect job satisfaction of employees can be divided into internal and external factors. Internal factors usually refer to factors that affect the May job satisfaction of employees of the organization and are always focused on the organization of the environment, working conditions, relationships with other members of the organization, benefits that employees receive the results of their work and many other factors. Factors outside the organization as an employee’s family / social life, identity and image of the organization in the outside market are listed in the external factors affecting the level of Job satisfaction among employees.
It is important that employees may be satisfied with their jobs, but may not have the same feelings of all aspects of their work (Spector, 1997). George and Jones (1999) found that there are four main factors that influence the level of job satisfaction to know the personality, values, work situation and social influences. These can be broadly grouped as Labor and expenditures related determinants of job satisfaction.
The determinants of job satisfaction
Five main components of job satisfaction, labor, supervision, coworkers, pay and promotion play a very important role in influencing the level of job satisfaction of employees. Personal factors such as age, health, length of work experience, emotional stability, social status, leisure, family and other social relations also play a role in influencing job satisfaction. Although role ambiguity and role conflict are considered vital to influence job satisfaction of employees. The conduct of the employer’s work in many respects in May also to some extent, influence job satisfaction of employees. The results, as organizational commitment or intention to leave some of the final results are currently due to these factors.
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Personality also plays an influential role in training as an antecedent of job satisfaction because it is subjective to individual experience and expectations (Judge, Heller & Mount, 2002). The personality traits of the employee may affect the satisfaction or job dissatisfaction. Employees with type A personalities “are usually more aggressive in nature. They believe in setting high standards for themselves and are therefore more prone to job dissatisfaction. While employees who are quite relaxed in their attitude fall into the category of persons type B. Their personality is showing its effect on their attitude toward work in a very relaxed. People who find themselves in jobs that adapt according to their attitudes and personalities stay more satisfied and committed to their work. The characteristic of work also affects the attitude towards it in May, including aesthetics of this medium. The financial reward is better if it is fair and is in line with the expectations of workers (Khandewal. V, 2008).
The use of selection methods and sound with good compatibility between the employee and the job can provide the right person for the position which in turn would help improve job satisfaction. The factors of job satisfaction of employees are changing over time. Thus, it is the responsibility of managers and employers to meet their changing needs and requirements so that they remain committed to the organization.
MEASURES job satisfaction
To assess the satisfaction of the employee or job dissatisfaction is a complex process that involves assessing a number of discrete elements of work. One of the popular methods to assess employee attitudes is the use of attitude surveys. It contributes to employee development through responses to questionnaires about their feelings about their jobs, work groups, supervisors and the organization. Managers have provided valuable information on how employees perceive their working conditions by using opinion polls on a regular basis. It helps to examine an organization’s policies and procedures so that they work for employees.
In literature, the two most widely validated survey on employee attitudes measures are used, the job descriptive index (JDI) which widely used questionnaire for data entry job satisfaction that has been created by Smith, Kendall and Hulin (1969). It measures satisfaction with five facets: pay, promotions and promotion opportunities, coworkers, supervision and the work itself. JDI is a very reliable method. Some jobs questionnaires include a greater appreciation of the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), developed by Weiss, Dawis, England & Lofquist (1967), the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) and the Faces scale. The method has the advantage MSQ skills. All these measures have led to greater scientific understanding of employee attitudes and has proved very successful for many practitioners and researchers (www.wikipedia.org)
Many organizations often wish for a more detailed assessment of the attitude of employees to ensure employee satisfaction accordingly. It is very important to analyze and interpret data effectively obtained from these surveys on the attitudes of employees to understand the results and in turn take appropriate measures to improve employee attitudes and job satisfaction. Employee surveys used effectively can act as catalysts to improve employee attitudes and producing organizational change. Survey information and support actions and conduct of organizational change (see Ulrich, Brockbank, Yeung & Lake, 1995).
