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Workload planning and work allocation is described within London University of Art Estate as a way to ensure an equitable and transparent approach to allocate work activities across estate staff’.
Approach to work planning and decision are solely on the senior management within the UAL which require a number of critical decisions in relation to the model design and parameters. These decisions include:
Scenario planning- How unit of activities be achieved, recorded and measured.
Demand forecasting- the type of future activities and level of detail skills required to achieve these unit within SLA’s.
Action planning – activities to measure inputs and plans to achieve these activities such as training, promotion and recruitment.
There are numerous benefits from the principles use in successful workload planning and allocation for any organization. Whether a senior manager, a planner or a member of the finance team, workload planning will help you to:
understand what you want to achieve with workload planning
identify the best approach for your institution
get the most out of your workload planning data
implement workload planning effectively across the organisation
The success of any workload planning is essential for any organization. This can be done by considering certain factors during planning and allocating work for staff. These factors are:
The availability of resources in terms of staff skills and if necessary recruit using head hunt, agency and advertisement. Also tools like spreadsheets, software and common sense.
Understand the business priorities, goal and future development.
Workload planning; using the resources available to achieve the business goals.
Continual regular review to meet the changing environment
On the other hand, any organization where workload planning is not a priority finds it business operation not meeting the business goals and even if it does, there are factors that slow the business operation. These factors may include:
Staff not sure what they are working on day by day and may or may not succeed
Wasting time on a single project hence missing dead lines
Wasting resources on a single structure
Organisation which becomes affected by such factor loses it business client and customer relationships and in a long run will be out of business.
Evaluate their effectiveness within the context of an organisation’s overall strategy
London University of the Arts (UAL) Estates Department’s mission is to deliver high quality facilities services which are fit for purpose and cost effective and fully meet the University’s present and future needs.
To achieve these goals, the estate has a set system in delivering, measuring and monitoring service delivery which meets stakeholder’s satisfaction. The IT platform is a system constantly in used for work planning, allocation and training and development. This system has a time limit for job to be completed. Measurement is by the time the job is responded; log off the system, monthly group meeting and debriefing.
Where target are not met and our customers lodge complain (which is used in measuring performance and time wastage) the issues are assess and the reasons are corrected. Non-productive are the time we not working on projects that led us closer to our goals. Example time spent chatting with two friends, reading emails not related to work, and reading internet marketing news not crucial to the business. To calculate non-productivity in percentage form; is time not working divided by the total time available to complete the job.
The training and development plays a key role in updating skills that are mandatory for services delivery, improve wasted time, job satisfaction and also personal development using both internal and external professional. The system has made job completion promptly and effectively within the facilities team across the UAL campuses in London.
Evaluate the extent to which an organisation’s process enables the Facilities Manager to
recruit the right people with the right skills, experience and approach for the role in
Recruitment is the process of identifying and attracting a group of potential candidates from within
and outside the organization to evaluate for employment. This means collecting, measuring, and evaluating information about candidates’ qualifications for specified positions. Organizations use these practices to increase the likelihood of hiring individuals who have the right skills and abilities to be successful in the target job.
Recruitment in the UAL Estate department takes a longer time due to the involvement of professionals within the estate and agency consultants. Detail job creation specifications involve the site manager (AFM), senior manager (SFM), head of the estate (HFM) and the Human Resources (HR). The need for a staff is raise by the college FM then is discuss with SFM and HFM.
Depending on the position and skills the college FM/SFM is/are looking for; staffs are normally source from outside. The key person needs to have hands on experience, be ready to learn, contribute to the team and able to understand the culture of both estate and the university.
The Job is then advertised on the university website, Facilities Management worldwide, total jobs and the agency website. Potential candidates are short listed followed by sites visits then interviews. Although this system of advertisement maybe expensive, it attracts people with different experiences from the diverse and also serves as equal opportunity of employment for all.
Analyse and develop selection criteria to ensure the right people are recruited within
Selection is the process of collecting and evaluating information about an individual in order to extend an offer of employment. Such employment could be either a first time position for employee or a different position for a current employee. The selection process is performed under legal and environmental constraints and addresses the future interests of the organization and the individual.
