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Language Analysis of Film: Directive Illocutionary Acts

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Published: Wed, 20 Sep 2017

BY MORTEN TYLDUM

ABSTRACT

This assignment is entitled “A study of Directive Illocutionary Acts in Passengers Movie Script by Morten Tyldum”. It is aimed at describing forms and meanings of Jim’s utterances based on Vanderveken’s theory by using descriptive method.

In the collecting data, I follows three stages. Those are data selection, data collection, and data classification. The selection stage was done by searching the movie script as the data source, the data collection covers collecting the data from Jim’s utterances in the movie script, and the data classification includes gathering Jim’s utterances which contain Directive Illocutionary Act. In analyzing the data, I follows several stages. They are: founding categorizing, describing, and qualifying the utterances found in the data.

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the Study

Language is used as a means of communication where people use it as a tool to express their ideas and wishes. According to Ramelan (1991: 8), “Language can help man to express his ideas and wishes to another such as when he needs some helps, so that close relationship among members of the group can be carried out.” All human beings use language to interact with other members of the same speech community. It can be said that language plays an important role as a means of communication.

According to Chaer & Augustin (2004: 17), “Communication is a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbol, sign or behavior”. Therefore, language is an important tool in communication process: participant (at least two people or a group), topic (what is talking about), and means of communication (symbol, sign, etc.).

Speech acts is the study of the meaning and the function of an utterance. The speech is used to clarify what the speaker does. Austin (1965: 108) in his book “How to Do Things with Words”, mention three types of speech acts; they are Locutionary Act, Illocutionary Act, and Perlocutionary Act.

The Locutionary Act refers to the referential or factual meaning of the sentence: that is the literal meaning of the actual words. When we say,”I’m hungry”, this utterance refers to the condition of the speaker which is hungry with no intention of ordering the hearer to give the speaker some food.

The Illocutionary Act refers to the speaker’s intention in uttering the words (such as a request to close the door, or an offer of something). When we say, “it’s very hot here”, the speaker has some intention to order the hearer to open the window or to turn on the air conditioner.

The Perlocutionary Act refers to the effect this utterance has on the thoughts or actions of the other person such as someone actually closing the door or helping them to the food. When we say, “there is snake next to you!” this sentence brings an effect to the hearer like screaming or running. This sentence has perlocutionary effect to the hearer.

Movie script is a means of communication for an artist or a script writer to express their ideas. It can be in the form of written language. In spoken language, utterance makes the movie very clear. In addition, the utterance of speech act also describes or tells the viewers what the actors do in the movie.

The object of this research is a movie entitled Passengers. I analyze this movie because in a movie I find out many Directive Illocutionary Acts in its script as well as to know the meaning of the utterance used in Illocutionary Act, because movie closer in daily conversation appeals of interview and talk show.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The problem of this study can be stated as follows:

  1. What the Directive Illocutionary Acts are found in the Passengers movie script?
  2. What are the meanings of the Illocutionary Acts the Passengers movie script?

1.3 Scope of the Study

This study is focuses on the Illocutionary Act especially Directive Illocutionary Act in Jim’s utterances as the first character in the movie Passengers. In analyzing the Directive Illocutionary Act I use theory of Illocutionary Forces by Vanderveken.

  1. Objective of the Study

The objectives of the study are:

  1. To identify Directive Illocutionary Acts in the Passengers movie script.
  2. To describe the meanings of utterance in Illocutionary Force found in the Passengers movie script. 

CHAPTER II

RESEARCH METHOD

  1. Research Design

Based on the problem analysis, this research uses descriptive research because it is aimed to identify the kinds of speech, especially Directive Speech Act. According to Isaac and Michael (1987: 18), “descriptive method is the method purpose is to describe systematically the facts and characteristics of a given population or area of interest, factually and accurately”. About this kind of research, Mardalis (1989: 26) says that, “descriptive research does not test a hypothesis or use a hypothesis; it merely describes information according to variables that are observed”.

By using descriptive method, this study identifies the kinds of Illocutionary Act focusing on Directive Speech Act and their functions. This study took the data from the movie script Passengers by Morten Tyldum.