IMPACT OF WORK satisfaction and dissatisfaction with the employee’s conduct
When employees are dissatisfied with their employment, participation and lack of jobs are low in their commitment to the organization, a variety of consequences follows in. May disgruntled employees engage in psychological withdrawal, physical removal or acts of aggression and retaliation for alleged malpractice. Many researchers and authors like Davis and Newstrom (1989), Lawler (1977), Porter & Steers (1977), Newcomb, & Betts Cano (1987) have assigned staff turnover, absenteeism and burnout on Working from a lack of job satisfaction. May satisfied employees provide acts of service to consumers beyond the call of duty, working files sparkling, and actively pursue excellence in all areas of their jobs. Some specific outcomes of job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are explained below:
â€¢ Job satisfaction and performance
The relationship between job satisfaction and job performance is one of the most coveted by many specialists (Judge, Thoresen, Bono, and Patton, 2001). According to Landy (1989) relations in the field of industrial psychology has been described as the “Holy Grail”. The satisfaction-performance relationship is more complex than the simple path of “satisfaction leads to performance.” Thus, it is wrong to believe that satisfaction always leads to the high performance of staff is high. The producers of satisfied workers may actually be high, medium or even low will tend to maintain the level of performance that brought them satisfaction as before. The study of the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance has a controversial history. In the 1930s helped Hawthorne studies have led researchers to realize the effects of employee attitudes on job performance.
According Newstrom and Davis (1993), a way to see this dimension is to believe that the relationship of high performance contributes to job satisfaction high. This states that the sequence of best performance generally leads to higher rewards economic, sociological and psychological. If these prices are considered equally, while the overall employee satisfaction improves. On the other hand, if these rewards are considered inappropriate for their level of performance, and dissatisfaction tends to arise. It is important for managers to devote its efforts to support its employee performance, which will probably be satisfied as a by-product. In 2001, Judge Al identified seven different models that can be best used to describe the job satisfaction and job performance relationship. Some of these models see the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance to be a way that indicates that either job satisfaction causes job performance or vice versa.
â€¢ Job Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)
Job satisfaction is considered a major determinant of organizational citizenship behaviors of employees (OCB). A relationship exists between job satisfaction and low OCB. Satisfied employees seem more likely to speak positively of the organization, helping others and go beyond normal expectations in their work. They are also very likely to go beyond the formal requirements of the job fair to make such positive experiences. They voluntarily engage in behaviors that are for the organization.
â€¢ Job satisfaction and customer satisfaction
Customer satisfaction is a very important requirement for many companies. Their performance is marked by keeping their customers satisfied and happy. Workers’ organizations based services often interact with their customers and the satisfaction of these employees is very important to keep customer loyalty to the organization. Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction and loyalty. Service organizations know that satisfied customers are loyal and highly dependent on how employees deal with their primary customers. Satisfied employees are more likely to be friendly, optimistic and sensitive that customers appreciate. Since employees have met the high retention rates, customers are more likely to encounter familiar faces and receive experienced service. All these qualities improve customer satisfaction and loyalty. Dissatisfied customers can increase job dissatisfaction of an employee in a similar manner.
Many companies basic services, FedEx, Southwest Airlines, Four Seasons Hotels: American Express, very customer oriented businesses out of their way to please their customers. To provide excellent service to large customers that focus on employee satisfaction to recognize that employee satisfaction will go a long way to contribute to their goal to have happy customers. These companies are looking to hire employees optimistic and friendly, train employees on the importance of customer service, in recognition of services to customers, offering a positive work environment and to monitor employee satisfaction on a regular basis through various surveys attitudes.
â€¢ Job satisfaction and absenteeism / Delay
A consistent negative relationship between satisfaction and absenteeism. Disgruntled employees are more likely to miss work, other factors affect the relationship and reduce the coefficient of correlation. Employees who have less job satisfaction tend to be absent more often. But this link is not obvious for a couple of reasons. Some absences are caused by legitimate medical reasons, and therefore an employee meets in May is a lack valid at certain times. The slowness is another means by which employees may express their dissatisfaction with employment conditions. An employee of Tardy arrived late for work. The slowness is a type of absenteeism short period of several minutes to several hours Froma for each event, and is another means by which the employees retired from active involvement in the organization. This may prevent the timely completion of work and disrupt productive relationships with colleagues.
â€¢ Job Satisfaction and Turnover
Satisfaction is also negatively related revenues, but the correlation is much stronger than in the case of job satisfaction and absenteeism. However, there are various factors such as labor market, expectations for employment opportunities, and the plan of the organization are significant constraints on the actual decision to leave his current job for another job. Evidence indicates that a significant moderator of the relationship between the satisfaction of turnover is the level of employee performance i. e, it is said that the level of satisfaction is less important in predicting turnover of senior management in relation to poor performance.
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