“I am to speak ten minutes; I need a week for preparation; if fifteen minutes, three days; if half an hour, two days; if an hour, I am ready now.” ~ Woodrow Wilson
Communication is a process of exchange data, information, ideas, thoughts, and emotions. Basically it is two way process of exchange that involves sender and receiver. Sender is a person who encodes and sends the information and which is then received by the receiver through different communication channels where the message is decodes, information is being processed and the proper reply can be send via the same communication channel.
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Effective communication plays very important role in any organization. The best thing to get the organizational goals or objectives, communication is the most important thing. However in some organization communication unfortunately is neglected and is the main issue for those companies who are not performing well. The employees who have poor communication skill in the organization have les chances of growth and development so it is very important and critical issues for the organizations now days. (Gopal, Namita G.: 2009)
Types of Communication:
Communication might be through diverse processes and methods and the different channel and style of communication. There can be different types of communication.
Types of Communication Based on Communication Channels
on the basis of the channels used for communication, it can be divided into two
- Verbal communication
- Non-Verbal Communication
In Verbal communication it includes written and oral communication while in non-verbal communication it includes body language like gesture, pasture, nodding etc., expressions and visuals diagrams or pictures.
It can be further divided into
- Oral communication.
- Written communication
In the oral communication it includes the spoken words in the whole process. It can either be face-to-face or chatting with the people over the phone or over the Internet. Sometime in oral communication conversations might be influenced by the voice tone, pitch, level and even the speed and clearness of speaking.
While in Written communication it can be either by post, letter, fax, or email.
The effectiveness of written communication can be affected by the writing style, grammar and vocabulary used and clearness and accuracy of language.
While in non verbal communication the person who communicates, the overall body language of the person in which his postures, gestures and the movements of the whole body. However the facial expressions are very important in non verbal communication it will show the mood of the person who is speaking. While the gestures express the emotions like a handshake, a smile or a hug. It can also be in the form of pictures, signboards painting etc.
Types of Communication Based on Style and Purpose
There are two broad types of communication which is based on the style of
- Formal Communication
- Informal communication
It is usually relates to a large or small group speaking. It is mostly strict and bound to rules.
It always is in a formal or official format. Basically all sort of business or corporate communication comes in formal communication. Conferences, meetings and written memos and corporate letters in any official languages are used for communication. It can occur between two strangers when they meet first time to each other Formal communication can also occur between two strangers when they meet for the first time. Formal Communication should be formal, straightforward and precise. However instances of non verbal communication such as wearing of business attire in order to be more professional
Informal communication is a type in which people talk to each other freely and usually it is related to interpersonal communication however it is bounded by rule made of society norms but the speaker can speak freely and there is more room to be free. The speaker can say anything which he/she thinks. Informal communication can be between friends, family and relatives or any person who have the similar wavelength as It does not have any rigid rules and guidelines. It does not restrict with the time limit, place and events or subjects. It is more emotional form of communication where the less emphasis on non verbal communication and more emphasis on real feelings. (Hamilton, C.:2007)
Importance of Communication in an Organization:
The most important and best function of management in any organization is communication. It is impossible to have relations to ach other without communication. However for good and successful business the effective communication is required. (Means L.Thomas:2009)
Effective Communication has its importance in any organization due to the followings:
For Manager Relations with Employees:
Information and decision is a main component of management- employee relations. What a manger wants from its employees it can not be done unless and until there is a strong communication between them. Mostly management problems arise if the communication level is weak between them. There are more chances of misunderstanding and misrepresentation can be reduced by effective and proper communication.
Motivational and Morale of Employees:
The best tool for the motivation of the employees is effective communication that can increase not only the morale but also the innovation and creativity. While the morale and performance of the employees can be low due to inappropriate communication.
Effective communication in any organization can maintain excellent human relations and by encouraging the employees the productivity can be increased.
In order to get the full utilization of human resource and work to be done on time from employees only be possible by effective communication. Organization who are having the speedy and effective communication policy and procedures can avoids to delays the work, confusion, and misunderstanding.