Once candidates are identified the process of selecting appropriate employee(s) for employment begins. There is a choice to be made between the selection methods but the process used should be fair to all. Poor selection can lead to significant cost for the organisation in terms of financial cost of rehiring, indirect cost in poor performance, additional training, de-motivation and absenteeism and also legal cost if it goes to industrial tribunal for unfair treatment. It is therefore important to make sure that proper procedures are followed, the person specification meets both job and business requirement in terms of:
Relevant qualifications: example BIFM, Degree, NEBOSH
Relevant experience: years of experience and what they will bring to the position
Skills: technology, innovation
Essential role requirement: basic knowledge and understanding of the job
Beneficial role requirement
Required approach to work.
Within the UAL facilities department, selections of the right candidate for job involve the following process; application forms, interviews and reference. After the consultant has advertised the job and has received enough candidates for the position and short listed. The short listed are invited for initial interview with the consultants in charge of that recruitment to select the best among the candidate.
They are then pass on to the estate professional team including the site FM, SFM and HFM or director of estate management for final recruitment process and job offer for the right person(s).
Analyse the strengths and weaknesses in the recruitment process and make recommendations
The strengths and weaknesses of the recruitment process can have a direct bearing on the employer’s ability to achieve its business goals. The analysis should cover the reputation of the organization, pay, employee benefits, working conditions, security of employment, training and development. (Micheal Amstrong, 2003).
Although people will do anything to earn ends meats, they do have preference and do a lot of consideration during job application. Employers should therefore consider what will attract or prevent the right candidate in very cost effective way.
The strength in the recruitment processes could include:
The pay structure
Security of the job
Opportunity to develop
Systems in place
Professionals within the UAL and consultants from agency are use when the best candidates are selected for staff. A larger interview panels are convene because there are number of parties interested in the selection decision. The only advantage of selection board is that they enable a number of different people to have a look at the applicants and compare notes on the spot.
The disadvantages are that the questions tend to be unplanned and delivered at random, the prejudices of a dominating member of the board can overwhelm the judgements of the other members, and the candidates are unable to do justice to them-selves because they are seldom allowed to expand.
It is always advisable to clearly define the terms and conditions of the jobs in terms of pay and benefit and think about the job, to attract good candidates so that the most can be made in the advertisement. Consider also what might put them off, example the location of the job, in other that objections can be anticipated.
Analyse previous successes and failures to establish what does or does not work. Last but not the least ensure induction process is planned and appropriate and given enough attention.
Analyse appropriate theories, principles and practices for motivating and retaining staff.
One of the most important factors affecting human behaviour and performance is motivation. Different writers have defined motivation in different ways these include:
Rensis Likert- motivation is the core of management
Stephen R. Covey – motivation is a fire from within. If someone else tries to light that fire under you, chances are it will burn very briefly
Dwight D. Eisenhower- Motivation is the art of getting people to do what you want them to do because they want to do it.
From the sample definitions above, the term ‘Motivation’ is a broad concept used to explain the inner psychological forces and processes in an individual which arouse and give them the desire to act or not to act in a particular way.
It is now generally accepted that, an increase in global competitiveness within different organisation no longer lies in the products and technology they use but the willingness of the employees to render their services to the organisation. It is only through the employees that creativity, diversity and energy that bring the company to it best. For all these to be done, the people need to be empowered, appreciated and acknowledge for their good work done.
Arnold et al (1991) determined that there are three components of motivation namely:
The theory of motivation involves the processes that describe why and how human behaviour is activated and directed. There are different categories of motivation theories but the question is; ‘What motivates people in an organization most? Findings from different researchers argued that the theories are affected by country, time and circumstance. But all these theories base their attention on the basics of human needs, which differ considerably. Among major theories propose by writers includes:
Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1917) proposes a theory with an idea that employees are motivated mainly by pay. Taylor developed his theory of “scientific management” as he worked his way up from a labourer to a works manager in a US steelworks.
From his observations, Taylor made three key assumptions about human behaviour at work:
Man is a rational economic animal concerned with maximising his economic gain;
People respond as individuals, not as groups
People can be treated in a standardised fashion, like machines
Elton Mayo (1880-1949) believes workers are not just concern about money but also their social needs met when at work place. Based on his well-known Hawthorne experiments conducted in Western Electric Company in Chicago, Mayo’s management theories grew from his observations of employee productivity levels under varying environmental conditions.