  1. Unit of Analysis

The unit of analysis of this study is all utterances in Passengers movie script.

  1. Source of Data

I took the data from the movie script Passengers by Morten Tyldum as the source of the data. The data of this study were taken from the internet website www.dailyscript.com.

  1. Technique of Data Collection

In the methodology of collecting the data, I used documentation method. Documentation method is looking for the data about things or variables which are in the form of notes, transcription, book, newspaper, magazine, leafs etc. (Arikunto, 2002: 206). I used the movie script to collect the data. In this research, I get the data through some phases. First, I search for the Passengers movie script in the internet. Second, I watch the Passengers movie to comprehend the utterances. Third, I collect the data from the movie script that contains Directive Speech Act. Finally, I select the speaker’s utterances that contain Directive Speech Act.

  1. Technique of Data Analysis

The techniques of data analysis are as follows:

  1. Finding the Speaker’s utterances in the form of Directive Illocutionary Act.
  2. Categorizing the speaker’s utterances based on the function of Directive Illocutionary Act such as asking, requesting, begging, and commanding.
  3. Describing the meaning in the utterances of Passengers Movie Scripts.
  4. Qualifying the utterances that contain directive speech acts.

CHAPTER III

DATA ANALYSIS

  1. The Directive Illocutionary Acts in Jim’s Utterances

There are 16 utterances containing Directive Illocutionary Acts. Those are Asking (6), Commanding (3), Suggesting (2), Requesting (2), Adjuring (1), Begging (1) Forbidding (1).

The Directive Illocutionary Acts found in the Passengers Movie Script is presented in the following table:

Table 3.1

No.

Directive Illocutionary

Amount

Percentage

(%)

1

Asking

6

37,5 %

2

Commanding

3

18,75%

3

Requesting

2

12, 5%

4

Suggesting

2

12,5%

5

Begging

1

6, 25%

6

Adjuring

1

6, 25%

7

Forbidding

1

3, 25%

TOTAL

16

100%

From the table above, it can be seen that Asking is the most often Directive Illocutionary Act used by Jim. Jim likes to ask someone who is related with his business for the sake of himself.

  1. The Meaning of Jim’s Utterances

There are seven Directive Illocutionary Act used by Jim. The following sub chapter describe Directive Illocutionary Act what Jim’s meant by using those seventh.

3.2.1 Asking

There are 6 Asking Directive Illocutionary Acts that are found in Jim’s utterances.

Excerpt. 1

Speech event: Jane is waiting in the spacecratf, making no attempt to hide.

Jim: “Joost.”

Jane: “Long time, mate.”

Jim: “How’s Alice?

Jane: “Well, thanks.”

The Directive Illocutionary Act is asking and the meanings of the utterance are:

  1. The point of illocution of the utterance is that the speaker (Jim) asks to the hearer (Jane) about condition.
  2. The mode of achievement of the utterance is that the hearer (Jane) can give the answer of the speaker’s (Jim) question.
  3. The propositional content of the utterance shows that the speaker (Jim) asks to the hearer (Jane) to answer the Alice’s condition as the answer of his question.
  4. The preparatory condition of the utterance is that the speaker (Jim) believes that the hearer (Jane) can answer his question.
  5. The sincerity condition of the utterance is that the speaker (Jim) really hopes that the hearer (Jane) can explain How Alice is condition now.
  6. The degree of strength of the utterance shows that the speaker’s (Jim) seriousness to get the explanation from the hearer (Jane).

Excerpt. 2

Jim: “Tim must be in college.”

Jane: “Big kids, big problem you know.”

Jim: “Company’s doing well?”

Jane: “Can’t complain. Eleven wars on the continent, business is brisk. (Looks at him)

Speech event: Heard you had a bit of trouble in the bush.