Basically it is a way that how people communicates to each other. As Griffin (2007) said “it is a pattern by which the members of a group communicate.” The employees make groups in the organization to pass information and decision. According to Gareth R,Jones and Jennifer R, “These are the basic structures that tell us that how messages and communication and information flow between different employees, teams or the group of any organization.”
Types of Communication Networks:
These are the following types of communication networks:
It is just like a group leader work n which one person passes information and messages and there is more than one person to receive it. Other members of the group might not communicate to each other to carry out well.
It is just a team work in any organization where the people work in a team but the. Messages are passes by group leader and employees receive the messages from that leader. Like if there are group of consultant they need to listen or report to regional mentor only. Usually it does not exist in team work.
In this form of communication the information flows between two people at one point only but after that it can be splits up to two people .However in other way it is less centralised as compared to the wheel network.” The central member acts as a gatekeeper to pass information and allows only certain information to pass to other members. (Segrin: 2005).
Like in any organization the Managing director acts as a source of information and will pass it to his assistant director and from this point the information flows to the manger of the particular department.
In this form the information flows between so many departments or people. It is the simplest form of the network as compare to others. It is just like a chain of information between different departments.
Communication can be done by the members in a pre planned sequence.
The best example is assembly line group in which employees only communicate with only those who work precedes.
In this type the employees can communicate to each other and can share their beliefs, experiences expertise, location etc.
The people who are socially informal can be the part of circle network and can share their personal information as well.
All Channel Network:
It is usually found in teams. It might be high levels of intense communication. Every members of the team can communicate to the member of the team.
IT related programmes are the best example for this effective communication in team.
“No restriction is placed on any member of the group to communicate to each other”. (V.Lewis:1987)
They can communicate freely and convey their messages to each other without any restrictions.
In the Board meeting where every member is free to flow information and get some good result. (Gareth R.Jones, Jennifer M. George: 2000)
Vertical vs Horizontal Communication:
Communication in the organizational structure can be upward, downward or the horizontal within the hierarchy.
In any organization Vertical communication is a communication where the information flows from different level of authority within the organization where as the horizontal communication in which information flows between the same level of authority or with the similar power or grade.
“This is a type of communication where the information flows or communication occurs between hierarchically positioned persons and it can involve both downward and upward flows.”
According to Larkin and Larkin (1994) that downward communication is more effective than the upward communication as the top managers passes the information or communicates directly to the immediate supervisors and then they communicate directly to their staff or sub ordinates. As employees has trust and have great desires to communicate to the supervisors if supervisor is perceived to have more powers and authorities.
These are the following advantages and disadvantages of the vertical communication;
Advantages of Vertical Communication:
- Develop a strong relationship between the super and sub ordinates
- Develop confident and trust between vertical hierarchy
- Motivation level increase
- Way of getting the feedback.
Disadvantages of Vertical Communication:
- Threat of leakage of secret Information transferred by the super-ordinate to its sub-ordinate
- Time consuming and cost spending
- Coordination issues.
Horizontal communication usually takes place among the employees of the same authority or level or department or division in the organization.
Advantages of Horizontal Communication:
- Secret information is not a problem
- Time saving and faster communication increase the productivity
- Any new idea can be brought up and this will automatically increase the innovation and development
- Resolve the issues so quickly
- level of confidence raise
Disadvantages of Horizontal Communication:
- The Chances of conflict and miscommunication may rise.
- It can be worthless at times. (Sharon A. Cermak, Dawne Larkin:2002)
The main recipe of the success in any organization is the good communication skill in the organization. All type of communication is very important and must be effective in the organization. The level of communication with different people varies from organization to organization. The people must have the adaptability to grasp that level of communication in order to get the objectives and aims of the organization. The organization must have effective communication system in order for the accomplishment of the objectives. Because in this modern era of technologies every organization needs innovation and creativity and the effective communication between the organizations can bring these changes so quickly.
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