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This study is carried out the important of motivation to influence job satisfaction in an organization, to understand the relationship between motivation and job satisfaction in an organization. In this chapter, will be focusing on research background, research objective, problem statement, and research question.
1.1 Research background
The purpose of this study was to find out the impact of motivation on job satisfaction of employee in a organization. Motivation is a basic psychological process. A recent data-based comprehensive analysis concluded that competitiveness problems appear to be largely motivational in nature (Mine, Ebrahimi, and Wachtel, 1995). The management dilemma in many organizations and how they can improve the motivation of employees in the fast paced technological environment. Motives are expression of person's need. Hence they are personal and internal. They also can be incentive on the other hand are external to the person. Motivations are made part of work environment by management in order to satisfy the employees to accomplish task. Job satisfaction is positively affects individual performance. Job satisfaction positively affects individual performance (Petty et al. 1984; Judge et al. 2001; Kim 2005) and this make it highly relevant to investigate the cause of job satisfaction.
According to Luthans (1998), motivation is the process of arouses, energizes, direct, and sustains behavior and performance. That is a process to influence people action and to achieve a desired task. There is also one of the way to influence people is to employ effective motivation which make the employee more satisfied and committed to their job. Money is a motivator but is not the only motivator. There is still having other incentives which can also serve as motivator.
Employee attitudes relating to job satisfaction and organizational commitment are based on the field of organizational behavior and the practice of human resources management. Attitude has direct impact on job satisfaction. On the other hand, organizational commitment is focuses on their attitudes towards the entire organization. Although the relationship between satisfaction and commitment are strong, but there are more recent research shows that commitment cause satisfaction.
1.2 Problem statement
There are many reasons why managers are keep facing the problem in organization. Resources, human and material, technology are a few issues confronting managers daily. The more important is the human aspect has question that has confused managers for a long time such as how can they make some employees perform better with satisfied in their job.
According to Schofield (1998), an authoritative study conducted by the Sheffield Effectiveness Programme (a joint research project between the Centre for Economic Performance at the London Stock Exchange and the Institute for Work Psychology at the University of Sheffield) has shown that the way people are managed or motivated has a powerful impact on both productivity and profitability. The study which included measurement of levels of job satisfaction and organizational commitment of employees of 67 firms, found that 5% of the profitability variance, and 16% of the productivity variance between companies may be the different variance in job satisfaction levels between their employees. This study is demonstrated the important of job satisfaction, employees motivation and commitment in an organizational capability and effectiveness. According to Watson (1994) business has come to realize that motivated and satisfied workforces can deliver powerful to the bottom line.
There are still many employees all over the world do not enjoy the level of job satisfaction and work motivation, because of that they keep seeking alternative employment to experience a higher degree of job satisfaction. Such action will influence an organization's ability to be profitable and successful over n extended period of time. According to Finck, Timmers and Mennes(1998) employees are excited and motivated by what they do will help business be achieve.
1.3 Research objective
To find out the relationship between motivation and job satisfaction
To determine the impact of motivation towards the employees job satisfaction.
To analyze the way to improve the job satisfaction by using work motivation.
1.4 Research question
What are the relationship between motivation and job satisfaction?
What determine the impact of motivation towards the employee's job satisfaction?
How work motivation can improve job satisfaction?
2.0 Literature review
2.1 The relationship between motivation and job satisfaction
According to Pinder(1998 in Ambrose & Kulik, 1999) work motivation may be regarded as a set of internal and external forces that initiate work-related behavior, and determine its form, direction, intensity and duration. The concept related to the work and influence on work behavior of both environmental forces. In workplace, work motivation are invisible, it is depends on personal behavior and responsibility of the job.
Snell (1999) says that motivation is everything. Without motivation people will not deliver to their potential even the talented people. People that are motivated will perform well and improve the personal ability. He further asserts that company staff are very important in a business due to they are the image of the company that customer see. They have the potential to enhance the quality of service and have the power to influence or reduce the company profits.
According to a model developed by Herzberg, motivation is influenced by maintenance and motivational factors. The important motivational factors are the work itself, achievement, growth, responsibility, advancement and recognition. There are basic internal motivators rather than external. The Maslow and Herzberg models are similar due to its focus on needs, but the difference can be seen from the point of views.