The Directive Illocutionary Act is asking and the meanings of the utterance are:

  1. The point of Illocution of the utterance is that the speaker (Jim) asks the hearer (Jane) about something (the condition of company).
  2. The mode of achievement of the utterance is that the hearer (Jane) can give explanation to the speaker’s (Jim) question.
  3. The propositional content of the utterance shows that the speaker (Jim) asks the hearer (Jane) to explain their company’s condition as the answer of his question.
  4. The preparatory condition of the utterance is that the speaker (Jim) believes that the hearer (Jane) can answer his question.
  5. The sincerity condition of the utterance is that the speaker (Jim) really asks and really hopes the hearer (Jane) to explain the condition of their company.
  6. The degree of strength of the utterance shows that Jim just needs the answer from Jane it shows Jim’s seriousness to get the explanation from Jane.

Excerpt. 3

Speech event: When Jim talks with the bartender, suddenly Fawaz approaches him. He is a nervous wreck.

Fawaz: “Oh, my God, are you all right?”

Jim: “Where’s the farmer?”

Fawaz: “He found a job at a hotel. Spends all his time at the refugee offices. Not exactly the behavior of a man in possession of a priceless stone.”

The Directive Illocutionary Act is asking and the meanings of the utterance are:

  1. The point of illocution of the utterance is that the speaker (Jim) asks to the hearer (Fawaz) about something (the existence of someone).
  2. The mode of achievement of the utterance is that the hearer (Fawaz) can give the answer of the speaker’s (Jim) question.
  3. The propositional content of the utterance shows that the speaker (Jim) asks to the hearer (Fawaz) to answer the existences of someone as the answer of his question.
  4. The preparatory condition of the utterance is that the speaker (Jim) believes that the hearer (Fawaz) can answer his question.
  5. The sincerity condition of the utterance is that the speaker (Jim) really hopes that the hearer (Fawaz) can explain “where is the farmer now”.
  6. The degree of strength of the utterance shows that the speaker’s (Jim) seriousness to get the explanation from the hearer (Fawaz).

Excerpt. 4

Speech event: Jim lights a cigarette. Aurora appears and stands quietly beside him. Together they watch the distant explosions.

Auora : “I didn’t actually hurt your feelings?”

Speech event: He takes a long drag. Exhales.

Jim : “How long you been in Africa?”

Auora : “Four months. Before that Kosovo.

The Directive Illocutionary Act is asking and the meanings of the utterance are:

  1. The point of illocution of the utterance is that the speaker (Jim) asks to the hearer (Auora) about something (the time that she leaves).
  2. The mode of achievement of the utterance is that the hearer (Auora) can give the answer of the speaker’s (Jim) question.
  3. The propositional content of the utterance shows that the speaker (Jim) asks to the hearer (Auora) to answer the time that she leaves as the answer of his question.
  4. The preparatory condition of the utterance is that the speaker (Jim) believes that the hearer (Auora) can answer his question.
  5. The sincerity condition of the utterance is that the speaker (Jim) really hopes that the hearer (Auora) can answer “how long she leaves in Africa”.
  6. The degree of strength of the utterance shows that the speaker’s (Jim) seriousness to get the answer from the hearer (Auora).

Excerpt. 5

Speech event: Auora is waiting as Jim walks back.

Jim: “How is he?”

Auora: “They say he’ll live.”

The Directive Illocutionary Act is asking and the meanings of the utterance are:

  1. The point of illocution of the utterance is that the speaker (Jim) asks to the hearer (Auora) about the condition.
  2. The mode of achievement of the utterance is that the hearer (Auora) can give the answer of the speaker’s (Jim) question.
  3. The propositional content of the utterance shows that the speaker (Jim) asks to the hearer (Auora) to answer the soldier condition as the answer of his question.
  4. The preparatory condition of the utterance is that the speaker (Jim) believes that the hearer (Aurora) can answer his question.
  5. The sincerity condition of the utterance is that the speaker (Jim) really hopes that the hearer (Aurora) can explain “How is the soldier now”.
  6. The degree of strength of the utterance shows that the speaker’s (Jim) seriousness to get the explanation from the hearer (Aurora).

Excerpt. 6

Speech event: They have been walking for twelve hours. Jim has to sit.

Jim: “How much farther- -?”

Solomon: “One day more.”

Speech event: He kneels before Jim.