Mayo management theory states that employees are motivated far more by relational factors such as attention and camaraderie than by monetary rewards or environmental factors such as lighting, humidity, better communication, team work and management involvement.
Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) along with Frederick Herzberg (1923-) introduced the Neo-Human Relations School in the 1950’s which focus on the psychology needs of employees. According to Maslow, various needs of human beings are put in hierarchy determine the most pressing needs. The hierarchy of needs means the order to satisfy the needs with the basic needs have to be attained before the others can be reached.
In the pyramid hierarchy it can be seen that the lower four layers of the pyramid refers to ‘deficiency need’. The order of the pyramid from Maslow is as below:
Physiological â†’Safetyâ†’ Socialâ†’ Esteemâ†’ Self actualization
Principles of Motivation and Practices:
Motivation can be put into two groups. These are the: 1. Pull- bonuses and sharing vision, 2 Push- threats and fear. Every one of us is motivated by different things and a majority of these factors are not money related but rather incentive that offer personal recognition and achievement. In this case management should determine what motivate individual at work place.
Examples of motivation strategies that can be put in practice include:
Induction Performance management process
Family and friendly HR practice Job design
Training and development
Fundamental practices that can be use in motivating Staff include:
Regular feed backs
Training and development
Share company goal with staff and making sure they understand
Apply appropriate theories, principles and practice to motivating and retaining staff and
review their effectiveness
Every employee is unique in their own way hence what will motivate one worker will not be the same for the other. It is therefore the responsibility of the employer and manager to find out what works well with individual in the team and must be equitable and transparent. From 3.1 we can conclude the following are some examples that will motivate and keep staffs in employment.
Pay: this should be structured, equitable, transparent and understandable.
Induction: this should be put in place during recruitment to prevent lower retention or early exit.
Training and development: although many employers see training and developing as equipping their staff to leave the organisation for more challenging roll elsewhere, it can also be a strong support for a worker to commit to the organisation as they self develop.
Job design: this should be practical to motivate individual satisfaction and also the company perspectives, not an opportunity for individual to redesign a job but to vary skill and task.
Performance management: regular appraisal is put in place to monitor performance management process between line manager and employee
Management in the UAL use these methods to motivate employees for better job satisfaction.
Job enlargement- this involves doing more work of a similar but difference in operations at the same time to what employee already does.
Empowerment- give the employee the opportunity by delegating reasonable work to them to make their own decision in solving problem.
Job Enrichment- giving responsibility of higher order this will lead to higher morale.
The following can be use to review the effectiveness of management processes in a work place.
Using job performance statistics
Client feed back
Reduced turn over
Evaluate the application of the dynamics of reward and recognition within facilities
Internal and external motivations are both important components in motivating employee in the workplace. Most often people get confuse with reward and recognition. Reward are mostly financial or physical benefit when behaviour has been demonstrated whiles Recognition is a psychological benefit after a specific behaviour has occurred.
Programmes that reward employees for upholding the organisation values and goals within facilities department of Universities of the Arts, London are generally focus on recognition. The PACE Awards Good Performance exist in the UAL. However rewards and recognition may have some advantage and disadvantages which includes
Benefit: Different people are motivated by different things, e.g a young health person will prefer gym membership than private medical hence blend of both should be considered.
Pension: this tend to attract some employees at some stages of their career hence positive for others and not so for others.
Education and training: this appeal to a lot of employee especially those beginning their career in facilities but unfortunately the university training are tailored to suit the job you are employed for. This has effect on good workers who also want personal development hence they turn living for where their personal development will be met.
Genuine appreciation: human in general feel sense of belonging when they are appreciated for a good job done. The university do well in recognising good and extra-effort from employee saying thank you ‘the magic word’.
Time/flexible time: this helps in time of family issues, studies
With all the different forms of motivations in the organisation, the essential component is maintaining it to all staff both part time and full time. Motivation increases as people aim for and achieve recognition and for that matter incentive that focus on team work should be encourage, equitable and transparent. These factors will help staff work hard and will enjoy coming to work.