Nel, Gerber, Van Dyk, Haasbroek, Schultz, Sono and Werner(2001) describe motivation as intentional and directional. Intentional is mean to personal choice and committed of action, and directional indicates being of a driving force aimed at achieving a specific goal. A people who get motivated will know they must achieve the specific goal even in the face of adversity.
2.1.2 Job satisfaction
The concept of job satisfaction will be very important now a day. Managers feel that if they responsible for maintaining high levels of job satisfaction among their staff will helps to increase the productivity, absenteeism and staff turnover (Arnold & Feldman, 1986). According to Locke (1976), job satisfaction was already significant since the first part of 20th century, for example, there are over 3000 related studies were published between 1935 and 1976 which an average of on publication every five days. Job satisfaction is regarded a s related to important employee and organizational outcomes, ranging from job performance to health and longevity (Spector, 2003).
According to Gibson et al (2000) job satisfaction may be defined as an individual's expression of personal well-being associated with doing the job assigned. Job satisfaction depends on the level of internal and external and how the employees view those outcomes. The outcomes of job satisfaction have different values for different people. For some people, responsible and challenging work is negative value and depending on the education level and prior experience with work providing the internal outcomes. For other people, such work outcomes may have high positive values. Those differences would influence the level of jab satisfaction on the same job tasks.
Bateman and Snell(1999) say if people feel fairly treated from the outcomes they receive, or the processes used, they will be satisfied. These authors mention that a satisfied worker is not necessarily more productive than a dissatisfied one due to sometimes people are happy with their jobs which don't have to work hard.
2.2 The impact of motivation towards the employees job satisfaction
All employers want their workers to perform well of their abilities and they try to provide all the necessary resources and a good working environment in order to keep their employees motivated. However, motivation is a difficult factor to manage due to every employee's wants or target does not always match with what the employers provide.
Motivation and job satisfaction reinforce each other and work together, if the employee is satisfied on job performance he tend to be motivated. So that understand the employee needs can give better insight to managing human motivation. Frankl(1984) suggested that, motivation reflects peoples search for meaning and that job satisfaction may reflect the degree to which people have found meaning in their work. According to Sylvia and Hutchinson (1985), true job satisfaction is derived from the gratification of higher order needs such as social relations, esteem, and self actualization rather than lower- order needs
2.3 The way to improve the job satisfaction by using work motivation
Motivation is very important in an organization nowadays, but not everyone satisfy when the motivation in processes. May be that is because the employers make the wrong way to motivate their employees. Because of that, there are few strategies helps to improve the job satisfaction such as salary, wages and conditions of service, money, staff training, information availability and communication.
2.3.1 Salary, Wages and Conditions of Service
To use salaries as a motivator effectively, managers which are motivator must consider four major components of a salary structures such as job rate, payment, personal or special allowances, associated with factors and side benefit. Job rate is relates to the importance the organization attached to each job. Payment is to encourage workers or group by rewarding them according to their performance. Personal or special allowances, associated with factors are the scarcity of particular skills or certain categories of information professionals or with long service. Last but not least, side benefit represent holiday with pay, pensions, and so on. It is also important to ensure the salary structure of the organization will retained the same level of the market salary structure.
According to Akintoye(2000), money remains the most significant motivational strategy. Money is the major factor which able to motivate employee to increase the productivity of the company (Taylor, 1911). Incentive system will be able to improve job satisfaction, high performance, commitment. Katz, in Sinclair, et al. (2005) emphasizes the motivational power of money through the process of job choice. He explains that money has a very strong power to attract or motivate individually to achieve higher performance. For example, a employee will simple shift company for the greater financial reward of the job, if the differences of the workload of the job is similar with the current job. Banjoko(1996) mentions that many managers use money to reward or punish workers.
2.3.3 Staff Training
No matter how computerized an organization, high productivity depends on the level of motivation and the effectiveness of the workforce. Staff training is an essential strategy for motivating workers. An organization must have good training programme. This will give the employee opportunities for self-improvement and development to meet the challenges and requirements of new equipment and new techniques of performing a task.