The Directive Illocutionary Act is asking and the meanings of the utterance are:

  1. The point of illocution of the utterance is that the speaker (Jim) asks to the hearer (Solomon) about something (the time).
  2. The mode of achievement of the utterance is that the hearer (Solomon) can give the answer of the speaker’s (Jim) question.
  3. The propositional content of the utterance shows that the speaker (Jim) asks to the hearer (Solomon) to answer the time that he reached as the answer of his question.
  4. The preparatory condition of the utterance is that the speaker (Jim) believes that the hearer (Solomon) can answer his question.
  5. The sincerity condition of the utterance is that the speaker (Jim) really hopes that the hearer (Solomon) can answer “how much farther the place that their reached”.
  6. The degree of strength of the utterance shows that the speaker’s (Jim) seriousness to get the answer from the hearer (Solomon).

3.2.2 Commanding

There are 3 Commanding Directive Illocutionary Acts that are found in Jim’s utterances and here is the analysis

Excerpt. 7

Speech event: Three cut – down trucks of Rebel’s SQUEAL into view and begin spraying everything with automatic weapons.

Jim: “Yes or no?”

Speech event: A whole life can change with a single syllable.

Solomon: “Yes.”

Speech event: A truck comes careening around the corner. Jim pushes Solomon as the wall behind them is stitched with bullets.

Jim: “Go. Go!!”

Speech event: They begin to run.

The Directive Illocutionary Act is commanding and the meanings of the utterance are:

  1. The point of illocution of the utterance is that the speaker (Jim) asks to the hearer (Solomon) to do something (to run).
  2. The mode of achievement of the utterance is shows that the hearer (Solomon) can give the respond to the speaker’s (Jim) wants.
  3. The propositional content of the utterance shows that the speaker (Jim) is commanding to the hearer (Solomon) for getting what he wants (to run).
  4. The preparatory condition of the utterance is that the speaker (Jim) believes that the hearer (Solomon) can respond his command.
  5. The sincerity of condition of the utterance is that the speaker (Jim) really hopes to the hearer (Solomon) can achieve his command.
  6. The degree of strength of the utterance is shows the speaker’s (Jim) seriousness to get respond from the hearer (Solomon).

Excerpt. 8

Speech event: Jim seizes the moment – – sending an OPEN-HAND STRIKE to the throat of his would-be executioner, then grabbing the AK-47, and shooting him before ripping the gun out of his hands.

Jim : “STAY DOWN!!”

Speech event: Solomon remains flattened behind the tree stump, head down.

The Directive Illocutionary Act is commanding and the meanings of the utterance are:

  1. The point of illocution of the utterance is that the speaker (Jim) asks to the hearer (Solomon) to do something (to stay down).
  2. The mode of achievement of the utterance is shows that the hearer (Solomon) can give the respond to the speaker’s (Jim) wants.
  3. The propositional content of the utterance shows that the speaker (Jim) is commanding to the hearer (Solomon) for getting what he wants.
  4. The preparatory condition of the utterance is that the speaker (Jim) believes that the hearer (Solomon) can respond his command.
  5. The sincerity of condition of the utterance is that the speaker (Jim) really hopes to the hearer (Solomon) can achieve his command.
  6. The degree of strength of the utterance is shows the speaker’s (Jim) seriousness to get respond from the hearer (Solomon).

Excerpt. 9

Speech event: Behind them, the jungle erupts with gunfire Solomon throws Dia to the ground. Jim takes cover four mercenaries are advancing. Jim Return Fire, hitting two. The others hit the ground.

Jim : “MOVE, MOVE, MOVE!!!”

Speech event: He shoves Solomon and Dia to their feet.

The Directive Illocutionary Act is commanding and the meanings of the utterance are:

  1. The point of illocution of the utterance is that the speaker (Jim) asks to the hearer (Solomon and Dia) to do something (to Move).
  2. The mode of achievement of the utterance is shows that the hearer (Solomon and Dia) can gives the respond to the speaker’s (Jim) wants (to move).
  3. The propositional content of the utterance shows that the speaker (Jim) is commanding to the hearer (Solomon and Dia) for getting what he wants.
  4. The preparatory condition of the utterance is that the speaker (Jim) believes that the hearer (Solomon and Dia) can respond his command.
  5. The sincerity of condition of the utterance is that the speaker (Jim) really hopes to the hearer (Solomon and Dia) can achieve his command.
  6. The degree of strength of the utterance is shows the speaker’s (Jim) seriousness to get respond from the hearer (Solomon and Dia).