Evaluate the extent to which they are successful
Many organizations have recognized the competitive edge achieved by more effective recognition and reward to employees. Recent studies by the Forum for People Performance Management and Measurement, have found a direct link between engaged workers and satisfied customers, and between satisfied customers and profitability.
Any one who shows the ability to self develop within UAL receives the support. An attempt to achieve knowledge and personal growth using the available resources example the internal training for managers like project management will be supported, example while this program is directed to managers, junior member that show interest are allowed to take part in the course. This helps staff by taking regular extra responsibility (e.g co-ordinating projects and managing contractors) aside main duties.
While receiving tangible rewards for my commitment, the recognition received helps to perform duties and the extra responsibilities.
The success of reward and recognition in any organisation is the ability of the employer or organisation to willingly encourage the processes that will not only motivate the employees but also the employer. Frustration sets in when the employees realise they have no value even if they are trying harder in the company hence seek employment somewhere. Other incentives include addition holiday for all staff and free vouchers for team achievement.
Analyse ways to develop staff
Development can be defined as the learning opportunities within organisation designed specifically to help the employee grow while Training is required to cover essential work-related skills, techniques and knowledge. Development is not necessarily skill oriented but rather it provides general knowledge and attitudes which will be helpful to employees in higher position.
A survey carried out for Investors in People UK in 1996 showed that today’s young generation appreciate training and development opportunities over pay and incentives. Efforts towards development often depend on personal drive and ambition. Some examples of development and it benefits include:
Coaching: This is first step to improve employee performance. Coaching is part of the day-to-day interaction between a supervisor and an employee daily operation. This often provides positive feedback for employee contributions but also, regular coaching brings performance issues to an employee’s attention when they are minor.
Mentoring: This is a formal or informal relationship between experienced, knowledgeable employee and inexperienced or new employee either selected by the employee or appointed by the company. The purpose is to help the employee to quickly absorb the organization cultural and to personal develop. A possible limitation is that the individual depends on one person for support which will cause alienation from other source of expertise.
Internal and external training: using external trainers to develop course specifically for the organisation or using the internal expertise to train in specific topics which is more cost effective than the external e.g BIFM and PM although they are costly.
Self development groups: these are group of like mind people acting in their own interest. They may appoint a facilitator who will guild them till are well established. Topics of their interest work related issues. There is little or no financial cost but when the meeting are held during work time it indirectly the cost of the organisation.
Project management and work experiences: employees should be giving a task to self manage and the opportunity to try new things in the organisation without altering their responsibilities. This will increase their sense of motivation and reduce boredom from the same job
Analyse ways to promote a learning culture within an organisation
The objective is to see the value and encourage learning and understand its importance in developing individual, team and the whole organisation. Creating a learning culture environment in an organisation is a step ahead of obtaining the skills that you need to deliver product and services.
Being a learning organisation is the sacrifice any employer has to make in accepting the attitude, values and practices that support continuous learning in the organisation. It empowers the staff to achieve results and targets as it helps them to:
Easily adapt to changes
Actually anticipate change
Be more responsible
Grow by innovation and inspiration
Learning culture is not only considered to be great motivator for staff but also way a company can maintain increase advantage in the ever changing environment. This can not happen in a sudden way hence the following key point need to be considered.
Commitment by senior management and Directors
Learning should fit and be line with business goals and strategies
Regular employee feed back to determine progress of the culture
Clear objectives implementation should be set
Learning should be in appropriate environment that can flourish and where self learning is encouraged and knowledge shared.
Measurements that help develop and improve a learning culture in UAL estate include;
Reward learning via promotion and acknowledgement through news letters
Offer training and opportunity to transfer skills
Encourage feedback from those opportunities
Appraisals which include personal development plans
Coaching and mentoring programme
Analyse the reasons why staff leave and review implications.
In recent years there has been a mismatch about staff leaving and reality hence there is nothing like job for life. There has been a debate why staff leaves for other employment and some common reason include following:
Poor management: uncaring and unprofessional managers; overworking staff; no respect, putting people in wrong jobs; poor manager selection processes.