2.3.4 Information Availability and Communication
One way managers can stimulate motivation is to give relevant information on the consequences of their actions on others (Olajide, 2000). According the researcher, there is no known organizations in which people do not usually feel there should be improvement in the way department communicate, cooperate, and collaborate with one another. Information availability brings a powerful pressure between the employees, where two or more people running together will run faster than when running alone. By sharing information, subordinates compete with one another.
2.4 Theoretical framework
Salary, Wages and Condition of Service
Information Availability and Communication
2.4.1 Analysis path
The framework shows that the two variables in the research proposal, motivation is the independent variable. From this research I have identify that salary, wages and condition of service, money, staff training, information availability and communication are the motivational factors that affect job satisfaction level. The dependent variable in this research would be job satisfaction. From the framework, we will understand the relationship between motivation and job satisfaction. Job satisfaction will be interrupt by the motivation method or strategies. On the other hand, motivation strategy is also able to enhance the job satisfaction level.
In this section, we slightly describe the research methodology use in the study to know how motivation affects in job satisfaction and using the data collection to analysis the data for the study. To find out the relationship between motivation and job satisfaction, impacts and the strategy to improve job satisfaction level in a organization.
3.2 Data Resources
According to Bell (1995), primary data are such data that does not yet include any interpretations and analysis from other people. Secondary data on the other hand is data that is analyzed and include someone's interpretation of the data (Bell, 1995). Secondary data was chosen for this research due to the cost and time saving for collect data that needed for the research (Hair, Money, Samouel, and Page, 2007), According to Saunders et al (2007), primary data is expensive which compare to secondary data. In additional, Hair et al (2007) emphasizes that most of the secondary data are free of charge or either can be purchase in a cheaper price.
3.3 Data Analysis Procedure
The secondary resources needed in order to be able to fulfill the purpose of this proposal are mainly journal articles and textbook. When searching for secondary data search engine such as Google Scholar, Emerald and others. KBU International College has provided student a huge variety of reference books. Google search engine is the advancement of technology which allowed us to get information conveniently and quickly to obtain various journals from the website which allowed us to understand the research objectives. Emerald website which can access through it using Anglia Ruskin University account is easy to obtain various journals which needed for the research. Less text book are used in this research as the source from the library about our research questions.
H0: There is no relationship between motivation and job satisfaction
H1: There is a relationship between motivation and job satisfaction
H0: Motivation cannot affect job satisfaction level
H2: Motivation can affect job satisfaction
H0: Motivation unable to improve job satisfaction
H3: Motivation able to improve job satisfaction
The research could have done more accurately if more resources which could be obtain to support the research. There are limited resources provided in KBU International College library. However, KBU does provide student access to Emerald Insight website which contains many research journals and the college had already paid the fee, but student are still allowed to access to the website within the college premises.
In additional, this research only used secondary data collection which easy to obtain. Most of the secondary data come from other author's opinion and their personal findings. Because of that, this research may be inaccuracy due to the opinion from the author might disagree with research and opinion done by other author around the world.
5.0 Ethical consideration
The information of the people who provide information to the study would not show to the others when the study done to protect the human right of privacy. There is the action that should be taken. The information provider are willing to provide the information to finish the study and not being force. During the research, the information collected would not be modify as to maintain the accuracy of the information which been collected.
6.0 Executive Summary
From the study done, we know that the motivation was so important in an organization which can affect the job satisfaction level. By the way, the relationship between the employee motivation and job satisfaction using the right way to motivate the employee; thus enhancing the job satisfaction level and the organization at the same time. When motivation and job satisfaction are reinforced together as one, motivation and job satisfaction can increase the working performance of employees. Besides that, there are several strategies used to enhance the working performance. The strategies used are such as; Salary, Wages and Conditions of Service strategy, Money strategy, Staff Training strategy, and lastly the Information Availability and Communication strategy. Using all this strategy will further develop the working condition to the highest level of job satisfaction. To sum it up as a whole, motivation and job satisfaction are co-related because when the motivation to work increases, employee will have a higher job satisfaction, thus creating maximum output for the organization.