3.2.3 Requesting

There are 2 requesting Directive Illocutionary Acts that are found in Jim’s utterances and here are the analysis:

Excerpt. 10

Speech event: Jim has already begun heading toward Aurora. She sees him coming and watches him walk toward her. They meet in the middle of a crowded dance floor. All around them, sweaty bodies are swaying to the African beat.

Aurora : ” I supposed to kiss you or fuck you? I can’t remember.”

Jim : “How about you dance with me?”

Aurora : “Should I ask what happened to your face?”

Speech event: He takes her hand and leads her into the surging crowd.

Aurora : “I guess not.”

Speech event: They dance as best they can in the crush.

The Directive Illocutionary Act is requesting and the meanings of the utterance are:

  1. The point of illocution of the utterance is that the speaker (Jim) request to the hearer (Aurora) to do something (to dance together).
  2. The mode of achievement of the utterance is that the hearer (Aurora) can gives the speaker (Jim) permission to dance.
  3. The propositional content of the utterance shows that the speaker (Jim) request to the hearer (Aurora) to dance together.
  4. The preparatory condition of the utterance is that the speaker (Jim) believes that the hearer (Aurora) can meet his request.
  5. The sincerity condition of the utterance shows that Jim really hopes that Aurora wants to dance with him.
  6. The degree of strength of the utterance show Jim’s seriousness to asks for Aurora’s permission.

Excerpt. 11

Speech event: Jim smiles

Auora: “It’s a world phone, by the way.”

Jim: “You should get on the plane.”

Aurora: “So should you?”

Speech event: He smiles and turns away.

Aurora: “are you going to call me?”

Jim: “soon as I’m near a phone.

Aurora: “Yeah, right.”

The Directive Illocutionary Act is requesting and the meanings of the utterance are:

  1. The point of illocution of the utterance is that the speaker (Jim) wants the hearer (Aurora) to do something.
  2. The mode of achievement of the utterance is that the hearer (Aurora) can give the speaker (Jim) wants.
  3. The propositional content of the utterance shows that the speaker (Jim) asks the hearer (Aurora) to get on the plane.
  4. The preparatory condition of the utterance is that Jim believes that Aurora can do his request.
  5. The sincerity condition of the utterance shows that Jim really hopes that Aurora will get on the plane.
  6. The degree of strength of the utterance shows Jim ‘s seriousness to ask for Aurora to get on the plane.

3.2.4 Suggesting

There are 2 Suggesting Directive Illocutionary Acts that are found in Jim’s utterances and here is the analysis:

Excerpt. 12

Speech event: The troop leader takes out knife and cut into the stitches.

The goat squeals a little and kicks angrily. From under the goat’s skin, he takes a dozen small, rough DIAMONDS. The troop leader draws his .45 on Jim.

Troop Leader: “You are under arrest for smuggling.”

Jim: “Now you listen here, my man. I am a good friend of

Minister Somora. He will not be pleased you have interfered with his business.

Speech event: Clearly the name of Minister Samora carries some weight.

Jim (cont’d): “You know who I am, don’t you? What I am? I don’t think you want to mess with me. or my friends, eh? (changes his tack)

How about I just look the other way and you pocket one or two of those stone. Buy something nice for the wife.

Or maybe the mistress, eh?

(Re the shepherds)

Who’s going to tell? Them?

Speech event: The shepherds look, uncertain, from Jim to the Soldier.

Troop Leader: “No.”