Lack of career growth and advancement opportunities: no perceivable career paths; not posting job openings or filling from within; unfair promotions.
Pay: paid under-market or less than contributions warrant, pay inequities, slow raises and favouritism for bonuses.
Lack of recognition: that says it all.
Poor leadership at strategic apex of the organisation: not listening, not investing in employees; unresponsiveness and mixed messages.
Lack of training: superficial training, nothing for new staff to move up.
Excessive workload: doing more with less; sacrificing quality and customer service for numbers.
Since employees has eye on better opportunities it is important for any organisation to provide system to find out what really makes staff leave for other employer. In view of this, exit interview will be ideal for staff leaving. This can be formal or informal with standard questionnaire. Although there is no entire honesty from the employee, it will serve as a guide for future. The following can be included during exit interview could:
What is the main reason for leaving?
What are the other reasons for leaving?
What do you feel about the organisation?
What has been your difficult moment in time us?
What can you say about our motivation, appraisal and your development with us?
Are you happy to say where you are going?
What particular about them that makes you want to join them?
If possible could you be persuaded stay and possibility of staying?
Although some employee departure is more welcome than others, employers should adopt methods to address employee turnover problem. Staff turnover rate varies from one organisation to the other but the following rules can help reduced the rate. These rules are:
Employers should ensure equitable and transparent pay structure if possible use bands
Job design should maximise variety of skills, opportunity to learn and develop
Ensure selection and promoting procedures are appropriate for all
Induction should be well planed and implemented during and after recruitment process
Remove unpleasant working condition including bullying and harassment and monitor stress
The above systems of approach can be enhancing further by developing a learning culture in the organisation. Hence the practices can assist to improve retention through:
Regular performance review
Personal development plans
Open recruitment policy
Development and training
Investigate the application of succession planning including its benefits.
Succession planning is planning the future of the business or organisation in terms of finding someone within the organisation to replace the key people. Through succession planning process, you recruit superior employees, develop their knowledge, skills, and abilities and prepare them for ever more challenging roles. It is a long term thing that a company need to see into before action is taken.
CIPD defined Succession planning as a process for identifying and developing potential future leaders or senior managers, as well as individuals to fill other business-critical positions either in short-term or long-term. Beside the training and development activities, succession planning should include the provision of practical tailored work experience that will be relevant for future key role.
Having this process in place help in the success of the organization because the individuals identified in the plan will eventually be responsible for ensuring the company is able to tackle future challenges. These “high potential” candidates must be carefully selected and then provided training and development that gives them skills and competencies needed for tomorrow’s business environment. It is best practice to grow one’s own that is developing internal staff for the position.
It also important to consider certain fundament point before the person(s) is/are selected. A formal succession planning process is used together vital data regarding the potential candidates from different source. Point to be considered should include:
Are there enough potential successors- individuals who are experience and that has shown potential leadership
Are these people with sufficient quality in terms of must and desirable characteristics
Do they have the right attitude, skills and competencies for the business future
The benefits of a succession planning process include:
Staff motivation- everyone can see there is a progress in their career as they are giving the chance to develop and also appreciated for their contribution.
Work load planning- shadowing successors to assist their development which in turn give them more insight of the business or organisation goals and future plans
Continuity- identified candidate can be part of the management team for the business future in the changing environments
Investigate skill transference within the working environment including its benefits
Skill transference is the ability for an employee to use an acquire knowledge in another position. In other words it is where competencies in performing a specific job can be used in another job. It is a valuable asset particularly in a tight economy such as now.
Example of skill transference:
Interpersonal skills- e.g team work
Planning-time management, being organised, able to research and think ahead
Communication- it should be two way, giving and receiving instruction
Self awareness- appreciate your strength and weakness
Commitment and motivation
In the current economy people with more transferable skills are luckier to be kept on job or hired than those with one or no skills. These multi-skills individual are able to carry out different jobs especially the small businesses. The benefits of skills transference include:
Staff training and development- Gains new knowledge and skills by performing a different job that requires new skills and provides different responsibilities.
Staff relations: learn and understand new group of co-workers and managers.
Succession planning- the organisation will have a pool of potent
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