The Directive Illocutionary Act is suggesting and the meanings of the utterance are:

  1. The point of illocution of the utterance is that the speaker (Jim) suggest to the hearer (Troop Leader) to do something (to do suggestion).
  2. The mode of achievement of the utterance is shows that the speaker (Jim) gives the option to refuse or receive to the hearer (Troop Leader) can not achieve the speaker’s (Jim) wants.
  3. The propositional content of the utterance is that the happiness acts to the hearer (Troop Leader). The speakers (Jim) suggest the hearer to pocket the stone and buy something nice for his wife.
  4. The preparatory condition of the utterance is shows that the speaker (Jim) believes that the hearer (Troop Leader) can achieve his request.
  5. The sincerity of condition of the utterance shows that the speaker (Jim) really hopes to the hearer (Troop Leader) can achieve his request.
  6. The degree of strength of the utterance is shows the speaker’s (Jim) seriousness to the hearer (Troop Leader) in order to receive his suggestion.

Excerpt. 13

Speech event: Jim and Aurora has been talked about himself.

Aurora : “Somehow I don’t take you as the UNICEF type.

Speech event: Jim just smiles.

Aurora (cont’d): “I was going to say soldier-of- fortune but it’s such a

clich√©.”

Jim: “How about hired gun. People seem to like that one.”

Aurora: “Diamonds?”

Jim: “what if I told you I was a missionary.”

Aurora: (Laugh) “For Dewente?”

Jim: “It’s not just rude to ask those kinds of questions, Ms.

Bowen, it’s also dangerous.

Aurora: “I’ll take my chances.(leans closer)

Sotell me about blood diamonds.

Speech event: And then, suddenly, Jim gets it. His face turns to stone.

The Directive Illocutionary Act is suggesting and the meanings of the utterance are:

  1. The point of illocution of the utterance is that the speaker (Jim) suggest to the hearer (Aurora) about something.
  2. The mode of achievement of the utterance is shows that the speaker (Jim) gives the option to refuse or receive to the hearer (Aurora) can not achieve the speaker’s (Jim) wants.
  3. The propositional content of the utterance shows that the speakers (Jim) suggest the hearer (Aurora) to doing what he wants.
  4. The preparatory condition of the utterance is shows that the speaker (Jim) believes that the hearer (Aurora) can achieve his request.
  5. The sincerity of condition of the utterance shows that the speaker (Jim) really hopes to the hearer (Aurora) can achieve his request.
  6. The degree of strength of the utterance is shows the speaker’s (Jim) seriousness to the hearer (Aurora) in order to receive his suggestion.

3.2.5 Begging

There are 1 Begging Directive Illocutionary Acts that are found in Jim’s utterances and here is the analysis:

Excerpt. 14

Speech event: Looks over at Solomon – who has his arm protectively around Dia. The boy looks like the same innocent child he once was.

Jim: “Take your boy home.”

Speech event: Solomon looks back at him, tears in his eyes. He nods. In

deep and simple gratitude. Jim nods back. Then – –

Jim: “Help me.”

Speech event: He struggles to pick up the machine gun. Solomon puts it into his hands.

Jim: “Put the strapover my shoulder.”

Speech event: Solomon helps secure it in place.

The Directive Illocutionary Act is Begging and the meanings of the utterance are:

  1. The point of illocution of the utterance is that the speaker (Jim) begs the hearer (Solomon) to do something (to take his boy).
  2. The mode of achievement of the utterance is shows that the speaker (Jim) wants the hearer (Solomon) to take his boy home.
  3. The propositional content of the utterance shows that the speaker (Jim) is begging to the hearer (Solomon) for getting what he wants.
  4. The preparatory condition of the utterance is shows that the speaker (Jim) is begging to the hearer (Solomon) as the effect of his need.
  5. The sincerity condition of the utterance shows that the speaker (Jim) is sincere in begging to the hearer (Solomon) because the speaker (Jim) really wants something to the hearer.
  6. The degree of strength of the utterance is increasing the speaker (Jim) shows that he really means it in begging to the hearer.

3.2.6 Adjuring

There are 1 Adjuring Directive Illocutionary Acts that are found in Jim’s utterances and here is the analysis:

Excerpt. 15

Speech event: The sound of gunfire ECOMOG troops have seen something in the tree-line and have begun exchanging fire.

Jim : “Hurry it up, folks! Unless you want to end up the same way!”

Speech event: Solomon can’t move, just stares at the boy and mother.

The Directive Illocutionary Act is Adjuring and the meanings of the utte


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